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Conference Proceedings
FINITE ELEMENT PREDICTION OF RESIDUAL STRESS FORMATION IN HOT PLATE WELDED POLYCARBONATE
Kittichai Sojiphan , Avraham Benatar, May 2010
During plastic welding, localized heating and coolingnear the weld results in residual stress formation due todifferences in thermal expansion between hot and coldregions. ANSYS finite element analysis was used to firstpredict the temperature fields and cooling rates for hotplate welding of polycarbonate. The temperature fieldswere then used as the input for ANSYS viscoelastic stressanalysis to predict the residual stress distribution.Similarly, the residual stress was also predicted forthrough transmission laser welding and vibration weldingof polycarbonate. The predictions were found to be ingood agreement with previously published residual stressmeasurements.
SYNTHESIS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SULFONATED BLOCK COPOLYMERS
Young-Kee Cho, Young-joo Yi, Eun-jin Lee, Byung-Ohk Rhee, May 2010
In this study, Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and FT-IR was used to examine a series of highly sulfonated poly(styrene-isobutylene-styrene) (SIBS) block copolymers. Sulfonation levels of 53%, 64% and 97% were studied. These block copolymers were subsequently neutralized with three inorganic counter-ions, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Ba2+. Sulfonation of the base polymer maintained the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the PIB segment of the membrane at -60?øC regardless of sulfonation level. However, a new high temperature transition appears as a shoulder of the PIB Tg. The substitution of inorganic counter-ions also maintained the glass transition temperature of the membrane at -60?øC regardless of cation exchanged and increased the modulus of the rubbery plateau indicative of a crosslinking complex formation. Additional relaxations were observed above Tg for the highly sulfonated counter-ion substituted samples attributed to the Tg of the functionalized styrene segments. In addition, FT-IR results show a shifting of the IR bands attributed to the sulfonate groups when counter-ions are added, indicating chemical crosslinking occurring.
EFFECT OF THERMAL CONDUCTANCE TO MOLD ON THE TEMPERATURE RISE MEASURED BY RESIN TEMPERATURE SENSORS
Young-Kee Cho , Young-joo Yi , Eun-jin Lee , Byung-Ohk Rhee, May 2010
In order to identify the resin state precisely the measured temperature should be closer to the actual resin temperature and sensitive to the resin temperature variation. In an absolute sense of view the measured temperature by the resin temperature sensor is a mold wall temperature. In this study we examined the effect of thermal conductance through the sensor from the resin to mold on the temperature rise measured by the sensor. In experiment we tested a thermally insulated washer and an insulation block to reduce the thermal conductance. To examine the influence of thermal conductance of mold material the temperature rise of mold wall was calculated with different thermal conductivity of the mold by transient-heat-transfer numerical simulation.
ANISOTROPIC THERMAL CONDUCTION IN POLYMERS SUBJECTED TO UNIAXIAL ELONGATIONS
Sahil Gupta , Erin Camponeschi , Ellen Kloppenborg , David C. Venerus , Jay D. Schieber, May 2010
Polymer processing flows involve a strong coupling of mechanical and thermal effects that have a significant impact on the final properties of the material. Simple molecular arguments suggest that Fourier's law must be generalized to allow for a tensorial thermal conductivity in polymers subjected to deformation. In our laboratory we have developed a novel, optical method to obtain quantitative measurements of anisotropic thermal diffusivity in polymers subjected to deformations. In this paper we report measurements of anisotropic thermal diffusivity and stress in both molten and solid polymers in uniaxial extension. These data are used to test the stress-thermal rule.
THE ROLE OF SHEAR BAND FORMATION ON MODE II FAILURE OF POLYMERIC GLASSES
Yuji Fujita, Toshihiro Yoshida, Hironari Sano, Masaya Kotaki, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2010
Mode II fracture studies were performed at various rates on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polycarbonate (PC). The shear banding response of PMMA is shown to be highly sensitive to rate. As the rate increases, shear deformation becomes more localized to the point where Mode II fracture occurs. PC is much less rate dependent with lesser amounts of localization. A new theory is formulated relating orientation in a shear band to intrinsic material properties obtained from true-stress true-strain tests. A kinematic limit for orientation within a shear band is also derived based on entanglement network parameters.
GENERATING ALTERNATIVE TIME AND ENERGY SAVING PROCESSING CONCEPTS FOR ROTATIONAL FOAM MOLDING
Remon Pop-Iliev, May 2010
The nature of the rotational molding process is cyclic. It requires the temperature of the rotating mold and the plastic it is charged with to be elevated from room temperature to beyond its melting temperature and then cooled back to room temperature. Consequently rotational molding cycle times are lengthy which is often considered as the fundamental drawback of this plastic fabrication process. The motivation and objectives of this paper are twofold. First the presently proposed research focuses on developing an innovative processing technology for the manufacture of integral-skin cellular composite moldings having adjacent but clearly distinct layers of non-cellular and cellular structures consisting of identical or compatible polyolefin grades. Its primary goal is to significantly reduce the processing cycle time in comparison with respective currently implemented technologies.
GENERATING ALTERNATIVE TIME AND ENERGY SAVING PROCESSING CONCEPTS FOR ROTATIONAL FOAM MOLDING
Remon Pop-Iliev, May 2010
The nature of the rotational molding process is cyclic. It requires the temperature of the rotating mold and the plastic it is charged with to be elevated from room temperature to beyond its melting temperature and then cooled back to room temperature. Consequently, rotational molding cycle times are lengthy, which is often considered as the fundamental drawback of this plastic fabrication process. The motivation and objectives of this paper are twofold. First, the presently proposed research focuses on developing an innovative processing technology for the manufacture of integral-skin cellular composite moldings having adjacent, but clearly distinct, layers of non-cellular and cellular structures, consisting of identical or compatible polyolefin grades. Its primary goal is to significantly reduce the processing cycle time in comparison with respective currently implemented technologies.
CHARACTERISATION OF POLYETHYLENE POWDERS FOR ROTATIONAL MOULDING AND EFFECT OF POWDER SIZE AND SHAPE ON DENSIFICATION BEHAVIOUR
L. Parent, P. Cigana, A. Ajji, P.J. Carreau, May 2010
The particle size, shape and distribution of a range of rotational moulding polyethylenes (PEs) ground to powder was investigated using a novel visual data acquisition and analysis system (TP Picture??), developed by Total Petrochemicals. Differences in the individual particle shape factors of the powder samples were observed and correlations with the grinding conditions were determined. When heated, the bubble dissolution behaviour of the same powders was investigated and the shape factor correlated with densification rate, bubble size and bubble distribution.
EFFECT OF MACHINE DIRECTION ORIENTATION CONDITIONS ON STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF HDPE FILMS
L. Parent , P. Cigana , A. Ajji , P.J. Carreau, May 2010
In this study, the effect of machine direction orientation (MDO) unit on the structure and performance of a high density polyethylene film are investigated. Both one step and two step stretching are used. The parameters studied are temperature, speed and draw ratio. Their effect on necking, row-nucleated lamellar structure, orientation as well as mechanical properties is investigated. The results showed a noticeable effect on orientation, crystalline lamellae characteristics and the mechanical properties along machine and transverse directions (MD and TD, respectively).
INFLUENCE OF RECYCLED ABS ADDED TO VIRGIN POLYMERS ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Venkatesha. N, Claes. Lindberg, Stefan. Johannesson, Derek Buckmaster, May 2010
Reuse of recycled polymers is steadily increasing. In this study, blends of varying proportions of ABS recycled resins (0~50%), obtained from the gate and runner materials of products, was added to virgin resin to investigate the effect of various compositions of virgin ABS and recycled polymers on the physical properties of the final blend. The results show that there is no obvious effect of recycled ABS percentage (by weight) on the tensile strength, elongation at yield, flexural strength, and flexural modulus. However, hardness, glass transition temperature, MFI, and heat conductivity of recycled ABS increase with as the percentage (by weight) of recycled material increases. The impact strength was also found to vary with the recycled ABS loading.
SMC REPLACEMENT WITH ENGINEERING THERMOPLASTICS IN HEAVY COMMERCIAL VEHICLE BODY PANELS MARKET SPACE
N. Venkatesha , Claes Lindberg , Stefan Johannesson , Derek Buckmaster, May 2010
Traditionally body panels of Heavy Commercial Vehicles (HCV) are built in Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) or metal. OEMs are looking for fuel-efficient lightweight and greener technology solutions. The specific gravity of Engineering Thermoplastic (ETP) is much lower and offers significant weight reduction opportunity over SMC/metal. This paper presents limitations of SMC key challenges in terms of aesthetics and high flow length to thickness ratio in processing HCV body panels with ETP. Show how these are solved through novel thickness distribution feed system and process design. It is highly essential to design with plastic friendly concepts and to build the tool for balanced filling no aesthetic defects minimum pressure and tonnage. Predictive engineering is the best tool to use at the design phase to achieve first time right.
SMC REPLACEMENT WITH ENGINEERING THERMOPLASTICS IN HEAVY COMMERCIAL VEHICLE BODY PANELS MARKET SPACE
N. Venkatesha , Claes Lindberg , Stefan Johannesson , Derek Buckmaster, May 2010
Traditionally body panels of Heavy Commercial Vehicles (HCV) are built in Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) or metal. OEMs are looking for fuel-efficient, lightweight and greener technology solutions.The specific gravity of Engineering Thermoplastic (ETP) is much lower and offers significant weight reduction opportunity over SMC/metal. This paper presents limitations of SMC, key challenges in terms of aesthetics and high flow length to thickness ratio in processing HCV body panels with ETP.Show how these are solved through novel thickness distribution, feed system and process design.It is highly essential to design with plastic friendly concepts and to build the tool for balanced filling, no aesthetic defects, minimum pressure and tonnage. Predictive engineering is the best tool to use at the design phase to achieve first time right.
NON-COVALENT FILLER-MATRIX INTERACTIONS IN POLY (METHYL METHACRYLATE)/CARBON NANOFIBER NANOCOMPOSITES
Sergio T. Amancio Filho, Jorge F. dos Santos, May 2010
The non-covalent filler-matrix interactions in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composites filled with carbon nanofiber (CNF) and oxidized carbon nanofiber (ox-CNF) were analyzed. Significantly improved state of filler dispersion was observed in composites containing ox-CNF. A direct evidence of hydrogen bonding between PMMA molecules and ox-CNF particles was obtained from the analysis of FT-IR spectra. Fluorescence emission spectroscopy did not reveal any insight on the filler-matrix interactions in composites, due to the lack of chromophores on PMMA and due to the presence of UV stabilizers.
FRICRIVETING: A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR JOINING THERMOPLASTICS TO LIGHTWEIGHT ALLOYS
Sergio T. Amancio Filho , Jorge F. dos Santos, May 2010
The FricRiveting technique is a new alternative spot joining process developed for polymer-metal multimaterial structures. A cylindrical metallic rivet is used to join one or more thermoplastic-metal components by means of plasticizing and deforming the tip of the rotating rivet through frictional heating. Advantages of this new technique are short joining cycles minimal sample preparation and absence of environmental emissions.Fricriveted joints have enhanced mechanical performance.This study demonstrates with aid of a case study of polyetherimide to aluminum alloys the feasibility of FricRiveting.
EFFECT OF NORBORNENE CONTENT ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CYCLO OLEFIN COPOLYMERS
Jaehyun Kim , Ho Jong Kang , Jukjeondong , Suji-gu , Yongin-si , Gyeonggi-do, May 2010
Cyclo olefin copolymer (COC) is one of the candidate materials for the flexible display substrate due to its unique combination in optical and thermal properties.Norbornene (NB) unit in COC prevents crystallization to obtain amorphous film and increases its glass transition temperature which is suitable for the inorganic (ITO) coating in the flexible substrate processing. In this study the effects of NB content on the physical properties of COC film were studied. NB content in COC was determined bysolid state 13C NMR. A tendency to an increase in glasstransition temperature with increasing NB was found. COC with higher NB shows lowering of melt process ability with high melt viscosity but it could be controlled by the NB content. In addition COC with higher NB content shows comparably low orientation behavior due to the rigidity of NB unit in COC.
THE INTERACTION OF NANOCLAY PLASTICIZER AND STABILIZER IN PVC WIRE AND CABLE FORMULATIONS WITH ENHANCED ACCEPTABILITY
Gowri Dorairaju , Gregory Morose , Dr. Daniel F. Schmidt, May 2010
We report the preparation of high-performance leadand phthalate-free PVC formulations for wire and cable applications. We describe the replacement of diisodecyl phthalate by epoxidized linseed oil and lead stabilizer by various non-lead stabilizers and the effects of nanoclay addition. Replacement of DIDP by ELO increases stiffness strength and degradation onset temperature(Tonset). Addition of nanoclay reduces ductility andthermal stability but enhances hardness and stiffness and improves fire properties (higher LOI lower PHRR).
CHARACTERIZING CO-CONTINUOUS MORPHOLOGY DEVELOPMENT IN MISCIBLE POLYLACTIC ACID / POLYVINYL ALCOHOL BIODEGRADABLE BLENDS
Jun Peng, Yi-Yan Peng, Lih-Sheng Turng, Xiang-Fang Peng, Xiao-Fei Sun, May 2010
Targeted for tissue engineering scaffold applications, biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) and water-soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) resins were employed to produce miscible blends by means of melt blending in a thermokinetic mixer (K-mixer). Different volume fractions of PLA and PVA were melt mixed. After water leaching (extraction) of the sacrificial PVA domains, co-continuous morphology development of the blend systems was investigated via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dimensions of the voids occupied by PVA in the blends were measured using an image analysis tool. In addition, the miscibility of these blends was evaluated by thermal characteristic measurements using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). It was shown that the continuity development and microstructure features of PLA/PVA blends were dependent on the component composition and the miscibility.
THERMAL MODIFICATION OF SEMI-CRYSTALLINE THERMOPLASTIC POLYMERS USING POLYFUNCTIONAL ADDITIVES
Jeremy R. Austin, May 2010
Traditionally the upper application temperature of semi-crystalline polymers is improved by increasing the modulus at temperature by simple addition of glass fiber or manipulation of the crystalline behavior. In the current study the heat distortion temperature (HDT) of LDPE was increased by as much as 11oC by blending with high Tg thermally stable amorphous styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) copolymers. Microdomains of SMA prevented LDPE chains from conforming to the applied load at temperature. The HDT of PBT was shown to increase by up to 13oC by a proposed reaction with the end groups yielding a homogenized single phase. In PA6/6 the HDT was found to increase by as much as 18oC by reaction with the amine groups yielding a crosslinked structure. Although the mechanism was different for each polymeric system the net effect on the crystallization behavior was negligible.
THERMAL MODIFICATION OF SEMI-CRYSTALLINE THERMOPLASTIC POLYMERS USING POLYFUNCTIONAL ADDITIVES
Jeremy R. Austin, May 2010
Traditionally, the upper application temperature of semi-crystalline polymers is improved by increasing the modulus at temperature by simple addition of glass fiber or manipulation of the crystalline behavior. In the current study, the heat distortion temperature (HDT) of LDPE was increased by as much as 11oC by blending with high Tg thermally stable amorphous styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) copolymers. Microdomains of SMA prevented LDPE chains from conforming to the applied load at temperature. The HDT of PBT was shown to increase by up to 13oC by a proposed reaction with the end groups yielding a homogenized single phase. In PA6/6 the HDT was found to increase by as much as 18oC by reaction with the amine groups yielding a crosslinked structure. Although the mechanism was different for each polymeric system, the net effect on the crystallization behavior was negligible. Improved adhesion between chemically sized glass fiber and PP, PBT and PA6/6 was achieved using SMA, hydroxyl terminated epoxidized polybutadiene, and maleic anhydride grafted polybutadiene. Gains in modulus were reflected in increases in HDT in both PP and PA6/6.In the case of PA6/6, the HDT was shifted to the melting point of the base polymer. PBT did not observe an increase in HDT despite demonstrating improved interfacial adhesion. The inherent Tg of the coupling agent was not found to be influential on HDT improvements.
QUANTIFICATION OF NANOCLAY DISPERSION AND EXFOLIATION IN POLYMER COMPOSITES
Albin Berzinis, Olivier Guise, Theo Hoeks, Vaidyanath Ramakrishnan, Radha Kamalakaran, May 2010
Over the past two decades lot research has been devoted to making polymer nano-composites, mainly because of unique property profiles like optical, mechanical, electrical, barrier, etc., they can generate. The benefits of nano-composites derive primarily from the exceptionally large amounts of particle surface area that can be achieved by a small addition of particles (typically 1-5 wt%) As the performance of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites strongly depends on achieving a uniform dispersion of silicate platelets having high aspect ratio, quantification of the degree of dispersion and inter-layer spacing is needed to establish the structure-property relationships. In this work, we have developed a methodology combining XRD (using the modified Warren-Averbach method) and TEM to calculate the mean platelet stack thickness distribution and diameter to yield the aspect ratio of the partially exfoliated layered silicates. Results from this calculation have been used successfully in micro mechanical modeling to predict mechanical and barrier properties.


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