The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Designing Nylon 12 Nanocomposites for Catheter Shafts, “ More Clay Is Not Always Better”
Polymer or nanocomposites are a new class of materials having promise of significantly improving properties over traditionally filled polymers.We have recently seen as increase in interest for nanocomposite nylon 12 for use in catheter shafts. The main desire is for increased stiffness. We have found that the amount of clay has a major effect on increasing the stiffness of nylon 12. This study was performed to determine the clay level that gives the best balance of overall properties.
Development and Design of Novel Co-Injection Molded Soy Protein Delivery Devices
Novel bi-layer delivery devices have been designed and produced using an innovative processing technique in the field: two material co-injection molding. The study confirmed the potential of these systems to achieve bimodal drug delivery (fast release/slow release/fast release). Depending on the formulation of the skin/core combination it was possible to tailor systems to deliver active agents at a programmed time and rate.
The Use of Calcium Oxide as a Desiccant in Extrusion Coatings
In moisture-sensitive applications, sachets containing calcium oxide are often placed in packages to protect the product. In some instances, elimination of the use of such sachets can allow for more efficient packaging operations and provide an opportunity for cost reduction. For these reasons, integration of a drying agent into a flexible packaging material is desirable. The use of calcium oxide as an additive in extrusion coatings is the focus of this paper. The effects of blending 2.5% calcium oxide into a low-density polyethylene coextrusion sealant layer are presented.
Ultrasonic Sealing of Flexible Pouches through Contaminated Sealing Surfaces
Sealing technologies like heat sealing, impulse heat sealing, high frequency welding or hot air welding. Review of the basic principles of Ultrasonic welding, it’s advantages and limitations. Explanation how Ultrasonics can assure hermetic seals, even with contaminated surfaces (fluids, solids or fibers between the sealing surfaces). Sealing of complex multi layer composite foils (laminate foils) with Ultrasonics. sealing of heat sensitive products (no change of the product flavor). Sealing of extremely thin foils (tube bag applications, flow wrappers).
Decision Tools for an Enhanced Supply Chain
Supply chain management is quickly becoming an important core competency for many companies. Effective supply chain management doesn’t just involve the procurement process but encompasses any function that can improve internal processes used to satisfy customer orders. An actual business case study will be used to illustrate a successful approach to profitable supply chain management.
Speed and Flexibility: A Value Proposition for a New Competitive Plastics Industry Environment
The American plastics industry is at a crossroad created by increased international competitive pressures as well as industry maturation and consolidation. Coming from this crossroad most likely will be a new set of value propositions aimed at battling not just on component price, but adding value to other parts of OEM’s and other customers’ businesses. One such value proposition integrates speed and flexibility to drive lower overall total cost of acquisition.
Injection Molding Product Design and Development Decision Support Technologies
We face increasing sophistication of plastic product development as well as a need to improve competitiveness. To meet these challenges, a large number of computer technologies are being developed, each promising to be the ‘silver bullet’ to success and profitability. This proliferation of new systems includes automation products, optimizations, simulations, monitoring, collaborative tools, etc...This paper explores the injection molded product design and development process and identifies what roll software should play in the process.
Aryl Phosphate Ester FR Additive for Low Smoke Vinyl Applications
Additives which act as flame retardants can contribute significantly to smoke generation because they decrease the efficiency of the fuel source and, as a result, create a sooty combustion. Evaluations of various FRs in vinyl compounds will be discussed with information on a new material which shows significant reduced flammability and low levels of smoke evolution.
New Class of Ultraviolet Light Absorbers
DNA bases are found to be effective ultraviolet light absorbers in HDPE and in PVC.
Controlled Rheology Polyolefins- New Concepts in Stabilization
This paper deals with controlled rheology (vis-cracked) polyolefins and new concepts in stabilization to reduce peroxide consumption and retain color and other performance criteria. Recently, non-phenolic stabilizer systems have been introduced for improved gas fade resistance but increased peroxide consumption drove up systems cost. Therefore, new concepts must balance total requirements for rheology control and stabilization.
Enhanced Properties of Polypropylene Using Glass Fiber Masterbatches
Our research has shown a unique approach to achieving similar physical properties to directly compounded polypropylene-glass fiber composites, using masterbatches with up to 60 percent by weight of chemically coupled glass fibers. The masterbatch compounds were diluted directly with virgin PP in an injection molding process, and are shown to provide nearly equivalent properties to the directly compounded composites.
Free Radical Grafting of Nadic Anhydride onto Polyalkylene Terephthalates
There has been little research on polyalkylene terephthalate modification by graft copolymerization with vinyl monomers. There is no reported information on graft polymerization in molten state. In this study, nadic anhydride was grafted onto polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) and polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) using a free radical initiator in an internal mixer. The influence of monomer and initiator concentrations on the degree of grafting was investigated. The degradation of these polymers during grafting reaction was investigated and characterized by complex viscosity.
Influence of Additive Blend Type and Preparation on Blend Performance
Conventional powder additive addition to high-density polyethylene was compared to the use of melt formulated (Type B), compacted pellet (Type C) and ultra-high concentration masterbatch (Type A) blends. Performance advantages observed for the melt formulated and ultrahigh masterbatch blends in a previous study were confirmed. These advantages are attributed to the depression of peak melting temperatures as measured by DSC and synergistic effects of the additives. Additional work showed that masterbatch and melt blend preparation conditions alter the efficacy of the blend.
The Influence of Fillers on the Biodegradation Kinetics of Polymers
Filled biodegradable polymer samples were prepared and exposed to simulated composting environment and the degradation kinetics was characterized. Particularly, the influence of the fillers on the biodegradation kinetics was investigrated.
A Dynamic Investigation of Esterification in Biodegradable Starch-Based Polymer
Torque, time, and temperature were simply applied to monitor the dynamic esterification of degradable starch-based polymers reacted by different types of acids and catalyst. The formation of C=O double bond and C-O single bond at the region of around 1710cm-1 and 1250cm-1 respectively denotes some successful consequence. SEM was furthermore applied to check the compatibility between modified starch and polymer while TGA for the check of starch before and after modification.
Prediction of Mechanical Properties of Injection Molded Plastics Components – A Systems Approach
Research objective is to establish manufacturing-related design rules and procedures for engineering design of injection molded thermoplastics parts, and to investigate application of novel materials to support development of design for sustainability. Thorough analysis of a large number of mechanical test results has led to a better understanding of factors influencing mechanical performance in tensile and tensile-impact. Among the noteworthy conclusions is the importance of shear rates and temperature gradients in the surface layers during molding.
Structural Plastics- Design for Function
A methodology in producing highly functional designs is discussed. The family of injection molding processes referred to as Structural Plastics offers product designers more design liberty with net-shape moldings with highly functional and value added features. Functionality determines which process and resin should be specified through cost/benefit analysis.
Hedge Strategies for Plastics Part Design
Risk is inherent in the production of any molded part stemming from, for example, changes in production quantities, uncertainty in molding behavior, redefined product specifications, failures in equipment, and abandoned supplier relationships, and other causes. This paper provides several strategies for hedging these risks by considering the cost of the changes to correct different failure modes in the design. The objective is to improve product performance while reducing time to market and risk.
The Role of Material Selection in Product Failure
According to one major industry study, 45% of all field failures involving parts fabricated from plastic materials can be attributed, at least in part, to an incorrect material selection. This paper will highlight several case studies involving failures due to improper material specification and will discuss solutions to these failures.
Failures Due to Compositional Factors
Failures generally are due to problems of design, composition or processing. In this paper, examples are given in which failure was due primarily to composition. In some cases, components of the known formulation were at fault. In others, contaminants introduced externally were the cause of failure. Among the types of failure were odor, color, materials sticking together unintentionally and other problems resulting from transfer of formulation components to other materials.
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