The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Preparation of Interconnected Polycaprolactone Porous Scaffolds by a Combination Polymer and Salt Particulate Leaching
Porous poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds were prepared by melt blending PCL with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and NaCl salt particulates using twin-screw extrusion, followed by leaching out of water soluble PEO and NaCl. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) were carried out to caracterized their morphology. The scaffolds were highly porous (75-85%) and exhibited an open cellular pore structures.
Viscosity Measurement of PS/CO2 Solution at Low Temperatures
The shear viscosity of solution of polystyrene(PS) in supercritical carbon dioxide(CO2) was measured at low temperatures between 100°C and 130°C at CO2 pressures up to 21MPa using Couette viscometer. The flow curves allow reasonable estimates of the zero shear viscosity as a function of temperature and pressure, otherwise difficult to obtain. Measured viscosity at Newtonian region was correlated to the WLF (Williams, Landel and Ferry) equation.
Protective Coatings for Implantable Medical Devices
While many families of polymers have been used to provide protection of device components in an implanted environment, poly-p-xylylene based (Parylene) coatings have been shown to have favorable compatibility, durability and barrier properties. An overview of the use of Parylene coatings in medical implant devices is presented. This paper describes critical factors related to performance and provides an example of coating barrier properties as measured on printed circuit boards (PCBs) with standardized circuits immersed in phosphate-buffered saline solution under expected use and accelerated conditions.
Oriented Porous Poly(L/DL-Lactide) Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration
A new structure of poly(L-lactide-co-30%-DLlactide) PLDL created by a unique process that formed oriented longitudinal pores in combination with smaller random pores fully interconnected throughout was evaluated in vivo to determine its ability to facilitate bone regeneration in a critical size defect in the rat femur. Using quantitative micro-CT analysis, the PLDL-treated defects exhibited significantly greater bone volume and vascular volume fractions than untreated defects at 16 weeks post-operation.
Bismuth Oxychloride for Radiopaque Medical Devices
Bismuth oxychloride has been used as filler for many applications for several decades. The unique properties of bismuth oxychloride, such as high radiopacity, excellent physical and chemical stability, high density and good dispersibiltiy, make it one of the ideal fillers for radiopaque products, such as radiopaque medical devices. Detailed comparisons of bismuth oxychloride with commonly used fillers for radiopaque medical devices were performed.
An Analysis of Polyamide 6,6 and Semi-Aromatic Polyamide 6,6 Copolymer Containers for the Storage of Radioactive Materials
Testing and analysis of Polyamide 6,6 and Semi-Aromatic Polyamide 6,6 Copolymers have provided a series of results, which have been used to evaluate the lifetime performance of a polymeric container used for the storage of radioactive materials. Techniques such as Neutron Activation Analysis have been used to monitor the ingression of aqueous solutions into the polymer materials. Irradiation using the SLOWPOKE-2 Research Reactor has mimicked the radiation exposure to the container resulting from the stored radioactive materials.
Segmentation, Lamination and Post Processing of Amorphous Thermoplastic Urethane
Medical Device Labs, Inc. proprietary segmenting and lamination technology processes have been developed for their (SMEthane™)1 TPU (Thermoplastic Urethane) and (pAguaMedicina™)1 super porous structural hydrogel. These materials are based on well-known formulae in combination with qualified processes that have been used to produce FDA approved Devices, such as the TigerTail 2 Ureteral Catheter.
Do Nanoparticles Really Assist in Nucleation of Fine Cells in Polyolefin Foams?
Nanotechnology is an enabling technology that is extremely large to cover in one technical paper. It touches various technology disciplines and covers several applications. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of nanoclay on nucleation of polypropylene foams. Particularly, the goal is to understand the ability of nanocomposites in producing finer cells compared to talc in polypropylene.
Materials Characterization Based on Ultrasonic Spectral Analysis
In this paper the use of ultrasonic spectral analysis in material characterization is examined. Though the discussion is mainly on metallic materials, the basic ideas and techniques are mostly applicable to polymers and plastics.
A Novel Technique to Measure Tensile Properties of Plastics at High Strain Rates
High strain-rate properties have many applications in the simulation of automotive crash and product drop testing. These properties are difficult to measure. Difficulties arise from inaccuracies in extensometry at high strain rates due to extensometer slippage and background noise due to the sudden increase in stress at the start of the test. To eliminate these inaccuracies we use an inferential technique that correlates strain to extension at low strain rates and show that this can be extended to measure strain at higher strain rates
Impact of UV Exposure on Aesthetic and Mechanical Properties of Thick Rotomolded Articles
If not adequately protected, polyethylene is prone to degradation when exposed to the ultraviolet (UV) component of sunlight. Long-term direct sun light exposure was performed on thick rotomolded polyethylene samples. The impact of this exposure on aesthetic and physical properties, such as elongation at break, gloss, and color, was measured for polyethylene resins commonly used in the rotomolding industry. Molded samples from dry blended powder as well as compounded color powder were used in this research.
Plastics and Creativity
Unlike other materials, the number of polymeric materials and material combinations with polymers grows rapidly. Consequently, design opportunities daily arise but not all of them may be reconized instantly. Some opportunities are discovered by chance. A short review is presented about past design opportunities and when they were reconized, as well as a vision on design opportunities of some current developments, such as various types of new copolymers compatibilized blends, polymeric semiconductors and nano-structured materials.
The Plastics Industry in the 21ST Century: The Rules Have Changed
Over the past decade the acceleration of manufacturing productivity growth, a shift in regional raw material costs, the advent of the information age, globalization, and the power of Wall Street over the business strategies of publicly-held companies, have all had a cumulative, significant impact on the plastics industry. These effects went relatively unnoticed during the bubble economy of the 1990s, but now are increasingly revealed as the root causes of much of the dramatic change in the business environment of the 21st century. How did these changes come about? What is the outlook for the next decade?
High Performing Pigmented Rotational Molding Applications
This paper focuses on the key criteria to achieve high performing rotationally molded plastic articles. The rotomolding process as well as the final applications lead to the highest requirements for pigment and additive selection. An overview is given on possible critical steps in the whole production cycle and in detail the influence of the pigment selection on the processing and end-use quality is described. On a practical example, where extreme weather resistance is required, it is demonstrated how to transform this knowledge into an integrated solution for the Industry.
Geometry Dependent Flow Properties of Long Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene
Long glass fiber (LGF) reinforced resins have established a strong presence in the injection molding industry. Optimising the mechanical properties requires control of fiber orientation during molding. CAE simulations have proven beneficial in mold design; however these simulations depend on the quality and relevance of the rheological properties. The flow behaviour of LGF grades measured in a variety of rheometric geometries is presented.
Prediction of Flow Imbalance in Geometrically Balanced Feed Systems
Experimental data are presented for a multi-cavity molding which show a significant flow imbalance despite a geometrically balanced feed system. The degree of the imbalance between inner and outer cavities depends on the injection rate and is also found to change as filling progresses. Three dimensional computer simulations have successfully predicted these trends and provide an understanding of the behavior in terms of shear heating and laminar convection.
Three-Dimensional Cooling and Warpage Simulation for the Injection Over-Molding Process
Injection over-molding has established itself as one of the most popular fabrication processes. Many industries use over molding to produce a wide range of fabricated parts. The presence of plastic or metal inserts can significantly affect the filling, packing, cooling and warpage behavior in the injection molding process. Flow simulation for the injection over-molding process was developed several years ago. In this paper, we present new results of cooling and warpage simulations that account for the effects of inserts.
Interfacing Process Setting Data between Analysis and Machine Control
Interfacing mechanisms between specially designed tools for both analyzing the injection molding process and automating machine setup of the process are presented in this paper. We use examples to show that the interface is an effective way to communicate between the two tools and so benefit both analysts and manufacturers by achieving process conditions that are both consistent and based on scientific principles.
QC of Polyolefin Manufacturing by Rheology and Multivariate Analysis
The paper will focus on explaining some of the fundamental techniques of multivariate analysis (principal component analysis) and show examples on how such techniques can facilitate use of rheological measurements in offline and online QC of polyolefin manufacturing.
New Technologies for Achieving Lean and Six Sigma Goals
A pioneering system of interrelated algorithms— which integrates prior art techniques from the fields of correlation, regression, mapping, statistics and decision-making— has led to breakthrough insights into plastic injection molding processes. This new technology accelerates time-to-market, increases quality and reduces cost and risk during development. It increases quality and greatly reduces measurement, SPC analysis and Cpk analysis costs during production. Changes to tooling, targets and tolerances can be simulated without incurring cost, time or risk.
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