The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Speed and Flexibility: A Value Proposition for a New Competitive Plastics Industry Environment
The American plastics industry is at a crossroad created by increased international competitive pressures as well as industry maturation and consolidation. Coming from this crossroad most likely will be a new set of value propositions aimed at battling not just on component price, but adding value to other parts of OEM’s and other customers’ businesses. One such value proposition integrates speed and flexibility to drive lower overall total cost of acquisition.
Injection Molding Product Design and Development Decision Support Technologies
We face increasing sophistication of plastic product development as well as a need to improve competitiveness. To meet these challenges, a large number of computer technologies are being developed, each promising to be the ‘silver bullet’ to success and profitability. This proliferation of new systems includes automation products, optimizations, simulations, monitoring, collaborative tools, etc...This paper explores the injection molded product design and development process and identifies what roll software should play in the process.
Aryl Phosphate Ester FR Additive for Low Smoke Vinyl Applications
Additives which act as flame retardants can contribute significantly to smoke generation because they decrease the efficiency of the fuel source and, as a result, create a sooty combustion. Evaluations of various FRs in vinyl compounds will be discussed with information on a new material which shows significant reduced flammability and low levels of smoke evolution.
New Class of Ultraviolet Light Absorbers
DNA bases are found to be effective ultraviolet light absorbers in HDPE and in PVC.
Controlled Rheology Polyolefins- New Concepts in Stabilization
This paper deals with controlled rheology (vis-cracked) polyolefins and new concepts in stabilization to reduce peroxide consumption and retain color and other performance criteria. Recently, non-phenolic stabilizer systems have been introduced for improved gas fade resistance but increased peroxide consumption drove up systems cost. Therefore, new concepts must balance total requirements for rheology control and stabilization.
Enhanced Properties of Polypropylene Using Glass Fiber Masterbatches
Our research has shown a unique approach to achieving similar physical properties to directly compounded polypropylene-glass fiber composites, using masterbatches with up to 60 percent by weight of chemically coupled glass fibers. The masterbatch compounds were diluted directly with virgin PP in an injection molding process, and are shown to provide nearly equivalent properties to the directly compounded composites.
Free Radical Grafting of Nadic Anhydride onto Polyalkylene Terephthalates
There has been little research on polyalkylene terephthalate modification by graft copolymerization with vinyl monomers. There is no reported information on graft polymerization in molten state. In this study, nadic anhydride was grafted onto polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) and polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) using a free radical initiator in an internal mixer. The influence of monomer and initiator concentrations on the degree of grafting was investigated. The degradation of these polymers during grafting reaction was investigated and characterized by complex viscosity.
Influence of Additive Blend Type and Preparation on Blend Performance
Conventional powder additive addition to high-density polyethylene was compared to the use of melt formulated (Type B), compacted pellet (Type C) and ultra-high concentration masterbatch (Type A) blends. Performance advantages observed for the melt formulated and ultrahigh masterbatch blends in a previous study were confirmed. These advantages are attributed to the depression of peak melting temperatures as measured by DSC and synergistic effects of the additives. Additional work showed that masterbatch and melt blend preparation conditions alter the efficacy of the blend.
The Influence of Fillers on the Biodegradation Kinetics of Polymers
Filled biodegradable polymer samples were prepared and exposed to simulated composting environment and the degradation kinetics was characterized. Particularly, the influence of the fillers on the biodegradation kinetics was investigrated.
A Dynamic Investigation of Esterification in Biodegradable Starch-Based Polymer
Torque, time, and temperature were simply applied to monitor the dynamic esterification of degradable starch-based polymers reacted by different types of acids and catalyst. The formation of C=O double bond and C-O single bond at the region of around 1710cm-1 and 1250cm-1 respectively denotes some successful consequence. SEM was furthermore applied to check the compatibility between modified starch and polymer while TGA for the check of starch before and after modification.
Prediction of Mechanical Properties of Injection Molded Plastics Components – A Systems Approach
Research objective is to establish manufacturing-related design rules and procedures for engineering design of injection molded thermoplastics parts, and to investigate application of novel materials to support development of design for sustainability. Thorough analysis of a large number of mechanical test results has led to a better understanding of factors influencing mechanical performance in tensile and tensile-impact. Among the noteworthy conclusions is the importance of shear rates and temperature gradients in the surface layers during molding.
Structural Plastics- Design for Function
A methodology in producing highly functional designs is discussed. The family of injection molding processes referred to as Structural Plastics offers product designers more design liberty with net-shape moldings with highly functional and value added features. Functionality determines which process and resin should be specified through cost/benefit analysis.
Hedge Strategies for Plastics Part Design
Risk is inherent in the production of any molded part stemming from, for example, changes in production quantities, uncertainty in molding behavior, redefined product specifications, failures in equipment, and abandoned supplier relationships, and other causes. This paper provides several strategies for hedging these risks by considering the cost of the changes to correct different failure modes in the design. The objective is to improve product performance while reducing time to market and risk.
The Role of Material Selection in Product Failure
According to one major industry study, 45% of all field failures involving parts fabricated from plastic materials can be attributed, at least in part, to an incorrect material selection. This paper will highlight several case studies involving failures due to improper material specification and will discuss solutions to these failures.
Failures Due to Compositional Factors
Failures generally are due to problems of design, composition or processing. In this paper, examples are given in which failure was due primarily to composition. In some cases, components of the known formulation were at fault. In others, contaminants introduced externally were the cause of failure. Among the types of failure were odor, color, materials sticking together unintentionally and other problems resulting from transfer of formulation components to other materials.
Constitutive Model for Non-Linear Behaviour of SMC
In the present paper an approach for modelling SMC material as visco-elastic damageable is presented. Damage theory by Chow and Wang is used in combination with linear visco-elasticity. The model is exemplified through application to uniaxial creep test with material of different damage states. Simultaneous testing and simulations on a modern SMC material is performed with good accuracy, especially at moderate damage levels.
Fracture Analysis of Polypropylene Montmorillonite Nanocomposites
Samples of polypropylene (PP) and PP nanocomposites with 1, 2, 3, and 5 % of Montmorillonite layered silicate (MLS) were tested in three-point bending conditions. Techniques of crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) and J-integral are used to determine the influence of MLS on this feature of the material. Fracture toughness was obtained for each one of the systems mentioned. It was found out that the addition of 5 % MLS reported the highest impact on the properties.
Scratch Behaviors of Moldings
Scratch behaviors in several types of plastics have been investigated in order to develop scratch test method for plastics. The effects of scratch conditions such as scratch speed and normal load on the strength reduction have been discussed on the basis of absorbed energy obtained by carrying out the Charpy impact test after scratching (CAS for short). The effect of scratch has been studied by comparing the absorbed energy of CAS with that of Charpy impact test using both notched specimens and un-notched specimens. It is noted that scratches led to strength reduction in several plastics.
New Thermoplastic Vulcanizates (TPVs) with Improved UV Resistance and Fogging Properties
A new line of thermoplastic vulcanizates (5700B) has been developed by DSM Thermoplastic Elastomers for automotive sealing system applications as well as other applications where UV resistance is critical. This new line of products, consisting of many different grades with hardness ranging from 58 shore A to 40 shore D in black color, shows superior processability, consistent quality, and balanced properties meeting automotive material and performance specifications. In this paper, we will discuss some of the features associated with this new line of products.
Long-Term Aging of New Heat and Oil Resistant Thermoplastic Vulcanizates (TPV)
Thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) afford many advantages in terms of part design, processing, and part cost. Due to temperature and oil resistance limitations, current generation TPVs (e.g., EPDM//polypropylene) and copolyesters have had only limited applicability in underhood automotive applications.A new class of heat- and oil-resistant TPVs has been recently introduced1. A representative polyacrylate / /polyamide TPV from this class will be shown to exhibit superior physical property retention after 2000h air and oil (SF105) exposure to temperatures between 100° and 150°C.
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