The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
A micro-fluidic device, designed as a high throughput system for characterizing polymerizations over a range of solvent, monomer, initiator and temperature conditions, was instrumented with a fluorescence spectrometer. A fluorescent dye, incorporated into the monomer at very low concentration, was used as a molecular viscosity probe to monitor changes in viscosity during the polymerization of acrylic polymers. The measurement provides information about the extent of polymerization.
Magnetic rotors are used in bearingless pumps for wet processes in the semiconductor industry. These rotors must be encapsulated so that they resist corrosion from the aggressive chemical environment and do not permit permeation of the metallic ions from the rotor to the outer fluid. This paper describes our approach to evaluating fluorinated materials and processing techniques to produce encapsulated prototypes. Eighteen prototypes were manufactured and evaluated for testing. Details regarding this work are presented.
A new approach for controlling part cooling in plastic injection molding is developed using a PI controller and coolant flow rate as the manipulated variable. The method uses an average part surface temperature within the mold as the setpoint parameter. A mechatronic system was developed for providing variable coolant flow rates. The control strategy was simulated using plant models, and then implemented and tested on a 50 tonne injection molding machine with good closed loop responses.
A novel Vibration Injection Molding (VIM) Machine was introduced. Under factual manufacture conditions in a VIM machine, the effects of the vibration parameters on the structures and mechanical properties of HDPE, PP and HIPS materials were researched. It was discovered that vibrating injection can obviously improve the micro-structures and mechanical properties through optimizing vibration frequency and amplitude conditions of injection screw.
In film casting, a polymer melt is extruded through a die before rapid cooling on a chill roll. The process stretches the material and induces some orientation in the film. In this paper, we study experimentally the effects of processing variables such as the draw ratio and the die temperature on film formation. The temperature, width and velocity profiles in the air gap are measured for films produced using polypropylene and polyethylene terephthalate.
New opaque blends and copolymers based on resorcinol phthalates have excellent weatherability and polycarbonate-like physical properties. The unique weatherability of these resins comes as a result of a photogenerated UV absorber (UVA) on the surface of a part. The gloss retention of these resins can be varied through proper selection of the resorcinol phthalate content and color package.
New copolymers based on resorcinol phthalates have excellent weatherability and polycarbonate-like physical properties. The excellent retention of optical and mechanical properties on weathering of these resins is the result of the polymer’s ability to form a UV absorber at the surface of a part.
A new line of non-hygroscopic thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) has been developed for applications requiring both color and photo-oxidative stability. These products span the hardness range from 20A to 50D and offer superior oil resistance and compression set. In this paper, we will discuss the properties of the new TPVs, including non-hygroscopicity, oil resistance, compression set, color consistency, colorability and weatherability.
This work investigates energy dissipation in machine augmented composite (MAC) materials consisting of small machines in a matrix. The machines are fluid-filled tubes, and the tube cross-sectional geometry causes fluid flow when deformed. Dimensional analysis identifies the ratio of solid moduli to the product of driving frequency and fluid viscosity as an important parameter. Finite element models predict the performance of the MAC lamina. The highest energy dissipation predicted is 0.8 out of 1.0.
Finite element analysis (FEA) simulated the performance of an active polymer-matrix-composite material. Microscale muscle elements actuate the material. The muscle element contracts longitudinally, expands transversely, and twists when pressurized. A coupled elastic/piezoelectric element provided the response of the muscles to actuation and 3D elastic coupling of the lamina. The contractions of isolated elements and of a lamina were approximately the same; elastic coupling of elements within the lamina produced novel out of plane deformation.
TPU products are well known for their mechanical properties and wear resistance. However, in comparison to vulcanized rubber TPU materials have a lower softening point (limited end use temperature) and a limited elasticity (elongation set) preventing the use of TPU in some interesting applications. Here we introduce a family of new cross-linking agents and how they can improve these properties. Application examples are shown to demonstrate how these improvements can be utilized.
This work explores the possibility to expand the limited mechanical properties enhancement margins, typical for conventional injection molding, through the application of non-conventional techniques. The processing-structure-properties relationships encountered in two microstructure control methods (Scorim and Push- Pull) and three two-component techniques (Sandwich molding, Monosandwich molding and Overmolding) are evaluated and discussed.
We use terahertz (THz) imaging to study polymeric compounds of polypropylene and the flame retardant agent Mg(OH)2 obtained for different compounding conditions. Our data demonstrate that THz imaging is a powerful tool to evaluate the degree of dispersion in polymeric compounds.
Based on our previous experimental studies for polymer behavior in a closely intermeshing counterrotating twin-screw extruder of a modular Leistritz design a composite model for the process is discussed. The model includes solids conveying, melting and melt conveying. Melting model involves both mechanical working of pellets in the inter-screw region and heat transfer from the barrel to the pellets.
The influence of extruder screw design on the extrusion blown film processing characteristics of four polyethylene melts was studied. A barrier and standard compression screw were evaluated and process measurements including; process energy, melt pressure and melt temperature determined. Screw design had significant influence on melt throughput and specific energy.
A novel microcellular processing experimental setup is developed. With this setup, an oscillatory shear flow is superimposed perpendicular to a steady shear flow during microcellualr processing. The effects of processing condition such as processing pressure, shear rate and vibration frequency on polystyrene cell morphology are investigated. The results show that the cell density increase and cell size decreases with the increase of processing pressure, shear rate and vibration frequency.
In-situ, real time monitoring of melt birefringence during injection molding of SAN provides insight into the development of molecular orientation when the packing/holding phase is delayed relative to the fill phase. Observation of melt birefringence is accomplished through the use of a custom-built mold and video imaging. The effects on orientation are similar to those observed using Vibration Assisted Injection Molding (VAIM) and provide a similar increase in the tensile strength of molded ASTM specimens.
Today’s business environment is more challenging than ever. Globalization, outsourcing, consolidation and increasing raw material prices impact our business daily.Innovation takes many paths. In today’s environment, innovation must provide value, which translates into growth. The simplest and in many cases, the most rewarding innovation is achieved by recognizing the synergy between ideas that are not obviously connected.
The significance of structural analyses (FEA) for the dimensioning of plastic parts is heavily dependent on the material model used to describe the mechanical behavior. At the Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) a new nonlinear viscoelastic material description was developed and implemented as a subroutine in the ABAQUS/Standard FEA program. Part tests confirm the high level of simulation quality for loading cases of practical relevance.
Microwave induced plasma polymerization offers significant barrier improvement for PET bottles. This is essential to extend shelf life of sensitive beverages like beer especially in small bottles. For using the plasma process to coat the exterior of bottles a novel reactor concept is presented which proves to be highly suitable for industrial implementation.
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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
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