The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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The Criss-Cross Die
The typical center-fed manifold-die has a pressure at the center higher than at the edges that gives rise to an uneven flow distribution. This is eliminated by the crisscross die, which has two end-fed manifolds with half-flows in opposing directions. One half-flow has a pressure gradient equal and opposite to that of the other. The two opposed half flows and pressure gradients combine in a main delivery manifold to create a uniform pressure across the width of the die. The result is a die that produces extremely uniform widthwise flow for use in sheet manufacture and coatings.
Dielectric Properties of Graphite Nanocomposites
Polymer nanocomposites are an emerging class of multifunctional materials that have not been optimized for their functional potential. In this study the dielectric properties of graphite polymer nanocomposites were evaluated. The objective is to develop an alternative costeffective nanoscale carbon material with comparable properties like carbon nanotubes for composite applications.
Barrier Liner Material with Nanocomposite for Packaging Applications
Plastic containers for beer, juice or CSD require matching plastic closures. Recently we developed a multi-layer barrier liner with nanocomposite that inhibits ingress of O2 and egress of CO2, into and out of the container. A passive barrier layer of Nylon nanocomposite and one or two reactive layers with scavengers are included in multi-layer structures. The multi-layer liner material with nanocomposite and reactive layers perform better than other barrier materials at very high relative humidity.
Injection Molded Part Split Solved by Cae Simulation Software
CAE injection molding simulation software was performed for prediction fiber orientation of a laser printer part. The cylinder shaped part made from a short fiber reinforced material was split when the part sits inside a gear assembly. The simulation software was able to identify the problem and duplicate the split location in the part. Then, the part thickness was modified and the gate location was optimized for improving mold filling and fiber orientation. The simulation software was also able to predict not split in the improved part. Actually, the simulation result was proved by the final production part.
Characterization of Virgin/Recycled Nitrile Rubber Blends
Blends of Virgin and Recycled Nitrile Rubber within a blend ratio of 10-30 %wt recycled NBR were studied. Reference was made to mechanical and physical properties. Results obtained indicate that a maximum percentage of 20%wt recycled rubber can be added to a NBR formulation without diminishing considerably final properties, since higher percentages promote a premature vulcanization. Concerning chemical resistance, an excellent oil resistance and a very low resistance to polar solvents were obtained for all formulations.
Predictive Damage and Failure Modeling for Composites Made of Baypreg®-F
As composite structures become more commonplace, advanced finite element analysis routines are required to accurately predict their structural performance. To aid design engineers, a simple damage and failure model for multi-laminate, anisotropic composites is evaluated for the prediction of stiffness and strength behavior. Results from the model are compared to experimental data.
Factors Affecting Single Screw Extrusion Output Rate of Thermoplastic Vulcanizates (TPVs)
Factors affecting the output rate of TPVs in a single screw extruder are investigated. The factors examined in this study include extruder rpm, barrel temperature, TPV pellet temperature, and TPV material selection. Process optimization is demonstrated for maximum output rate in a safe operating condition. The fundamental extrusion mechanism of TPV is discussed in contrast to that of other polyolefin resins.
Modeling the Interaction of Glass Yarns with Molten Plastic in the Cable Extrusion Process
We present a cable extrusion study that involves flow around a deformable moving fiberglass strand inside a cable extrusion die. In addition to non-Newtonian rheology, the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between the polymer melt and the moving strand is highly non-linear. Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), we have gained insight of our extrusion process by studying the strand deflection, the strand speed and the strand tension. The numerical results showed value in guiding the extrusion process.
Immobilization of EGF onto Silica Nanoparticles
Epidermal growth factor (EGF), has been identified as an excellent candidate for targeting cancerous tissue. This biomarker attached to polymeric particles can be used for detection, drug delivery, and imaging applications. Silica nanoparticles incorporating this biomarker were synthesized. These particles were coated with a second layer of silica containing carboxylated silane to enable coupling to the biomarker. Immobilization onto EGF was performed via carbodiimide chemistry, and assayed for using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to confirm EGF immobilization.
The Effect of Crosslinking on the Mechanical Properties of PLA/PCL Blend
The improvement of brittle behavior of PLA resin was studied by blending it with PCL resin. Peroxide (DCP) was added in order to form co-cross linked structure at the interphase. These materials were blended, and they were fabricated into thin films. DCP content was varied accordingly (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 1, 2phr). The value of ultimate strain peaked at 0.1 and 0.2 phr DCP contents, but it was low at higher DCP content. It was thought that the peak changes of FTIR denote the compatibility at the interphase.
Foam Extrusion of Linear Polyolefins by Lightly Cross-linking
Linear polyolefin resins, which are difficult to foam by extrusion, have been successfully expanded to good-quality foams by lightly crosslinking the resins with an azido-functional silane or peroxide.
Drop Test of Mouse Housing - Simulation and Experimental Verification
In this paper, explicit 3D finite element procedures were employed to simulate a mouse housing with sophisticated features. Effects of geometrical simplification were investigated and assessed via deviation of total mass and responses of stress and acceleration. Compared with the result of a patented drop test platform, it was shown that simplification is allowable to have 3% deviation in total mass. The stress and acceleration distribution within molded mouse housing upon impact were well understood with the aid of both simulation and physical drop test.
Orientation on Polyimide Sliding Surfaces Studied by Raman Spectroscopy
Small-scale tribological tests are performed on sintered polyimides in the temperature range between 80°C and 260°C. A transition towards low friction is observed at 180°C corresponding to stabilisation in wear rates. This characteristic is further related to an endothermal reaction in the polymer bulk as revealed by TGA/DTA and reorientation of C=O and C-N-C bonds as studied by Raman spectroscopy.
Model Based 100% Quality Documetation System Suitalbe for Small Lot Sizes in Injection Molding
The production of high precision injection molded parts for medical or safety technology usually requires 100% quality control and documentation. This quality inspection is made in the majority of cases manually and is therefore expensive. A new method has been developed for using quality prediction models based on multiple linear regressions also for small batch size products. Experiments show the applicability of this concept even if the process is disturbed by variation of process parameters or raw material properties.
The Effect of Preparation Method on Mechanical Behaviour of Chitosan Composites
This work investigated the addition of Polycaprolactone (PCl) and Sodium Tripolyphosphate (TPP) to the biodegradable polymer chitosan, via the preparation method of dry blending, followed by compression. The improvement in mechanical properties and suitability for biomedical applications were determined through the changes in surface characteristics, crystallinity and mechanical properties. It was found that the differences in melting temperature, contact angle and phase transition temperatures (tan ?) were highly dependent on the ratio of PCl and chitosan in each blend.
Monitoring Polymerization in Microfluidic Flow Channels Using Spectroscopy Methods
A micro-fluidic device, designed as a high throughput system for characterizing polymerizations over a range of solvent, monomer, initiator and temperature conditions, was instrumented with a fluorescence spectrometer. A fluorescent dye, incorporated into the monomer at very low concentration, was used as a molecular viscosity probe to monitor changes in viscosity during the polymerization of acrylic polymers. The measurement provides information about the extent of polymerization.
Magnetic Rotor Encapsulation
Magnetic rotors are used in bearingless pumps for wet processes in the semiconductor industry. These rotors must be encapsulated so that they resist corrosion from the aggressive chemical environment and do not permit permeation of the metallic ions from the rotor to the outer fluid. This paper describes our approach to evaluating fluorinated materials and processing techniques to produce encapsulated prototypes. Eighteen prototypes were manufactured and evaluated for testing. Details regarding this work are presented.
Cavity Temperature Control in Injection Molding Machine
A new approach for controlling part cooling in plastic injection molding is developed using a PI controller and coolant flow rate as the manipulated variable. The method uses an average part surface temperature within the mold as the setpoint parameter. A mechatronic system was developed for providing variable coolant flow rates. The control strategy was simulated using plant models, and then implemented and tested on a 50 tonne injection molding machine with good closed loop responses.
Injection Molding of a High Heat Polyetherimide Sulfone with Tg of ? 250°C
An injection moldable thermoplastic Polyetherimide Sulfone resin with Tg of ? 250°C (482°F) was developed for advanced automotive lighting systems and other applications requiring thermal capabilities greater than those currently achieved with Polyetherimide. With a +30°C higher Tg than Polyetherimide, the resin can still be melt processed using standard injection molding machine equipment by increasing melt temperature to 385-415°C and mold temperatures of 150- 175°C. The injection molding processibility of the resin and its properties are presented and compared with Polyetherimide.
Effects of Vibrating Injection on Structure and Property of Polymer Produce
A novel Vibration Injection Molding (VIM) Machine was introduced. Under factual manufacture conditions in a VIM machine, the effects of the vibration parameters on the structures and mechanical properties of HDPE, PP and HIPS materials were researched. It was discovered that vibrating injection can obviously improve the micro-structures and mechanical properties through optimizing vibration frequency and amplitude conditions of injection screw.
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