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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Ultra High Shear Rates and Their Effect on the Physical and Melt Properties of an Injection Molded Parts
Kyle G. Astor, Scott Robert Cleveland, May 2004
The purpose of this experiment is to determine how ultrahigh shear rates affect the physical and melt properties of polystyrene and polypropylene injection molded parts. Three different runner inserts will be utilized to accomplish this. These three inserts vary the duration and overall shear rate undergone by plastic during the injection process. Data will be collected from tensile and melt flow tests to determine the effects of ultra high shear rates and shear times on the injection molded parts.
Design and Material Issues Affecting Jetting during Injection Molding
Thomas Lacey, Garrett Miller, May 2004
This paper presents a study that evaluates the effect of gate and runner designs on jetting, which develops during injection molding. Additionally, the study looks at the sensitivity of various materials to jetting and the material characteristics that affect their tendency to jet. This data is compiled in a table where the materials are ranked on a scale of jettability that will allow mold designers and CAE analysts to use as a frame of reference. Jettability will be more predictable, and many processing problems will be avoided through this research.
A Proplyene Glycol Alternative for Mold Cooling
Justin M. Page, Mark K. Gutman, May 2004
Cooling of an extrusion blow molded part is important in production of blow-molded parts. The ability to cool faster and more uniformly will create faster cycle times and better overall part quality. This experiment is intended to establish the benefits of using an aqueous solution of organic salt combined with a special corrosion inhibitor instead of propylene glycol. Using a modified mold of a 0,943 liter bottle, temperature readings were taken from the mold. The data collected from the mold was compared to the water and propylene glycol.
Copolymerizations of Water and Oil Soluble Monomers in Lyotropic Liquid Crystals
Kalena D. Stovall, Demetrius T. McCormick, May 2004
Homopolymer and copolymer hydrogels have been synthesized via the photopolymerization of water-soluble and oilsoluble monomers in Pluronic Lyotropic Liquid Crystals. In particular, the polymerization kinetics, and physical properties have been examined. Results show that higher polymerization rates occur in the inverse phases for the water-soluble monomer and in normal phases for the oil-soluble monomer. Polymer nanostructure and copolymer content play a vital role in the compressive modulus of the polymer hydrogels.
The Effect of Dose Rate on the Morphology of Gamma Irradiated Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE)
Christopher Phillip Stephens, May 2004
The wear properties of the UHMWPE are known to improve with increasing gamma irradiation integral dose, but very few studies have been done on the effect of dose rates. This study uses a dose of 75 kGy at 0.25 kGy hr-1 and 2.9 kGy hr-1. The degree of crystallinity and modulus are larger for the low dose rate. Cross-link appears to be associated with low dose rates and chain-scission at high dose rates.
Soak and Dope: Diffusion of Dyes into Polymers via Organic Solvents
John D.M. Shearer, Melinda S. Hanes, Gretchen E. Lokey, May 2004
Polymer swelling and disentanglement created using organic solvents can be used to diffuse fluorescent organic dyes into a polymer matrix. We report on our characterization of this process of submerging polymer plates and films into a bath of solvent with dissolved dye, aptly named: soak and dope. Optical clarity, penetrationlayer thickness, and dye concentration were measured versus soak time. Dye concentrations of up to 9x10-5 mol/cm3 were obtained with penetration-layer thickness ranging between 5 ?m to 800 ?m.
Effects of Fiber Orientation on Dielectric Strength
Daniel Lee Wilson, Christopher Randall Baker, May 2004
This paper explores the role fiber orientation of a reinforced plastic material plays in relation to a material’s dielectric properties. This study focuses on dielectric strength of glass-reinforced Polypropylene. This information will allow designers to realize the relative effect the orientation of fibers has on the dielectric properties of their choice material. The results will also aid in design of more robust electrical components.
Development of Monitoring Software for an Extrusion Process
Linda Caldwell, Steve Thompson, Gerry McNally, May 2004
This paper discusses the development of monitoring software to be used in a data acquisition system for a Killion KTS-100 extruder. Central to this computer-based system is LabVIEW software that is particularly good for data acquisition, analysis and data visualisation. Using LabVIEW, a graphical user interface was designed to facilitate the various operational requirements of the process. From here, the operator can set and observe the states of the many inputs and outputs of the system. The potential for such software to be developed to encompass additional functions will also be described.
Numerical Simulation of Two-Layer Film Coextrusion of Polymer Melts
C. Lin, C.L. Cox, A.A. Ogale, May 2004
Numerical simulation of fluid flow is a faster and efficient way to improve process design. Polyflow, a commercially available simulation package, was used to simulate two-layer film coextrusion of polymer melts through a slit die. Simulation results for isothermal and non-isothermal flow of generalized Newtonian fluids are discussed, especially the interface predictions, extrudate shapes, and temperature profiles.
Quo Vadis Injection Molding?
Igor Catic, Gordana Baric, Maja Rujnic-Sokele, May 2004
At the moment there exist more than 100 procedures for making products from plastics, rubbers, ceramics, metals, or from the combinations of these matters or materials which can be denoted as injection molding (die casting). Where is going the development of this most important cyclic procedure of making parts with defined three-dimensions? The answer to this question is based on the analysis of the functions of this procedure and systematization of injection molding by different criteria as well as the fractal history of general technology and is, only by innovative means.
Effects of Molding Conditions on the Quality of Electroplateable PC/ABS Parts
Pranav M. Bhatt, Carol M.F. Barry, May 2004
The effects of injection molding conditions on the quality of electroplated parts were examined for a plateable polycarbonate/poly (acrylonitrile-butadienestyrene) (PC/ABS) blend. Melt temperature, mold temperature, injection rate, and pack pressures were varied using a design of experiments. The tensile, flexural, and impact properties of the parts were measured using standard test methods. Surface composition was characterized using dye absorption. Electroplating results and mechanical properties were correlated with the migration of polybutadiene within the molded parts.
Layout Design of a Platenless Molding Machine
Nirmal Doshi, David Kazmer, May 2004
A layout design of a platenless injection molding machine is developed. The machine design is motivated by economics, energy efficiency, compactness, ease of use, and environmental friendliness. The elimination of traditional platens allows for significant performance improvements as well as flexibility of new injection system and mold designs. This paper establishes theoretical feasibility, but also indicates that the design is most appropriate for clamp tonnages less than 150 tons due to actuator power and mold deflection limitations.
Validation of Flow Simulations for Micromolded Parts
Neha M. Mehta, Carol M.F. Barry, Donna Tully Bibber, Dennis Tully, May 2004
For a micro molded part, the fill patterns predicted by commercial flow simulations were comparable to short shots from molding trials. The fill patterns were significantly affected by the analysis type, particularly the use of three-dimensional flow and heat transfer. Meshing of the models, specifically in the gate region also influenced filling results. While material type affected the fill pattern, molding conditions, including injection rate and melt temperature only determined whether the part would fill.
Influence of Geometric Shape of Void on Mechanical Properties of Polyurethane Foam
Akihiko Goto, Kazumi Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2004
We attended to the void evaluation of polyurethane foam materials. Several kinds of foam materials with different foam states were employed. Images of cross section were scanned in the computer. Void feature was extracted as white pixels by binary image. The algorithm of extraction for geometric information of void was examined. The shape and the size of void in the foaming direction were clarified, and the correlation with mechanical properties was associated.
Characterization of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite
W.S. Choi, Sung Hun Ryu, Young Wook Chang, May 2004
Intercalation/exfoliation behavior and mechanical properties of ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer/monmorillonite nanocomposite are investigated as a function of vinyl acetate content and compatibilizer. XRD and tensile tester are used to characterize the nanocomposites. The results show that intercalation/exfoliation behavior and mechanical properties of nanocomposite are strongly depending on the vinyl acetate content and compatibilizer.
Influence of Temperature on Surface Tension of Three Liquid Crystal Polymers and Polyethylene Teraphtalate
Lincoln S. Gomes, Nicole R. Demarquette, Renato N. Shimizu, Musa R. Kamal, May 2004
In this work Pressure Volume Temperature (PVT) data for different liquid crystal polymers (LCPs), (Vectra™ A950 and based on 4,4'-dihydroxybiphenyl (PB-n)), and polyethylene teraphtalate (PET), were obtained. The experimental data were used to predict the influence of temperature on the surface tension of the materials studied.The surface tension of PET was shown to decrease linearly with increasing temperature. A clear discontinuity was observed for both ?PB-8 and ?PB-11 near the mesophase to isotropic transition.
Multiple Percolated Co-Continuous Polymer Blends
Jianhong Zhang, Basil D. Favis, May 2004
In this paper, high-density polyethylene, poly (methyl methacrylate) and polystyrene are blended at a certain composition to form a multiple percolated co-continuous morphology. HDPE and PMMA form a co-continuous structure in which the PS phase layers and forms a sheath structure on the surface of the PMMA. This structure forms spontaneously during melt mixing and is predicted from spreading coefficient theory.
Dynamic Modeling for the Deformation and Breakup of Agglomerates in Polymer Melts
Takashi Moribe, James L. White, May 2004
A dynamic predictive model of the breakup process of agglomerates is developed by taking into consideration the hydrodynamic forces and the particle-particle interaction forces which induce flocculation in polymer melts. The breakup process of coagulated particles is numerically investigated by using the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The proposed DEM model we have developed describes the breakup phenomena, such as erosion, rupture, and coalescence, of agglomerates adequately in the various flow fields.
Mechanical Modeling and Surface Characterization of Scratch in Polymers
M. Wong, G.T. Lim, P.R. Rood, A. Moyse, J.N. Reddy, H.J. Sue, May 2004
In this paper, fundamental scratch behavior of polycarbonate (PC) was studied. Scratch tests were performed using a custom-built scratcher with a steel ball tip. Effects of scratch rates and loads on the damage phenomena in PC were investigated. Finite element (FE) modeling was executed to give a better understanding of the scratch deformation on polymers. Correlation between the FE and experimental results will be discussed. Extension of the present research to other polymers, like PMMA and TPO, will be presented.
The Development of High Melt Strength Polypropylene Using the Reactive Extrusion Process
Sang Hyun Park, Sang Min Han, Se Hoon Kim, Jung Soo Kim, May 2004
HMS-PP (High Melt Strength Polypropylene) was produced by using a 50 mm twin-screw extruder. This HMS-PP had a high strainhardening index enough to make stable foam cells and have no gels of cross-linked polypropylene. In this study, we used a mixture of polypropylenes having different MFR (melt flow rate) and a small amount of IPP (iso-propyl peroxydicarbonate) to get a high efficient HMS-PP. In addition to it, this HMS-PP was non-toxic because it was not made with an additional reactive monomer.


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