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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
RESPONSIVE HYDROGELS PRODUCED VIA ORGANIC SOL-GEL CHEMISTRY FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS
Smruti Patil, Lisa Clarizia, Emmanuelle Reynaud, Daniel Schmidt, May 2011
We report the synthesis of novel polyurea networks produced via organic sol-gel chemistry, through the combination of an aliphatic triisocyanate with amine-functional polyether and poly(ethyleneimine) segments. Network formation is rapid and requires no catalyst. The resultant materials exhibit pH responsive swelling and show compatibility with human cells. As such, these materials have potential utility in cell culture as a means of stabilizing pH and delivering nutrients.
NANOCOMPOSITE MULTILAYER FILMS OF ETHYLENE CO-VINYL ALCOHOL WITH KAOLINFOR HIGH BARRIER FOOD PACKAGING
Jo Ann Ratto, Sarah Schirmer, Danielle Froio, May 2011
Nanocomposite films were investigated to improve oxygen barrier properties for food packaging applications. Ethylene co-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) was used to let-down an EVOH nanocomposite masterbatch to 1, 3 and 5% loadings utilizing kaolin as the nanoparticle. Co-extrusion was used to produce 5-layer blown films consisting of the EVOH/kaolin nanocomposite core layer. Films were characterized before and after retort sterilization for thermal, mechanical, and barrier properties to determine any dependence upon nanoparticle concentration.
BIODEGRADATION OF POLY (HYDROXY BUTANOIC ACID) COPOLYMERS
Xiudong Sun, May 2011
Biodegradable plastics have attracted much attention in the last decade, not only because they can divert waste from landfill, but also because the biodegradable functionality meets the requirement of many applications. Poly (hydroxy butanoic acid) or PHB copolymers is one such class of plastics. This paper will review the biodegradability of these polymers in various environments including soil, fresh water, seawater, compost and anaerobic digesters. Testing methods and variables influencing biodegradation will also be discussed.
BIODEGRADATION OF POLY (HYDROXY BUTANOIC ACID) COPOLYMERS
Xiudong Sun, May 2011
Biodegradable plastics have attracted much attention in the last decade, not only because they can divert waste from landfill, but also because the biodegradable functionality meets the requirement of many applications. Poly (hydroxy butanoic acid) or PHB copolymers is one such class of plastics. This paper will review the biodegradability of these polymers in various environments including soil, fresh water, seawater, compost and anaerobic digesters. Testing methods and variables influencing biodegradation will also be discussed.
EFFECT OF BACKWARD MELT FLOW ON INJECTION-COMPRESSION MOLDED PART THICKNESS DISTRIBUTION
Han-Xiong Huang, Wei-Sheng Guan, May 2011
In this work, the effects of processing factors during injection-compression molding (ICM) on the thickness distribution of the polystyrene (PS) part are experimentally investigated. Moreover, the generalized Hele-Shaw flow simulation is carried out to predict the melt flow within the cavity during ICM, which gives insight into the backward melt flow and assists in interpreting the experimental observations of the part thickness distribution.
EVALUATION OF LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF GLASS-FIBER REINFORCED PLASTICS FOR HOT WATER APPLICATIONBY INJECTION MOLDING
Masahiro Muto, May 2011
The long glass-fiber reinforced polyphenylene sulfide and short glass-fiber and long glass-fiber reinforced syndiotactic polystyrene by injection molding were tested to evaluate the long-term performance at the elevated temperature in water and in air. As a result, the tensile strength of PPS and SPS after 7000 hours at 150 degrees C in hot water decreased due to degradation at the interface between a matrix resin and a glass fiber.
THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON PURGING OF INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE
Wipoo Sriseubsai, May 2011
This research was to study on purging of injection molding machine. The polypropylene was used in this study. The fractional design was used to design the experiments with five main factors and two levels such as processing temperature, injection pressure, screw speed, injection velocity, and suck-back position. Some interactions were shown with the analysis by Minitab. Those factors were effect in purging. The recommend to purge the PP were using high level of screw speed, injection velocity and suck back position while the processing temperature and injection pressure should be in the low level.
STUDY ON THE S/B MULTIBLOCK COPOLYMER SYNTHESIZED BY REACTIVE EXTRUSION----STRUCTURE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE S/B COPOLYMER AND BUBBLE THEORY
Fuzeng Hu, Dafu Wei, Momo Liu, Yong Guan, Shuzhao Li, Anna Zheng, Huining Xiao, May 2011
In this work, styrene/butadiene (S/B) copolymer was synthesized via anionic bulk polymerization using a twin-screw extruder as a reactor and butyl lithium as the initiator. The structure of the copolymer was characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, TEM and DMA. It was found that macromolecule structure of prepared copolymer was composed of a long PS block, several short PS and PB blocks. A bubble theory was proposed to explain this result.
EFFECT OF WALL SLIP ON THE FLOW IN A FLAT DIE FOR SHEET EXTRUSION
Mahesh Gupta, May 2011
Flow in a flat die with coat hanger type of manifold is simulated allowing slip on die walls. Flow in the same die was also simulated by enforcing the no-slip condition on the walls. With slip on the die walls, the pressure drop, shear rate, stress, as well as temperature increase in the die, all were smaller than the corresponding values with no-slip condition on the walls. Due to its high computational efficiency, the software employed in this work can be effectively used to design extrusion dies for fluids exhibiting slip on die walls.
GREEN MANDATES OPENING UP A NEW SALES CHANNEL AND GROWTH POTENTIAL FOR MATERIALS COMPANIES
Susan Ward, May 2011
Audience members will learn the following: › Overview of the six green mandates and the opportunities they create for materials companies › Discuss which technologies are currently winning government contracts and why › Identify where the money is being spent currently and trends for future spending › Review best practices in how materials companies can access to those funds to grow their business
DETERMINING OPTIMUM VENT SIZES FOR INJECTION MOLDS
Suhas Kalkarni, Timothy Curnutt, May 2011
A mold was designed and built to study the optimum size of the vents in injection molds. Results demonstrated that vent sizes were dictated by the part design in the vent area. The higher the local shear rate, the lower is the viscosity of the polymer, limiting the vent depths. The injection phase of the molding cycle is the high shear phase and the pack and hold phases are the low shear phases. Vent depths can therefore vary depending on their location. A method to estimate the dimensions of a vent in a future work is proposed.
STRUCTURE-PROPERTIES RELATIONSHIP IN SEGMENTED POLYURETHANE/SILICA NANOPARTICLE COMPOSITES
Matthew Burke, James Sands, John La Scala, Frederick, Christopher Li, May 2011
Segmented polyurethanes (SPUs) have been synthesized possessing 25, 35 and 45 wt% hard segment. We have added 12 nm silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) during SPU synthesis and after with less than 5wt% loading. Drastic effects on morphology and properties were observed. Covalently attached SiNPs enhanced elongation to break and tensile strength until a critical concentration while blended composites exhibited decreased mechanical robustness. Composite structure and properties were examined.
USING MATHEMATICAL MODELING TO PREDICT SHELF-LIFE
Scott Steele, Mark Rule, May 2011
The use of performance modeling is becoming more and more critical in the packaging industry as lightweighting efforts continue to be at the forefront. The primary driver for reducing the amount of material used in packaging is cost reduction. It is critical to not compromise the shelf life of the product. This paper will explain the theory of permeation as it is applied to food and beverage applications and document how the mathematics have been incorporated into an industry standard software application titled M-Rule Container Performance Models.
RAPID RESTORATION OF RAIL ROAD TIMBER BRIDGESUSING POLYMER COMPOSITES
P.V. Vijay, GangaRao Hota, Ruifeng Liang, Mark Skidmore, May 2011
Damaged piles of eleven timber railroad bridges on South Branch Valley Railroad (SBVR) lines in Moorefield, WV were rapidly rehabilitated and restored with the use of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composites. Specifically, field rehabilitation involved repairing of 57 piles using GFRP composite wraps, phenolic formaldehyde resins, and resin soaked wood sawdust as a filler material in the pile core. Following the restoration of timber piles, Non-Destructive Evaluations (NDE) were carried out to assess wrap bonding and core integrity.
INVESTIGATION OF THE PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATIVE MEAL BAGS
Matthew Burke, Gregory Pigeon, May 2011
This investigation was focused on alternative meal bags for use in military ration packaging, more specifically the Meal Ready-to-Eat (MRETM). Samples were obtained from manufacturers for testing of the barrier and mechanical properties. The newly developed meal bags were compared to existing meal bags to find any significant differences in performance.
A NEW BETA NUCLEANT MASTERBATCH FOR MINERAL FILLED AND UNFILLED POLYPROPYLENE APPLICATIONS
Philip Jacoby, May 2011
We have developed a unique, highly selective beta nucleant masterbatch that produces very high rates of crystallization, with very high Tc values. These attributes allow this masterbatch to be used in polypropylene systems that already contain other additives which nucleate the alpha crystal form of polypropylene, such as talc filled PP. The ability to beta nucleate talc filled PP now opens up the possibility of using beta nucleation to achieve both high stiffness and high impact strength in a mineral filled PP.
THE CHALLENGES OF CHOOSING THE RIGHT POLYMERIC MATERIAL FOR TODAY MEDICAL DEVICES
Len Czuba, May 2011
Selecting the right polymer materials to make a new medical device can be challenging. Besides the physical / functional testing needed, chemical and biological testing is also required. A well designed part made with the right polymeric materials will be able to pass regulatory scrutiny and provide life saving healthcare to users.
THE IMPORTANCE OF DISCRETE DATA ANALYSIS IN ESTABLISHING AND MAINTAINING PRODUCT QAULITY
Dan Weissmann, May 2011
Today electronic vision system can cull out many defective products while still on the production line and preventing them from reaching the customer. However, without quantifiable data no real assessment of the seriousness of the issues, defining causes and formulating remedies can be undertaken. New technologies and instruments have been developed specifically for the blow molding industry to generate and analyze sufficient number of samples to statistically provide such capabilities.
PROPERTIES COMPARISON BETWEEN EXTRUDED PVC/VAc FOAMS, AND PVC FOAMS, FILLED WITH COFFEE HUSK
Diego Dominguez, Jorge Medina, May 2011
Extrusion of rigid polyvinyl chloride/vinyl acetate (PVC/VAc) copolymer has not been discussed in detail in literature. In this study, PVC/VAc was extruded using coffee husk as filler. Moreover, azodicarbonamide was used as chemical blowing agent to make foams. Properties comparison was made against PVC/coffee husk foams. Lower processing temperature of PVC/VAc, in comparison with PVC, leaded to higher specific mechanical properties as consequence of better morphology due to few volatiles released from natural fibers.
IMPROVING THE POROSITY OF POLYPROPYLENE/POLYSULFONE MEMBRANES
Vicki Flaris, May 2011
Compatibilized polypropylene/polysulfone membranes were made using two environmentally-friendly processes. One way was through uniaxially stretching and another through biaxially stretching films. This paper will compare the improvements in mechanical properties obtained by both methods as well as compare interfacial tension measurements. Understanding the chemistry and location of the functional polyolefins is critical to explaining these improvements.


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Society of Plastics Engineers, ISBN: 123-0-1234567-8-9, pp. 000-000.
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