The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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ADHESIVE IN-LINE DEGREE OF CURE MONITORING
A new light cure adhesive technology has been developed to confirm your adhesive has cured in your product assembly. This technology can be integrated into your production line for rapid, 100% part inspection. Unlike recent color changing adhesives which only indicate exposure to light, this technology provides you a quantifiable measurement of the degree of cure achieved. These light cure adhesives are cure on demand and achieve full cure in just a few seconds. Manufacturers and assemblers of products can now be assured their bonded assemblies are fully cured.
NATURAL FIBRE PULPING AND REFINING USING EXTRUSION TECHNOLOGY
A study on structural and mechanical properties of natural fibres using co-rotating intermeshing twin screw extruder for refining fibres is reported. Using low-cost raw materials for the preparation of bio-based and biodegradable composites for many industrial applications. A range of techniques used to characterise these materials will be discussed, including morphology, DSC, SEM, other experimental techniques like mechanical property evaluations will also be discussed.
A NEW SYSTEMATIC METHODOLOGY TO DETERMINE DRUG'S SOLUBILITY IN POLYMER
The solubility of a drug in a polymeric excipient dictates the process window of hot-melt extrusion (HME) and product stability during storage. In this study, a new systematic methodology has been developed to experimentally measure the solubility of a model drug in a pharmaceutical grade polymer at different temperatures. A phase diagram was constructed and could be explored to design the HME process. Flory-Huggins interaction parameter was calculated by Tdissolution depression method based on the phase diagram and was used for thermodynamic solubility calculation.
EFFECTS OF PROCESSING PARAMETERS ON COLOUR DURINGCOMPOUNDING
Producing a specific coloured plastic using extrusion compounding requires proper operating conditions. Changes in the operating conditions will affect colour. In present study, the operating conditions were varied in controlled manner to analyze their effect on colour for two different grade plastics. Three process parameters temperature, RPM, and feed rate were varied individually to five different levels while keeping all other parameters constant. Strong interactions were observed between operating conditions and the colour.
AN EFFICIENT SEARCH METHOD TO OPTIMIZE GATE LOCATION IN PLASTIC INJECTION MOLDING
A flow resistance search scheme (FR) was proposed to find the optimum gate location in injection molding. A search direction associated with flow resistance was developed based on the physical nature of mold-filling process. By moving gate along the direction with maximum flow resistance, the filling time could be reduced and uniform flow pattern was achieved. This methodology is as efficient as quasi-Newton method (QN), but it is favorable because it can be applied to part with complex geometry.
WELDING OF FLAME RETARDING PP
In this paper hot plate and infrared welding are considered with respect to their attainable strengths and cycle times. In recent years, the use of flame retardant polypropylene has also become more important. Further studies show that the amount of flame retardant has a large effect on the weld strength. The welding factor drops from 0.68 (PP T20) to 0.43 (PP T20 FR). In the first part of the paper, the two welding processes are compared. Based on these results, a second study is then presented which considers the influence of various operating mechanisms of flame retardants on polymers' weldability.
EXAMINATIONS ON THE INFLUENCING FACTORS ON THE FOAMABILITY USING THE PROFOAM PROCESS
Currently, a new foaming process for injection molding is developed at the Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) Aachen, Germany. In this process, the plasticizing unit of an injection molding machine is pressurized with a blowing agent. In this paper, the effects of the type of material, its melt temperature, the type of blowing agent and the pressure are examined with regard to the foaming of the part. The influences of these parameters on the foam structure, the part's surface and the possible weight reduction are determined.
MICROFIBERS TO NANOFIBERS
Melt blowing is an extrusion process that starts with a material in resin form and creates a final web in one step. The microfibers produced in this process are in the 0.5 to 10 micron range in diameter. Applications for this technology include filtration, fluid absorption and sound management . Electrospinning is a process that is used to produce nanofibers, and most of the current work is focused on electrospinning from solutions. The work presented will deal with the structure property behavior of single component and multilayer layer melt blown webs, and melt electrospun submicron fibers and webs.
PRODUCING MICROLAYER BLOWN FILM STRUCTURES USING LAYER MULTIPLICATION AND UNIQUE DIE TECHNOLOGY
Many polymers are extruded through blown film dies to produce monolayer and multilayer films. The most popular style of die in use today to produce blown films is the spiral mandrel die. This type of die can be used effectively for many polymers in structures containing up to approximately 10 layers. This paper will discuss technology in which layer multiplication techniques are combined with unique die geometries to produce microlayer blown film structures with significantly greater numbers of layers.
PET - POLYETHERIMIDE BLENDS
Blends of polyetherimide (PEI) with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were re-examined. Previous blends with high (>25%) PEI content and those with very low (<10%) PEI shows a single Tg giving clear films indicative of a miscible blend. The samples stayed clear on heating and did not crystallize or phase separate. Use of lower Mw PEI:PET resins opened the window of miscibility allowing clear blends to be formed with as much as 50% PET. These clear yellow resins have high strength, 145-160C Tg, good practical toughness and high flow. PEI addition is an excellent route to upgrade PET performence.
NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF BARRELING AT CUT-ENDS OF PE PIPES AND ITS EFFECT ON ELECTROFUSION JOINTS
When a thermoplastic pipe is cut to length, residual stresses set up during cooling are released causing local bending, giving the end of the pipe a barrel shape that can be inconvenient in electrofusion joints. This paper investigates the development of barreling in terms of residual stresses through a comprehensive simulation of the post-extrusion cooling process. The model is validated with experimental data and the effect of barreling on electrofusion joints is discussed in terms of common procedures and standards.
SHEAR & EXTENSIONAL RHEOLOGY OF C18-CNT/LDPE NANOCOMPOSITES
Nanocomposites of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and C18 modified multi wall carbon nanotubes (C18-CNT) were prepared by melt blending. Previous research has shown that addition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) increase the dynamic viscosity and reduce the extensional viscosity with increasing loading. This research work shows that C-18 modification of CNTs helps to keep low values of dynamic viscosity, maintain extensional viscosity and does not increase strain hardening even at 5.0 weight % loading.
SELLING IN A BRUTAL ECONOMY: A HUGE OPPORTUNITY AND HOW TO CAPITALIZE ON IT
Sales are off during these difficult times. This paper will give you insight as to what's happening today and why you should consider getting into social media, PLUS things you can do today, over the next 30 days and over the next few months, to build sales.
OPEN CELL MICROCELLULAR FOAMS OF POLYLACTIC ACID (PLA) BASED BLENDS WITH SEMI-INTERPENETRATING POLYMER NETWORKS
Interpenetrating polymer network structures can be used to control cell density and averaged cell size of poly-LD-lactic acid foams. Polymer systems with and without cross-linking agent were used as templates for environmentally benign batch foaming processes in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide. The foamed samples were characterized in terms of cell density, averaged cell size, and open cell content (OCC).
USING HYPOTHESIS SETTING TO OPTIMIZE THE TROUBLESHOOTING PROCESS FOR SINGLE-SCREW PLASTICATORS
The goal of all troubleshooting operations is to restore the process to its original performance as quickly as possible. This paper describes a process that is based on developing hypotheses using verified data. Next, the hypotheses are tested using properly developed experiments. Once the root cause of the problem is identified, the best technical solution is implemented. Three case studies are presented.
PROCESS DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROJECTILE INJECTION TECHNIQUE (PIT)
The projectile injection technique is a new powerful process variant of the well established fluid injection technique for the production of hollow shaped polymer parts. For suitable part designs the PIT allows to increase the economical efficiency and process capability significantly. First research results show that it is possible to reproducibly form hollow shaped geometries independent from the rheological properties of the used polymers.
INFRARED WELDING OF ENGINEERING PLASTICS VIA SHORT-WAVELENGTH IR EMITTERS
To demonstrate the feasibility of infrared welding of engineering thermoplastics, studies on PA66 and PBT were conducted. The weldability of engineering thermoplastics is demonstrated in the investigations carried out. Important process parameters such as pressure control, change-over times and tolerances in positioning the IR emitter were identified. It is remarkable, that engineering plastics (PBT & PA66) that are similar in use have a totally different melting behavior. The melting process has to be adapted accurately to meet the specific requirements of the material.
FREE-RADICAL INTERMEDIATES IN THE NONOXIDATIVE THERMAL DEHYDROCHLORINATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)
Kinetic analyses based on resonance delocalization energies are used to rule out the Arlman and Winkler-Stromberg mechanisms for the growth of conjugated polyenes during the thermolysis of poly(vinyl chloride) under nonoxidizing conditions. Possible sources of radicals during the thermolysis are described, and the radicals that cause the greatest reduction in thermal stability are concluded to be those that result from the reaction of polyenes with HCl. The acceleration of dehydrochlorination by these radicals is discussed.
HEAT RESISTANT POLYLACTIC ACID WITH GOOD CLARITY
A heat resistant polylactic acid (PLA) is obtained by directly modifying regular PLA through extrusion process. The heat resistant PLA does not contain any inorganic filler and the total amount of additives is less than 5wt.%. The heat distortion temperature (HDT)???of modified PLA is more than 120oC. The modified PLA exhibits much higher crystallization rate than neat PLA. Meanwhile the heat resistant PLA still keeps good clarity and high impact strength. The heat resistant products of PLA can be directly molded through injection molding machine.
NANOPOROUS POLYCARBONATE FILM WITH HIGH ASPECT RATIO PREPARED BY ION TRACK ETCHING TECHNIQUE
Polycarbonate (PC) films with nanopores of a highly regulated size and shape were successfully prepared by ion track etching technique. The pores penetrated the films with a thickness of up to 100m, and the aspect ratio of the pores was nearly a thousand, which is outstanding result among those reported to date. Optimized etching conditions led to the effective etching of the ion tracks, and the addition of surfactant into the etching solution also heavily influenced the constitution of the pores.
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