SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
STUDY ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CROSSLINKED EVA FOAMS
Ali Rizvi, Nan Chan, Chul B. Park, May 2011
In this paper, the mechanical properties of crosslinked Ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) foams are discussed. An extensive range of mechanical tests with varied conditions were carried out. SEM results revealed the effect of different processing conditions on the foam morphology. The effect of cell density and the foam expansion ratio were then correlated with the mechanical properties of the foam.
THE EFFECT OF SURFACTANT ON THE FOAMING OF POLYSTYRENE
R.K.M. Chu, Yanting Guo, Siu Ning Sunny Leung, Nanqiao, Chul B. Park, May 2011
This paper presents an experimental study on the foaming of polystyrene in a batch-foaming apparatus under three control factors: surfactant content, temperature, and saturation pressure. A one-way ANOVA test was conducted to identify the significance of each factor on cellular properties of the foam specimens. Results showed that the surfactant content and saturation pressure possessed contributions onto the cell density of foams, whereas the temperature and saturation pressure posed noticeable influence on the expansion ratio of foams.
TRITICALE STARCH BASED BIOPLASTICS
Hingbo Li, Nathalie Legros, Christian Belanger, May 2011
Triticale is being developed and aimed as an industrial crop and biorefinery feedstock for the Canadian manufacturing industry within the CTBI networking. In this paper the potential of triticale starch for the TPS/polymer blend fabrication was explored in terms of the starch morphology, crystallization structure, and the TPS (thermoplastic starch) rheology properties. The possibility of using triticale to make 100% biobased blown film was investigated using a small lab-scale film blown line. Film thickness of 25 um was obtained successfully for the triticale starch based PLA/TPS blends.
RESIDENCE STRESS DISTRIBUTIONS IN TWIN SCREW EXTRUDERS
David Bigio, William Pappas, Harry Brown, Beserat Debebe, William Dunham, May 2011
An experiment has been created to directly relate the stress distribution history (RSD) with the Residence distribution. Stress beads are used to determine the percentage of material that experiences a certain amount of stress at each location on the residence distribution. This experiment directly relates stress data as a function of the residence distribution and will be recorded for a range of specific throughputs. A comparison of a mixing section comprised of narrow versus wide kneading blocks is performed to demonstrate the power of the approach.
PREPARATION OF FLAME-RETARDANT POLYOLEFIN FOAM USING A PHOSPHOROUS COMPOUND
Chung Park, May 2011
Highly expanded polyolefin foam was made flame-retardant with the use of an environmentally friendly phosphorous flame retardant. An aqueous solution of a derivative of carboxylic acid of phenylphosphonic acid was externally applied to already-made partially-open-celled foam to achieve desired flame-retardant foam. An effective flame retardant level as low as 0.1 pars per one hundred parts of resin provided self-extinguishing foam. The compound could also be directly fed in the extrusion process. This finding opens an avenue to achieving a low-cost thermal insulation material from polypropylene.
CONSEQUENCES OF A HALOGEN-FREE COLOR PALETTE
Roger Reinicker, Tad Finnegan, May 2011
Halogens are key components of many of the organic color compounds used in plastics, providing numerous needed benefits, especially heat stability during processing. Yet, despite the ubiquitous presence of halogens in nature, there have been requests for creating a palette of colors that are halogen-free. This paper will examine color space, looking at the halogen containing colorants and possible suitable alternates. It will attempt to characterize the problems and tradeoffs involved in creating, from existing chemistries, a new core group of halogen-free organic colors.
INFLUENCE OF CROSSLINKING ON THE FOAMING BEHAVIOR OF ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE (EVA) USING CARBON DIOXIDE AS THE PHYSICAL BLOWING AGENT
Nan Chen, Ali Rizvi, May 2011
This paper investigates the foaming behavior of Ethyl-vinyl acetate (EVA). A foaming chamber was designed to prepare foam samples using carbon dioxide as the physical blowing agent. The amount of crosslinking agent used in preparing the crosslinked EVA was correlated with the foam morphology. It was found that an optimum degree of crosslinking lead to high quality EVA foams with high expansion ratios. Extensional viscosity data were measured to describe the observed phenomena.
NEXT GENERATION LOW EMISSION COLORED POLYACETAL COPOLYMER (POM)
Bruce Mulholland, May 2011
Automotive OEMs have increasingly become more interested in monitoring cabin air quality inside the vehicle. This leads to the need for further understanding and testing of emissions from the various materials including plastic parts. Other industries such as cosmetics packaging or medical are also interested in emissions from materials. This paper looks at emissions testing in general, for POM specifically, effects of colorants and other additives on emissions, and formulations that significantly reduce these emissions from the molded part.
DIELECTRIC BEHAVIOR AND THERMOMECHANICAL PERFORMANCE OF BaTiO3-EPOXY COMPOSITES
Anastasios Patsidis, George Psarras, Kyriaki Kalaitzidou, May 2011
Dielectric, mechanical and thermal properties of BaTiO3 reinforced epoxy composites as a function of the filler size and concentration are studied. The effect of the filler dispersion method is also examined. In addition the properties of the BaTiO3/epoxy composites are compared to the properties of carbon reinforced epoxy nanocomposites. The carbon fillers used are carbon black, vapor grown carbon fibers and exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets. Finally, the synergy among the various fillers is also investigated.
WEATHERABILITY AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF OPAQUE LEXAN* SLX1432 RESIN FOR INJECION MOLDING AND CAPLAYER APPLICATIONS
Paul Sybert, May 2011
Lexan* SLX1432 resin, based on resorcinol phthalates, has excellent weatherability and polycarbonate-like physical properties. The unique weatherability of these resins comes as a result of a photogenerated UV absorber (UVA) on the surface of a part. These resins have excellent colorability, gloss and property retention making them useful in a wide variety of outdoor injection molding and cap-layer applications.
SYSTEMIZED APPROACH TO CAP TOOLING
Alan Hickok, May 2011
Optimized cap design matched with standard tooling will be described along with the benefits of off-the-shelf coring components. Instead of the component being a slave to the part design, it's an improved plastic part design that carries with it benefits over previous part designs and the corresponding core and component.
IN SITU OBSERVATION OF POLYSTYRENE FOAMING PROCESSES WITH CARBON DIOXIDE-NITROGEN GAS BLENDS
Anson Wong, Lun Howe Mark, Mohammad Hasan, Chul B. Park, May 2011
Carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen (N2) are environmental-friendly blowing agents, but they pose various technical challenges to plastic foaming industries in producing high quality foams with uniform cell morphologies. Previous studies demonstrated improved foam morphologies when CO2/N2 blends were used, but the fundamental mechanisms of such foaming processes are not thoroughly understood. This study examines the foaming behavior of polystyrene (PS) blown with CO2/N2 blends by observing their foaming processes in situ.
INFLUENCE OF CROSSLINKING ON THE FOAMING BEHAVIOR OF ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE (EVA) USING CARBON DIOXIDE AS THE PHYSICAL BLOWING AGENT
Nan Chen, Ali Rizvi, Hui Wang, Chul B. Park, May 2011
This paper investigates the foaming behavior of Ethyl-vinyl acetate (EVA). A foaming chamber was designed to prepare foam samples using carbon dioxide as the physical blowing agent. The amount of crosslinking agent used in preparing the crosslinked EVA was correlated with the foam morphology. It was found that an optimum degree of crosslinking lead to high quality EVA foams with high expansion ratios. Extensional viscosity data were measured to describe the observed phenomena.
SECOND GENERATION BIO-FOAMS FOR AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS
Romeo Stanciu, Hamdy Khalil, Jack Dai, Ricardo DeGenova, Tim Abraham, May 2011
The use of seed oils derived polyols in high end polyurethane applications has been limited in the past by the reduced compatibility and reactivity. Flexible foams with up to 25 % substitution of the petroleum-based polyols with renewable component were produced and characterized, based on a new generation of plant oil based polyol. The technology brings significant enhancement in foam elastic properties and improved processing characteristics, allowing for a potentially higher penetration in automotive seating applications.
BIMODAL POLYSTYRENE/PARTICLE FOAM BY EXTRUSION FOAMING
Cailiang Zhang, Bin Zhu, L. James Lee, May 2011
Extrusion foaming using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as the blowing agent is an economically and environmentally benign process. However, it is difficult to control the foam density and maintain the thermal insulation performance. In this study, the extrusion foaming process of bimodal polystyrene foams was investigated by using CO2 as the blowing agent and water as the co-blowing agent. Compared to the extruded foam without water as co-blowing agent, the bimodal foams exhibit better thermal insulation property and compressive performance.
SELF-NUCLEATED CRYSTALLIZATION OF A BRANCHED POLYPROPYLENE
Dhwaihi Alotaibi, Ankit Patel, Horst Winter, May 2011
Long chain branched polypropylene (LCBPP) crystallizes rapidly and with high nucleation density. The origin of this fast crystallization process of is not well understood. It has been attributed to its complicated molecular architecture. In this research, we explore isothermal crystallization of LCBPP through rheological, thermal, and optical measurements. The time resolved mechanical spectroscopy technique was used to predict the liquid-to-solid transition (gel point) of LCBPP.
SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL EPOXY RESIN BASED COATINGS
Jaspreet Singh, Jude Iroh, May 2011
The influence of polymeric modifiers such as polyurea and polymethylhydrosiloxane on the properties of epoxy ester coatings was investigated. The corrosion resistance of the hybrid coatings was measured by direct current polarization method, DCP.The dynamic mechanical property of the coatings was determined by using dynamic mechanical spectroscopy. The electrochemical and thermo-mechanical performance of hybrid coatings was compared with those for the neat epoxy ester coating.
PREDICTION OF DEGRADATION OF POLYMER TUBES USED IN SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER COMPONENTS
Gyanender Singh, SusanMantell, Jane Davidson, May 2011
For polyolefin tubes exposed to chlorinated hot water, lifetime is estimated by a model of the depletion of antioxidant through diffusion and reaction with chlorine ions. A case study for typical tube geometries used in solar hot water applications at 50C is presented. Characteristic time scales demonstrate that the dominant mechanism for antioxidant depletion is the reaction with chlorine ions that diffuse into the polymer tube.
ACOUSTIC STRESS MEASUREMENT IN BIAXIALLY CONSTRAINED MEMBRANES
Andrew Detwiler, Alan Lesser, May 2011
The growth of center cracks in biaxially confined membranes is monitored as a function of solvent evaporation. In a complimentary study, acoustic and membrane inflation techniques, applied to uncracked membranes, are used to calculate the stresses that cause crack propagation. By comparing the stresses induced in uncracked membranes with crack growth in cracked membranes we are able to calculate values of the stress intensity factor in biaxially constrained membranes with application to industrial coatings.
POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES WITH COPPER NANOWIRE AND CARBON NANOTUBES: HYBRID MATERIALS EXHIBITING LOW ELECTRICAL PERCOLATION THRESHOLDS, HIGH ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY, AND HIGH EMI SHIELDING
Genaro Gelves, Joyce Chau, Celine Bellehumeur, Uttandaraman Sundararaj, May 2011
Hybrid nanocomposites of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and copper nanowires in polystyrene were prepared by miscible mixing and precipitation method. Extremely low electrical percolation thresholds in MWNT/PS and CuNW/PS nanocomposites were observed at 0.052 and 0.67 vol. percent, respectively. Electrically conductive polymer nanocomposites exhibiting high Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding effectiveness are reported.


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