SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

The SPE Library is just one of the great benefits of being an SPE member! Are you taking advantage of all of your SPE Benefits?

Not an SPE member? Join today!

Use % to separate multiple keywords. 

Search SPE Library
After Date: (mm/dd/yy)  
Sort By:   Date Added  ▼  |  Publication Date  ▼  |  Title  ▼  |  Author  ▼
= Members Only
Conference Proceedings
Evaluation of an Aromatic Amine Antioxidant in Glass-filled Poly(propylene)
Michael E. Gelbin, September 2004
Glass-mat reinforced thermoplastic (GMT) composites have increasingly begun to replace traditional sheet molding compounds in automotive applications owing to their reduced weight. Both processing and end use put special demands on the stabilizer package incorporated in the poly(propylene) resin phase of the GMT composite. A novel ternary antioxidant blend based upon an aromatic amine type stabilizer for superior processing stabilization in GMT will be presented. Processing stabilizer performance data as measured by the critical weight loss test at 230 °C will be discussed. Comparison of the arylamine based blend which is phosphite-free with a traditional phosphite-containing package of otherwise similar composition confirmed the superior performance of the former.
High Performance Natural Fibre Reinforced Sheet Molding Compound for Automotive Applications
Merry Lo, Suhara Panthapulakkal, Mohini Sain, September 2004
This research work aims to replace glass fibres in sheet molding compounds (SMC) by renewable natural fibres. These eco-efficient and cost effective SMC with natural fibres are gaining much attention in the automotive industry because of their specific properties. The specific objective of the work was to develop a high performance natural fibre hybrid SMC to meet the specifications required for automotive parts such as front fenders body panels etc. Hemp fibres with and without a combination of a small amount of glass fibres were used to reinforce vinyl ester resin for making SMC. Different combinations of layers of hemp and glass fibres were made to prepare SMC. Mechanical properties such as tensile and flexural properties and impact strength of the SMC prepared were found to be highly promising. The current OEM specifications for automotive parts for example rare lift gate and front fenders recommend the composite should have tensile strength of 62 MPa and tensile modulus of 2 GPa (Source of Automotive Engineers Car Technology yearbook 2000” USA 2000 Body panels Properties). SMC prepared by the combination of 45% of hemp fibres and 5% of glass fibres showed tensile strength and modulus were more or less same or better than that of the requirements for car body parts such as rare lift gate and front fenders (Tensile strength greater than 62 MPa and tensile modulus of 2 GPa).Use of this SMC with natural fibre is an economically viable alternative to SMC with glass fibres and at the same time it helps reducing the green house gas emission as there is lesser amount of synthetic resins and plastics.
Development of New Green SMC Resins and Nanocomposites from Plant Oils
Jue Lu, Richard P. Wool, September 2004
Sheet molding compound (SMC) is widely used in automotive parts appliances furniture and construction. These materials heavily depend on the petroleum supply which is depleting fast. The use of plant oils as an alternative source for SMC resins presents economic and environmental advantages over petroleum. Two synthetic methods have been used to develop new resins from triglycerides. The double bonds presented on the fatty acid chains were first converted to epoxy or hydroxyl functionality; the hydroxyl groups were maleinized while the epoxies were acrylated and then further maleinized. When these functionalized oils were combined with 33.3 wt% styrene the polymers showed mechanical properties comparable to those of commercial unsaturated polyesters. In addition these new resins exhibit adequate thermo-reversible thickening behavior with MgO. These triglyceride-based resins have good compatibility with natural fibers such as hemp and flax to form low-cost green composites. New bio-based nanocomposites were also developed using these new resins and organo-treated clays and the nanocomposites showed considerable increase in modulus and toughness. These new green materials show the promise to be used in the automotive industry.
Process for Manufacturing a High Performance Natural Fiber Composite by Sheet Molding
T. Behzad, M. Sain, September 2004
In the past few years natural fibers are finding an increased interest in polymer matrices. The natural fibers serve as reinforcement by enhancing the strength and stiffness to the resulting composite structure. In this study a novel processing technique has been developed for water based thermoset polymers to prepare resin-impregnated mats which can be used for sheet molding process to manufacture complex automotive semi-structural and structural parts. In order to optimize the curing conditions the mechanical properties of composites at different curing temperature and the crosslink density of the composites cured at different times were evaluated. The optimum curing cycle was obtained at 180 ºC for 10 min. Composites with one and two layers of impregnated mat with 40 % resin and 60 % fiber were manufactured and their performance were evaluated. The mechanical properties of the cured pure resin and hemp fiber acrylic based composites with two different fiber lengths were measured and the effect of fiber content and fiber length were investigated. The flexural strength was found to be around 94 MPa and the flexural modulus was 14 GPa for the composite.
Electron Beam Curing Demonstration with Automobile Structures
C.C. Eberle, C.J. Janke, C.S. Wang, September 2004
Continuous carbon fiber/epoxy automobile hoods were electron beam cured to demonstrate the capability to achieve curing throughput rates needed on automotive production lines. The project team demonstrated curing speed of 180 hoods/day. This demonstration extrapolates to 1600 hoods/day curing throughput using a more powerful electron accelerator and much higher throughputs may be achievable with innovative design and materials development. Single-pass curing was shown to be feasible. The curing costs are potentially attractive especially at high production volumes Test laminate properties considerably exceeded those of the finished hoods. Hood thermo- mechanical properties and surface finish need improvement. This is not surprising since this was the team’s first attempt to manufacture electron beam cured automobile structures. Several technical barriers were identified that need further attention.
Equal-Channel Angular Extrusion of Thermoplastic Matrix Composites for Sheet Forming and Recycling
T. S. Creasy, Y.S. Kim, September 2004
Equal channel angular extrusion creates novel properties in metal and polymer materials. Recently the authors investigated the effects of this process on commercial short fiber composites. Experiments show that ECAE provides a means for controlling fiber length and orientation in the extrudate. The process might transform continuous fiber thermoplastic matrix composite sheets into high volume fraction discontinuous fiber sheet for thermoforming. In addition the process might provide a method of recycling reground components into high-value sheets with a known fiber orientation.
The Effect of Surface Energy of Boron Nitride on Polymer Processability
Nimish S. Rathod, Savvas G. Hatzikiriakos, May 2004
Fluoropolymers have long been used as processing aids for surface melt fracture treatment of polyolefin extrudates. Recent developments have shown that a small amount of Boron Nitride powder successfully eliminates surface melt fracture and also delays the onset of gross melt fracture. Study of surface energy helps in understanding the different mechanisms of these two processing aids in eliminating extrudate melt fracture.
Fundamentals of Melt Fracture Elimination Using Fluoropolymer Process Aids
S.R. Oriani, G.R. Chapman, May 2004
Fluoropolymer process aids are widely used in polyolefin blown films to eliminate melt fracture. These process aids function by depositing a thin fluoropolymer layer on internal die surfaces, and promoting slip at the fluoropolymer – polyethylene interface. The present work describes how the morphology of fluoropolymer – polyethylene blends can be controlled to increase fluoropolymer deposition rate by using a new, rheology-modified fluoropolymer in combination with an interfacial agent.
A Survey of Manifold Designs for Flat Die Extrusion
Gary D. Oliver, May 2004
Feedblock Coextrusion is considered to have been commercialized with the Dow Chemical patents issued in 1971. As Cloeren and Nissel introduced their own Coextrusion technology, a common thread throughout all technologies was design of Coextrusion dies. For decades extrusion die manifold designs remained unchanged. The ‘90s ushered in new commercial manifold designs aimed at solving age old problems with flow uniformity, die deflection, and coextrusion performance. This paper will examine the progression of die manifold designs, their impact on extruded products, and their implications on future coextruded structures.
Blown Film Characterisation
G.D. Smith, R. Spares, M.T. Martyn, M. Woodhead, P.D. Coates, P. Lafuente, B del Amo Fernández, May 2004
Effects of process changes on polyethylene blown films were studied using profile analysis techniques. The relationship between process parameters, barrel temperature, haul off rate and die gap, and film properties, thickness, blow up ratio (BUR), freeze line height, consistency of bubble profile were studied. An optical analysis system was developed which allowed film characteristics to be monitored during processing.
The Effect of Orientation on the Mechanical Performance and Thermal Properties of Extrusion Cast Metallocene Polyethylenes
B.G. Millar, G.M. Mc Nally, W.R. Murphy, May 2004
Cast films were prepared using a Killion single screw extruder, from a range of metallocene PEs of varied comonomer types (hexene, octene), using different haul off speeds (8-4m/min) and die gaps (700-250?m). It was found that samples with greater orientation in one direction had increased tensile strength and shrinkage in that direction. DSC analysis showed crystallinity to decrease with decreasing haul off speed.
An Investigation into the Cooling of Blown Film
Gregory A. Campbell, N. Ganesh, Sara W. Campbell, Lana Burl, May 2004
The focus of this investigation was develop a relatively simple model which could be used in blown film simulation. We desired to have the model represent the major contributors to the heat transfer for blown film. Our experimental results suggested that the heat transfer coefficient went through a maximum as the the bubble expanded. We have proposed a physical model which is consistent with our experimental observations. The model is based on a 3D representation of the boundary layer of ain around the bubble.
Process Stability Enhancement by Encapsulation Extrusion Method
Joo Sung Lee, Hyun Wook Jung, Jae Chun Hyun, May 2004
A film casting simulation has been used to demonstrate why the encapsulation extrusion process is so effective industrially in enhancing the stability of the extrusion. In the present study, it is intended to explain theoretically why and how the coextrusion of LDPE in encapsulation dies improves the HDPE process. The undesirable neck-in and draw resonance phenomena frequently occurring in the extrusion of HDPE are shown due to its low-melt-strength property, and consequently can be alleviated using high-melt-strength materials in the encapsulating dies.
Performance Analysis of a Variable Barrier Energy Transfer Screw
Todd A. Hogan, Mark A. Spalding, Eung Kyu Kim, Robert A. Barr, Jeff A. Myers, May 2004
High plastication rates and high quality extrudates are often difficult to produce using single-screw extruders, especially at low discharge temperatures. A new screw called a variable barrier energy transfer (VBET) screw was recently developed to plasticate at high rates, low discharge temperatures, and with high melt qualities. The fundamental operation of the screw along with performance aspects will be presented. A comparison is made between the melting, pumping, and mixing characteristics of an Energy Transfer (ET) screw and VBET screw.
Novel Barrel Heating with Natural Gas
Johannes Wortberg, Thorsten Schroer, May 2004
Normally for direct heating of barrels in plastic processing machines electrical resistance heaters are used. A newly developed heating/cooling system uses natural gas. This paper explains the design and realization of a unit where the exhaust air from a radial burner heats the barrel by convection and radiation. Integrated cooling possibility by a tangential incoming airflow also meets practical requirements. Transforming basic energy is not necessary, which leads to CO2 reduction and lower energy costs for the processors.
On-Line Visualization of PS/PP Melting Mechanisms in a Twin-Screw Extruder
Hongbing Chen, Uttandaraman Sundararaj, Krishnaswamy Nandakumar, Mark D. Wetzel, May 2004
The melting and deformation mechanisms of polystyrene (PS) and polypropylene (PP) blends were investigated through on-line visualization of the co-rotating twin-screw extrusion process. A sliding barrel technique was used to realize the on-line visualization with one glass window in the barrel. The axial temperature and pressure profiles along the screw channel were measured using the same sliding technique. Different melting mechanisms were found for the PP/PS (80:20) blend and PS/PP (80:20) blend.
Engineering Analysis of Devolatilization of Additives in Intermeshing Co-Rotating Twin Screw Extruders
Jongmin Keum, James L. White, May 2004
An experimental study of various operation conditions and screw configurations was made to understand and solve devolatilization problems in intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruders. This includes studying additives (Nonane, Hexanol, p-Xylene) of polyethylene. We describe devolatilization through a model of interfacial area and mass transfer coefficients in an intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruder.
Flow Behavior of Newtonian Fluid through Conveying Elements and Kneading Blocks
Anne Martine de Vries Robbé, David B. Todd, Léon P.B.M. Janssen, May 2004
The flow behavior of a Newtonian fluid through conveying elements and kneading blocks in a co-rotating twin screw extruder was examined by drag and pressure flow experiments. These results are compared with existing computer models. Also the flow behavior of the different kneading blocks and the conveying elements are compared with each other. The results can guide when to decide which mixing elements to use and can help with future computer modeling.
Modeling of Polymer Drop Deformation and Breakup during Melting under Shear Flow Using Volume-Of-Fluid Method
Hongbing Chen, Uttandaraman Sundararaj, Krishnaswamy Nandakumar, May 2004
Polyethylene (PE) or polycarbonate (PC) drop breakup process in PE melt under shear flow was investigated using volume-of-fluid method. Real properties of polymers, and temperature and shear rate dependent viscosity model were incorporated in the modeling. An erosion mechanism was found for both PE and PC drops. Local flow information, such as shear rate, viscosity and shear stress, was obtained from the simulation results. Highest shear stress was observed at the interface, which could explain the erosion breakup mechanism.
New Intermeshing Pin Mixer for Extrusion
Chris Rauwendaal, Rudolf Maurer, Markus Scheuber, May 2004
It is well known that reorientation of interfaces is key to efficient distributive mixing. However, how to achieve reorientation is not well known. This paper describes how interfaces can be reoriented in screw extruders and which method leads to the most effective reorientation. A new mixing device was developed to achieve highly efficient reorientation by utilizing an intermeshing mixing action between the screw and a floating sleeve. Test results indicate that the intermeshing pin mixer can produce excellent mixing quality over a short axial length, as short as one diameter.

This item is only available to members

Click here to log in

If you are not currently a member,
you can click here to fill out a member application.

We're sorry, but your current web site security status does not grant you access to the resource you are attempting to view.

  Welcome Page

How to reference articles from the SPE Library:

Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:

Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

Note: if there are more than three authors you may use the first author's name and et al. EG Brown, H. L. et al.

If you need help with citations, visit www.citationmachine.net