The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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NOVEL NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID MODEL FOR POLYMER MELTS
In this work, novel generalized Newtonian law (in which viscosity is given by the specific function of three principal invariants of the deformation rate tensor and its absolute value) has been proposed and tested. It has been found that the proposed model provides correct behavior in steady shear and uniaxial/planar/equibiaxial extensional viscosities for polymer melts.
EFFECT OF NATURAL FIBER SURFACE TREATMENT ON THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BAGASSE AND NYLON 11 COMPOSITES
In this study, polyamide 11 (PA11) was reinforced with bagasse fiber. These fibers were treated with flexible epoxy for improved thermal resistance. The thermal degradation resistance of the fibers was improved by epoxy treatment although the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated by flexural test and tensile test. The bagasse fibers improve the thermal and mechanical properties of PA11.
MELT AMINATION OF MALEATED POLYPROPYLENE BY REACTIVE EXTRUSION
Maleic anhydride (MA) grafted polypropylenes (MAPP) are reacted with aliphatic diamines in a twin-screw extruder. The polymer feed rate (FR), screw speed (SS), and the molar ratio of MA to diamine (MR) are the three main factors considered in a two-level design of experiments (DOE) for the reactions between two MAPPs and two diamines. The residual MA content in the products is used in order to evaluate the effects of the processing parameters. It is found that feed rate has the most pronounced effect on the reaction conversion.
THE USE AND PROPERTIES OF BIO-BASED/BIODEGRADABLE MATERIALS IN FOOD PACKAGING
Food packaging from bio-based and biodegradable polymeric materials is a relevant topic in today's market with a global emphasis toward sustainability. Physical properties of these natural and synthetic polymers, along with biodegradation rates in the marine environment, have been examined and compared to one another. Major food packaging requirements such as gas barrier, moisture sensitivity, mechanical strength, and service temperature are the focus areas for this research.
CREATING HIGHER VALUE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
Companies view value from intellectual property in two ways: 1. Value Creation through protecting proprietary technology that sustains growth and higher profit margins and 2. Value Extraction through licensing royalties and IP enforcement awards and settlements To achieve value effectively, IP-savvy companies have learned to create business-aligned IP strategies. The IP strategy must be integral to the business strategy to create maximum value. Intellectual Asset Management processes are used to implement the IP strategy.
INVESTIGATING THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EXPANDED POLYPROPYLENE BEAD PRODUCTS
Expanded polypropylene (EPP) bead foam products are prepared using the steam-chest molding method. It was shown that 3.9 bar is the most promising steam pressure to get better mechanical properties. The density and tensile property profile across the molded sample were measured. It was observed that the high pressure and temperature steam softens the beads on the surface causing them to squeeze and compact together. This leads to increase in the density and tensile property at the outer surface of the molded part as compared to the central part.
HOW GREEN POLYMERS FIT IN YOUR BUSINESS AND WHERE THEY MAY NOT
Green polymers are being brought to market in order to capitalize on a perceived demand from environmentally conscious consumers. Plastics industry processors and users need to know, however, just what are the particular characteristics of different green polymers and which specific end use demands they fulfill? Are they broad-based products or a series of niche specialties? This paper will address the relative characteristics of current green polymers from point of view of end use market needs, and how best to meet these needs, in terms of economics, performance, and utility.
MORPHOLOGY AND FAILURE BEHAVIOR OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE-EXFOLIATED GRAPHENE NANOCOMPOSITES
Polyethylene Terephthalate Exfoliated Graphene nanocomposites, of 2%, 5%, 10% and 15% nanoplatelet weight fractions were injection molded. Dispersion studies show that the graphene nanoplatelets were dispersed but not exfoliated in to the PET matrix. An exponential increase in the Young's modulus of the nanocomposites was observed. Break strain decreased with increase in nanoplatelets wt%, because of the voids that evolved during the processing and the interaction between PET and the graphene.
THERMOPLASTIC STARCH BLENDS WITH POLYPROPYLENE
Polypropylene blends with thermoplastic starch (TPS) have demonstrated significant potential in the bioplastics field. The polymers are improved by achieving higher biocontent and lower green house gas emissions. The TPS is finely dispersed by means of a tandem extruder with plasticizer, water, heat, and shear, and then melt blended with the polymer to produce a co-continuous morphology of TPS and polymer. TPS blends produced in this method lead to improved retention of physical properties over conventional methods. The TPS method is presented as well as morphology, GHG emissions, and properties.
THERMOSET NANOCOMPOSITES FROM EPOXIDIZED LINSEED OIL FOR STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS
In this study, a bio-based epoxy thermoset was made from highly functional epoxidized linseed oil (ELO) using a polyethyleneimine (PEI) crosslinking agent. Following optimization of cure conditions and the stoichiometric ratio of ELO to PEI, the compatibility of this system with several commercial montmorillonite and hydrotalcite layered nanofillers was studied. The hydrotalcites were observed to enhance the homogeneity of the ELO-PEI system, whereas the montmorillonites showed settling and produced inhomogeneous materials in all cases.
CONTINUOUS POLYMERIZATION USING A TWIN-SCREW COMPOUNDER
Continuously blending materials in a twin-screw compounder is well understood and practiced. Reacting monomers to form polymers, and grafting polymers has been performed, but is not as wide-spread in industry. The same types of reactions which are most-often performed in a batch process can be produced in a continuous process and provide a number of benefits. We will review the types of chemistries that lend themselves to continuous polymerization, the work we have performed, and the perceived benefits.
PERSONAL CARE & BEAUTY PACKAGING COLOR TRENDS FOR 2012/2013
As we live in interesting times, interesting color trends are a direct reflection of the instabilities, uncertainties and the rapid rate of change in our current world. These new colors for 2012/2013 are almost completely opposite from what we saw last year and reflect the consumer's view as a response. The color trends will be presented as four different seasons and are obtained from an independent source for Americhem who has created and styled color packaging examples and mood boards that capture these trends.
EPOXY POLYMERS TOUGHENED BY SELF-ASSEMBLING BLOCK COPOLYMERS
In this work we will exam the use of diblock copolymers to toughen a ductile epoxy resin. The advantage of the diblock copolymers is that they are lower in molecular weight and thus reduce the viscosity peanalty often observe when using self-assembling triblock copolymers. Preliminary results suggest that such diblock copolymers are very effective toughening agents at low concentrations. Toughening mechanisms will be revealed using both electron and optical microscopy.
A STUDY ON EFFECTS OF VARIOUS PARAMETERS ON COLOURS DURING COMPOUNDING OF PLASTICS
The historical production data of SABIC IP, Cobourg, was used to determine effects on colours of compounded plastics, of using extruders of different configurations, incorporating minute variations in pigment compositions and using different grades of resins. The colours had been measured in terms of CIE L*,a*,b* values using a spectrophotometer. The measured L*,a*,b* values were then analyzed and compared to the target values using statistical methods. The differences in the observed trends are discussed.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF RECYCLED THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITE BRIDGES
Reinforced thermoplastic composite lumber (RTCL) sourced from recycled materials is an emerging technology available for heavily loaded infrastructure applications. RTCL materials offer a sustainable alternative and many advantages over traditional construction materials, like wood and steel. Research, development, and experimental projects over the past 15 years, have culminated in several RTCL high load capacity military installations. RTCL advantages and high load capacity infrastructure applications are reviewed in this work.
EPOXY SYNTACTIC FOAMS FOR USE AS PLUG ASSISTS IN HEAVY GAUGE THERMOFORMING
Traditionally, heavy gauge thermoformers have used plugs/pushers made of wood and felt covered wood to improve material distribution and quality of parts. However, newer materials, especially multilayer structures, can be difficult to form with traditional plug/pusher materials. The performance of epoxy syntactic foams as plug assist materials for heavy gauge thermoforming was evaluated and compared to that of wood.
ONLINE ULTRASONIC FILM CASTING OF LLDPE AND LLDPE/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
One step process for ultrasonic compounding and film casting consisting of an ultrasonic extruder followed by a cast film machine was developed. Cast films of LLDPE and 90/10 LLDPE/Clay 20A nanocomposites were prepared at different draw down ratios and amplitudes using. The die pressure and ultrasonic power consumption were measured. X-ray patterns, thermal, and gas permeability properties of cast films were measured. The mechanical properties of the prepared films in the machine and transverse directions were studied.
RECENT PROCEDURES INTRODUCED TO CHALLENGE PATENT GRANTS AT THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE
Over the past 30 years, Congress has become increasingly aware of the desire by third parties to participate in post grant review of patents. One of the more recent avenues introduced to address the desire of the public to participate in the patent review process was the institution of inter partes reexamination in 1999. While not initially utilized, inter partes reexamination has emerged as an alternative means for third parties to obtain post grant review of an issued patent.
ADVACEMENTS IN MARKING LASERS
Since the turn of the century there have been a number of large advances made in laser technology. To really appreciate the advances, you have to look at the history of lasers. The first laser was produced in 1960. This laser was a ruby laser, which is very similar to the modern day lamp pumped Neodymium YAG (Nd:Yag) laser. It used a ruby crystal optically pumped by flashes of high intensity white light to produce a laser beam. This concept is still used today, 50 years later, in lamp pumped lasers.
ELECTRONICALLY TIMED GEAR PUMPS
The advent of gear pumps in the extrusion process has added control and stability not available before Extrusion Gear Pumps were introduced. While effective in a wide range of processes, there are some areas that have been problematic because of abrasive and/or corrosive fillers, or because of the corrosive nature of the polymer itself. Recently a new type of control system has been applied that allows electronic adjustment of gear tooth position and modulation of the motor drive frequency to eliminate pulsations.
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