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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Dielectric Properties of Graphite Nanocomposites
Shing-Chung Wong, Erwin M. Wouterson, Eric M. Sutherland, May 2005

Polymer nanocomposites are an emerging class of multifunctional materials that have not been optimized for their functional potential. In this study the dielectric properties of graphite polymer nanocomposites were evaluated. The objective is to develop an alternative costeffective nanoscale carbon material with comparable properties like carbon nanotubes for composite applications.

Barrier Liner Material with Nanocomposite for Packaging Applications
Anatoliy Ya. Goldman, May 2005

Plastic containers for beer, juice or CSD require matching plastic closures. Recently we developed a multi-layer barrier liner with nanocomposite that inhibits ingress of O2 and egress of CO2, into and out of the container. A passive barrier layer of Nylon nanocomposite and one or two reactive layers with scavengers are included in multi-layer structures. The multi-layer liner material with nanocomposite and reactive layers perform better than other barrier materials at very high relative humidity.

Characterization of Virgin/Recycled Nitrile Rubber Blends
M.A. García, M. Hernández, M. Ichazo, J. González, May 2005

Blends of Virgin and Recycled Nitrile Rubber within a blend ratio of 10-30 %wt recycled NBR were studied. Reference was made to mechanical and physical properties. Results obtained indicate that a maximum percentage of 20%wt recycled rubber can be added to a NBR formulation without diminishing considerably final properties, since higher percentages promote a premature vulcanization. Concerning chemical resistance, an excellent oil resistance and a very low resistance to polar solvents were obtained for all formulations.

Predictive Damage and Failure Modeling for Composites Made of Baypreg®-F
James M. Lorenzo, May 2005

As composite structures become more commonplace, advanced finite element analysis routines are required to accurately predict their structural performance. To aid design engineers, a simple damage and failure model for multi-laminate, anisotropic composites is evaluated for the prediction of stiffness and strength behavior. Results from the model are compared to experimental data.

Factors Affecting Single Screw Extrusion Output Rate of Thermoplastic Vulcanizates (TPVs)
Oansuk Chung, May 2005

Factors affecting the output rate of TPVs in a single screw extruder are investigated. The factors examined in this study include extruder rpm, barrel temperature, TPV pellet temperature, and TPV material selection. Process optimization is demonstrated for maximum output rate in a safe operating condition. The fundamental extrusion mechanism of TPV is discussed in contrast to that of other polyolefin resins.

Modeling the Interaction of Glass Yarns with Molten Plastic in the Cable Extrusion Process
Ming Li, Ashwini Kumar, Jaydeep Kulkarni, May 2005

We present a cable extrusion study that involves flow around a deformable moving fiberglass strand inside a cable extrusion die. In addition to non-Newtonian rheology, the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between the polymer melt and the moving strand is highly non-linear. Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), we have gained insight of our extrusion process by studying the strand deflection, the strand speed and the strand tension. The numerical results showed value in guiding the extrusion process.

The Effect of Crosslinking on the Mechanical Properties of PLA/PCL Blend
Takeshi Semba, Kazuo Kitagawa, Umaru Semo Ishiaku, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2005

The improvement of brittle behavior of PLA resin was studied by blending it with PCL resin. Peroxide (DCP) was added in order to form co-cross linked structure at the interphase. These materials were blended, and they were fabricated into thin films. DCP content was varied accordingly (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 1, 2phr). The value of ultimate strain peaked at 0.1 and 0.2 phr DCP contents, but it was low at higher DCP content. It was thought that the peak changes of FTIR denote the compatibility at the interphase.

Foam Extrusion of Linear Polyolefins by Lightly Cross-linking
Chung P. Park, May 2005

Linear polyolefin resins, which are difficult to foam by extrusion, have been successfully expanded to good-quality foams by lightly crosslinking the resins with an azido-functional silane or peroxide.

Orientation on Polyimide Sliding Surfaces Studied by Raman Spectroscopy
Pieter Samyn, Patrick De Baets, Jeroen Van Craenenbroeck, Francis Verpoort, Gustaaf Schoukens, May 2005

Small-scale tribological tests are performed on sintered polyimides in the temperature range between 80°C and 260°C. A transition towards low friction is observed at 180°C corresponding to stabilisation in wear rates. This characteristic is further related to an endothermal reaction in the polymer bulk as revealed by TGA/DTA and reorientation of C=O and C-N-C bonds as studied by Raman spectroscopy.

Monitoring Polymerization in Microfluidic Flow Channels Using Spectroscopy Methods
Anthony J. Bur, Zuzanna T. Cygan, Kathryn L. Beers, Susan E.Barnes, May 2005

A micro-fluidic device, designed as a high throughput system for characterizing polymerizations over a range of solvent, monomer, initiator and temperature conditions, was instrumented with a fluorescence spectrometer. A fluorescent dye, incorporated into the monomer at very low concentration, was used as a molecular viscosity probe to monitor changes in viscosity during the polymerization of acrylic polymers. The measurement provides information about the extent of polymerization.

Magnetic Rotor Encapsulation
Wes Childers, Jay Sayre, May 2005

Magnetic rotors are used in bearingless pumps for wet processes in the semiconductor industry. These rotors must be encapsulated so that they resist corrosion from the aggressive chemical environment and do not permit permeation of the metallic ions from the rotor to the outer fluid. This paper describes our approach to evaluating fluorinated materials and processing techniques to produce encapsulated prototypes. Eighteen prototypes were manufactured and evaluated for testing. Details regarding this work are presented.

Cavity Temperature Control in Injection Molding Machine
J.M. Hernandez, R. Dubay, B. Pramujati, May 2005

A new approach for controlling part cooling in plastic injection molding is developed using a PI controller and coolant flow rate as the manipulated variable. The method uses an average part surface temperature within the mold as the setpoint parameter. A mechatronic system was developed for providing variable coolant flow rates. The control strategy was simulated using plant models, and then implemented and tested on a 50 tonne injection molding machine with good closed loop responses.

Effects of Vibrating Injection on Structure and Property of Polymer Produce
Peng Xiangfang, Xu Chao, Zhang Fengling, Lin Yiquan, Zhou Nanqiao, May 2005

A novel Vibration Injection Molding (VIM) Machine was introduced. Under factual manufacture conditions in a VIM machine, the effects of the vibration parameters on the structures and mechanical properties of HDPE, PP and HIPS materials were researched. It was discovered that vibrating injection can obviously improve the micro-structures and mechanical properties through optimizing vibration frequency and amplitude conditions of injection screw.

Experimental Investigation of PET and PP Film Casting
Kenneth Aniunoh, Graham Harrison, May 2005

In film casting, a polymer melt is extruded through a die before rapid cooling on a chill roll. The process stretches the material and induces some orientation in the film. In this paper, we study experimentally the effects of processing variables such as the draw ratio and the die temperature on film formation. The temperature, width and velocity profiles in the air gap are measured for films produced using polypropylene and polyethylene terephthalate.

Weatherability and Physical Properties of Opaque Injection Moldable Lexan* SLX Resins
Paul Sybert, Steve Klei, Dave Rosendale, Jianbo Di, Dake Shen, May 2005

New opaque blends and copolymers based on resorcinol phthalates have excellent weatherability and polycarbonate-like physical properties. The unique weatherability of these resins comes as a result of a photogenerated UV absorber (UVA) on the surface of a part. The gloss retention of these resins can be varied through proper selection of the resorcinol phthalate content and color package.

Transparent Injection Moldable Lexan* Slx Resins
Gheorghe Cojocariu, Chris Blubaugh, X Y Li, Jon Malinoski, Paul Sybert, May 2005

New copolymers based on resorcinol phthalates have excellent weatherability and polycarbonate-like physical properties. The excellent retention of optical and mechanical properties on weathering of these resins is the result of the polymer’s ability to form a UV absorber at the surface of a part.

New Non-Hygroscopic Thermoplastic Vulcanizates with Improved Colorability and Weatherability
Kevin Cai, Hamid Tavakoli, Hoan Tran, Satchit Srinivasan, May 2005

A new line of non-hygroscopic thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) has been developed for applications requiring both color and photo-oxidative stability. These products span the hardness range from 20A to 50D and offer superior oil resistance and compression set. In this paper, we will discuss the properties of the new TPVs, including non-hygroscopicity, oil resistance, compression set, color consistency, colorability and weatherability.

Development of Damping Machine Augmented Composite Materials
D.M. McCutcheon, J.N. Reddy, O. Ochoa, M.J. O’Brien, T.S. Creasy, G.F. Hawkins, May 2005

This work investigates energy dissipation in machine augmented composite (MAC) materials consisting of small machines in a matrix. The machines are fluid-filled tubes, and the tube cross-sectional geometry causes fluid flow when deformed. Dimensional analysis identifies the ratio of solid moduli to the product of driving frequency and fluid viscosity as an important parameter. Finite element models predict the performance of the MAC lamina. The highest energy dissipation predicted is 0.8 out of 1.0.

Active Polymer Composite for MEMS Applications
S.J. Lee, T.S. Creasy, G.F. Hawkins, M.J. O’Brien, May 2005

Finite element analysis (FEA) simulated the performance of an active polymer-matrix-composite material. Microscale muscle elements actuate the material. The muscle element contracts longitudinally, expands transversely, and twists when pressurized. A coupled elastic/piezoelectric element provided the response of the muscles to actuation and 3D elastic coupling of the lamina. The contractions of isolated elements and of a lamina were approximately the same; elastic coupling of elements within the lamina produced novel out of plane deformation.

Increasing the End-Use Temperature of TPU Products
Oliver Henze, Armando Sardanopoli, May 2005

TPU products are well known for their mechanical properties and wear resistance. However, in comparison to vulcanized rubber TPU materials have a lower softening point (limited end use temperature) and a limited elasticity (elongation set) preventing the use of TPU in some interesting applications. Here we introduce a family of new cross-linking agents and how they can improve these properties. Application examples are shown to demonstrate how these improvements can be utilized.

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