SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Process-Simulation of Compression Moulding Compounds
Ernst Schmachtenberg, Klaus Skrodolies, Dennis Lippe, May 2005

This paper presents a flow model considering shear- and elongational viscosity as well as wall slipping effects of fibre-reinforced compression moulding compounds (SMC, GMT, LFT). The advantages compared to commonly used models are the improved computation of the pressing force and fibre orientation distribution.

Effect of Rheology and Die Design on Flow Balancing of Profile Extrusion Dies
Khairul Alam, Costas Tzoganakis, John Perdikoulias, May 2005

A major challenge in profile extrusion die design is flow balancing at the die exit as an unbalanced flow causes distortion of the profile. This is especially true for complicated profile dies with uneven thicknesses in certain sections of the die. In this work, we demonstrate the use of a factorial statistical design of numerical experiments to study the effect of geometrical parameters and polymer shear thinning behavior on the optimum flow balancing of a profile die.

Function, Application and Handling of Hot Stamping Foils
Michael W. Dolan, May 2005

Unlike many inks and coatings which can be somewhat “one dimensional”, hot stamping foils have multiple layers that perform different functions within the foil that contribute to a successful imprint or image. What makes this method of hot stamp decoration problematic is that any time one layer is changed it can have a direct affect on the outcome of a decoration. Without getting too technical we are going to address each layer and its contribution to the decoration of a plastic part.

The Effect of Material Selection in Feed-Block Coextrusion of a Three Layer Film
Jiri Vlcek, Walter Kopytko, Martin Zatloukal, Birane Touré, May 2005

This paper describes a case study dealing with the development of a three-layer product on a feedblock coextrusion system. The problems or phenomena that occurred during the product development experiments are explained via flow simulation and the rheological properties of the materials used. The results of the study are compared with real film samples produced during the development

Flow Simulation of Coextrusion Feed-Blocks
John Perdikoulias, Martin Zatloukal, Birane Touré, May 2005

The paper discusses how flow simulation is used to analyze and optimize the design of the coextrusion feedblocks. The results help to explain the reason behind certain design arrangements. A case study of a problem encountered in an actual, three-layer film production will be used to demonstrate how the design of the feed block merge section and the material flow properties, especially the elongational viscosity, can create conditions for the “wave” type interfacial instability.

A Comparative Rheological Study of Isotactic and Syndiotactic Polypropylene Resins with Similar MFI
Leonardo Cortés, Jaime Bonilla, May 2005

A comparative rheological study of four pairs of isotactic and syndiotactic polypropylene resins with similar MFI was conducted. The rheological tests included double bore capillary rheometry, frequency sweeps and creep and recovery compliance. It was found that, for similar MFI, the viscoelastic behavior is significantly different between these two types of resins which suggest that stereoregularity has an important effect on the viscoelastic behavior of polypropylene melts.

Performance of Tocopherols as Antioxidants in ABS
R.M. Suffield, S.H. Dillman, J.E. Haworth, May 2005

Mixed tocopherols, ?-tocopherol, and ?-tocopherol were evaluated for antioxidant performance in ABS using oxidation induction time as the response. Three commonly used phenolic antioxidants and vitamin E (?-tocopherol) were used as controls. Mixed tocopherols were found to have a greater antioxidant effect than the hindered phenolic AOs or vitamin E in ABS. ?-tocopherol was found to be primarily responsible for the improved performance of mixed tocopherols.

The Effect of Shear-Induced Imbalances on the Impact Strength of Injection Molded Impact Bars
Raymond Aufman, Matthew Dugovich, Joseph Busse, May 2005

During the injection molding process, shearinduced imbalances can have a drastic affect on many material properties. Samples of tensile bars were molded using an amorphous and semi-crystalline material at three different injection rates. The tensile bars were then Izod impact tested based on the location of the hot and cold side of the bars. A comparison was made to display the effects of the imbalances. The resulting impact strengths were then graphed accordingly and compared within each subgroup.

Clay Nanocomposites Incorporated into Biodegradable Polymers
Matthew Jackson, May 2005

Nanocomposites based on biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) and mica clay organically modified with L-arginine were prepared through solvent blending. Their properties were analyzed with TGA, DSC, and tensile testing. The addition of the organically modified clay caused an increase in properties, but at large incorporation, properties began to decrease. Samples of 3%, 5% and 10% organically modified clay were compared to pure PCL.

Design of a Containerized Mobile Turnkey Compounding Plant for the Direct Extrusion of PP with Hollow Glass Microspheres
Allan Boye Hansen, Frank Lechner, Michael Hampf, Alfred Kurz, Paul Andersen, May 2005

Interest in transportable modular production plants is on the rise. These containerized solutions combine flexibility with minimal expense for installation and start up. This presentation will highlight the issues surrounding a successful implementation of this concept for an insulated pipe construction used for offshore crude oil transport.

Adaptive GPC Control of Barrel Temperatures in Injection Molding
Ke Yao, Furong Gao, May 2005

Injection molding barrel temperatures have high interaction and slow responses. The classical proportionalintegral-derivative (PID) control has difficulties to control for them accurately. An adaptive multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) generalized predictive control (GPC) scheme is developed, implemented and tested for barrel temperatures control of a reciprocating-screw injection molding machine. Experimental results illustrate GPC superiority over the traditional PID control.

Effect of Low Density Polyethylene on Polystyrene Foam
Chang-Ming Wong, Shih-Jung Tsai, Chih-Hung Ying, Ming-Lang Hung, May 2005

This work examines the foam density of polystyrene (PS) blended with low density polyethylene (LDPE) at various ratios and the thermal conductivity of vacuum insulation panels (VIPs) using PS/PE with filers foams as core materials. The experimental results indicate LDPE strongly influences the foam density of PS/PE foam and the content of open-cell in PS/PE with fillers foam. A higher content of open-cells in PS/PE with fillers foam can lead to a lower thermal conductivity of VIP.

Mechanical Properties of Textile-Inserted PP/PP Knitted Composites
Omar Khondker, Xinyu Yang, Nobuhiro Usui, Asami Nakai, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2005

Composites consisting of the same material with different reinforcement and matrix shapes, such as fibre and matrix phases, can create high interfacial strength. This paper concentrates on the experimental investigation of all-polypropylene single phase composites. It is interestingly noteworthy that reinforced homo PP composites exhibited superior energy absorption capability when compared with their virgin counterpart for both static and dynamic impact test.

Viscoplastic Behaviour of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene
Saeeda Naz, John Sweeney, Peter Olley, Phil D Coates, May 2005

We have carried out experiments on UHMWPE in uniaxial compression in which we have measured the stress-strain and stress relaxation behaviour, covering a wide range of strains and strain rates. A constitutive model that makes use of Eyring processes has been developed and implemented numerically. This model can represent rate-dependent stress – strain behaviour. We have derived a set of values for the model parameters such that it gives a good representation of the observations.

Computer Simulation of 3D Filling and Packing Process in Injection Molding
Bon-Heung Koo, Kwon-il Choi, May 2005

This paper presents a true three-dimensional numerical simulation of the mold filling and packing in injection-molded part. The segregated finite element method and control volume finite element are combined with VOF method to solve the flow/temperature field and to track the melt front advancement during the process. The iterative solver (SOR) was employed for the solution of the equations. Several numerical examples are compared with Hele-Shaw approximation.

Radio Frequency Welding of Thermoplastic Vulcanizates
Ralph Raulie, Dolph Smith, May 2005

Radio Frequency (RF) welding, also known as High Frequency (HF) welding, is often a preferred means of fabricating products made of polar thermoplastic materials. Thermoplastic materials with low dielectric loss factors, such as thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) have presented a challenge to RF welding. Modification of traditional RF welding equipment has been studied to characterize successful RF welding of TPVs with varying rubber to plastic ratios.

An Examination into the Effects of a Fluoropolymer Additive in Nylon 6/6 Neat Injection Molding Resins
Jonathan Meckley, May 2005

A fluoropolymer additive can be used to aid in the processability of resins and to improve some physical properties of the final part. The changes in processability and physical properties are explored. This study examines the effects of the base resin with a loading of fluoropolymer at 0.00% , 0.10%, 0.25%, and 0.50%. Several experiments were run to determine the effects of the fluoropolymer on processing and physical properties.

The Evolution of Color Difference Equations
Robert S. Trinklein, May 2005

A comparison of the evolution of different color difference equations, and which ones are commonly used in plastic color measurement today.

Modeling of Substituted Biphenyl Compounds
Vassilios Galiatsatos, May 2005

We study the effect of the length of an alkane bridge on the equilibrium geometry of biphenyl. We rely on DF theory within the 6-31G* ab-initio framework to determine local energy minima and geometries. We discover that the effect of the bridge length is decidedly nonlinear.

Crush-Behavior of GMT-Products
Anton J. Heidweiller, May 2005

Compression tests were carried out on Glass Mat Reinforced Thermoplastics (GMT) panels applying three ratios for thickness over width. Some panels showed a typical ductile splaying collapse mode with gross plasticity. The specific energy absorption of these panels was very high, and even higher than was found in literature for crush cones of this material. Aim is to formulate design rules for products that are composed of flat plane elements and are loaded on impact.

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