The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Stabilization of Dispersed Phase to Static Coarsening: Polymer Blend Compatibilization via Solid-State Shear Pulverization
Absolute compatibilization of immiscible polymer blends via a novel, continuous process, solid-state shear pulverization, and without addition of compatibilizing agents is quantitatively shown for the first time by stability of number-average dispersed-phase domain size to longterm annealing. Compatibilization via pulverization is due to in situ chain scission that is supported by molecular weight analysis of PS before and after pulverization, resulting in polymer radicals that can lead to in situ interfacial block copolymer formation.
Influence of Weight Fraction and Shear Rate on Particle Size in Polymer Blends
A relationship between particle size and volume fraction, viscosity ratio, interfacial tension, and shear stress was suggested, which can be used to estimate quantitatively experimental data of particle sizes in concentrated polymer blends, for simple shear flow. The relationship explains the observation that, for coalescence-suppressed polyethylene/polyamide-6 blends with high viscosity ratio (>>1), to which maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene was added as a compatibilizer, the particle sizes decreased with the increase of the dispersed phase weight fraction.
An In-Situ Process for the Production of Electrically Conductive Polyaniline Fibres from a Polymer Blend
The feasibility of using an in-situ deformation process for producing electro-conductive polyaniline (PANI) fibres embedded in the bulk of a filament-like composite and longitudinally oriented along its axial direction is evinced. Blends of a PANI complex and polystyrene-polybutadinepolystyrene (SBS) were capillary extruded into filaments. The extrudates’ microstructure consisted of elongated domains of the PANI complex embedded in the SBS, displaying a considerable degree of uniformity and continuity, and preferentially oriented in the extrusion direction.
Color and Appearance Measurement and Tolerancing Basics
Unlike properties such as impact or hardness that are directly measured in physical units, Color and Appearance are visual phenomenon that involves a physiological response by an observer. Color and Appearance are personal judgments that depend on how and under what conditions the observation is made. So how do we measure Color and Appearance and how can we set meaningful limits for those measurements?This paper reviews the basics of Color and Appearance measurement, Colorimetry, and addresses some of the important considerations in successful use of numerical tolerances.
Crystal Properties of Organic Pigments
Organic and inorganic pigments differ from dyes in that they remain particulate in application. Dyes are substances that are soluble or go into solution during the application process. Dyes’ coloristic properties are almost completely a function of their chemistry, but the properties of pigments greatly depend upon the physical characteristics of their particles. In the discussions below, the relationship of pigments' physical characteristics, especially organic pigments, to their application properties will be examined.
Verification of Color Difference Equations – Part II
It is the goal of instrumental color measurement to correlate with our visual assessment 100% of the time. Much work has been performed over the years evaluating how well various color difference equations meet this objective. In this new study, seventy-six colors were evaluated using CIELab, CMC, and the proposed CIE DE2000 equations as they compared to the visual assessment. No equation yielded the desired 100% correlation.
Qualitative Analysis of Optical Film Properties
Optical characterization of films presents several challenges to manufacturers and processors of polymers. Defects in polymer films create both mechanical and aesthetic problems in end-use situations. Grading of films has historically been subjective and time consuming when determining quantity and quality of flaws. This paper intends to discuss how newer transmitted-light technology can be applied to objectively grade and compare the film quality of polyolefin compounds.
Diffusion of Methanol, Ethanol and Toluene in Nylon 12 and Poly(Butyleneterephthalate)
This work investigates the diffusion of methanol, ethanol and toluene in Poly(butyleneterephthalate), (PBT) and Nylon 12 over a range of temperatures from 8°C to 60°C. The results show that substantial solvent uptake was noted for Nylon in methanol and ethanol. Solvent uptake in PBT occurred only at the higher temperatures in toluene. Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis also showed progressive decrease in the glass transition temperature (Tg) and storage modulus (E’) with increase in solvent uptake.
Mechanical Behavior of TPV in Automotive Sealing Systems
TPV’s have become more commonly used in sealing systems as alternative for EPDM thermosetting elastomers. Most automotive seals experience low strain levels and a rather complex stress distribution. Consequently, translating the results of the classical mechanical tests, such as compression set and tensile tests, is not straightforward. In this study, a simplified lip-seal geometry of TPV is evaluated experimentally and numerically using FEA to identify the governing factors in the performance. The results give insight in optimizing the design and in aspects of material modeling.
Post-Mold Plastic Decorating
This paper will provide a look at various ways to post-mold decorate plastic parts including material selection, part design considerations, various manufacturing methods and the environment of the decorating process as well as the environment of the finished part.
Ultrasonic Welding of Copolyester Resins
Ultrasonic welding is routinely used to join thermoplastic parts used in medical devices. This paper examines the effects of physical aging, welding parameters, and joint design on weld strength using an amorphous copolyester. Recommendations for obtaining the optimal ultrasonic weld are presented.
The Effect of Blending Drop Temperature on Properties of Extruded PVC Tubing
The effect of blending drop temperature of a highly plasticized PVC resin was studied from compounding through extrusion and e-beam sterilization to produce medical grade tubing. Material characterization of the dry blend, pellets, and sterilized extruded tubing identified parameters in dry-blending and extrusion, which influenced the non-absorbed or free" plasticizer content and mechanical properties of the extruded tubing."
Nanomolding of Silicone Rubber Parts and Inserts in Thermoplastic
Molding of miniature parts (less than 10 cubic millimeters in volume) from liquid silicone rubber requires specialized molding machines and mold design to minimize flash and assure quality parts. Medical device part examples are used to illustrate sprue, runner, gate and part design concepts for these small parts. Techniques for insert molding LIM into thermoplastic parts to achieve bonding and minimum flash are reviewed.
Designing Nylon 12 Nanocomposites for Catheter Shafts, “ More Clay Is Not Always Better”
Polymer or nanocomposites are a new class of materials having promise of significantly improving properties over traditionally filled polymers.We have recently seen as increase in interest for nanocomposite nylon 12 for use in catheter shafts. The main desire is for increased stiffness. We have found that the amount of clay has a major effect on increasing the stiffness of nylon 12. This study was performed to determine the clay level that gives the best balance of overall properties.
Development and Design of Novel Co-Injection Molded Soy Protein Delivery Devices
Novel bi-layer delivery devices have been designed and produced using an innovative processing technique in the field: two material co-injection molding. The study confirmed the potential of these systems to achieve bimodal drug delivery (fast release/slow release/fast release). Depending on the formulation of the skin/core combination it was possible to tailor systems to deliver active agents at a programmed time and rate.
The Use of Calcium Oxide as a Desiccant in Extrusion Coatings
In moisture-sensitive applications, sachets containing calcium oxide are often placed in packages to protect the product. In some instances, elimination of the use of such sachets can allow for more efficient packaging operations and provide an opportunity for cost reduction. For these reasons, integration of a drying agent into a flexible packaging material is desirable. The use of calcium oxide as an additive in extrusion coatings is the focus of this paper. The effects of blending 2.5% calcium oxide into a low-density polyethylene coextrusion sealant layer are presented.
Ultrasonic Sealing of Flexible Pouches through Contaminated Sealing Surfaces
Sealing technologies like heat sealing, impulse heat sealing, high frequency welding or hot air welding. Review of the basic principles of Ultrasonic welding, it’s advantages and limitations. Explanation how Ultrasonics can assure hermetic seals, even with contaminated surfaces (fluids, solids or fibers between the sealing surfaces). Sealing of complex multi layer composite foils (laminate foils) with Ultrasonics. sealing of heat sensitive products (no change of the product flavor). Sealing of extremely thin foils (tube bag applications, flow wrappers).
Decision Tools for an Enhanced Supply Chain
Supply chain management is quickly becoming an important core competency for many companies. Effective supply chain management doesn’t just involve the procurement process but encompasses any function that can improve internal processes used to satisfy customer orders. An actual business case study will be used to illustrate a successful approach to profitable supply chain management.
Speed and Flexibility: A Value Proposition for a New Competitive Plastics Industry Environment
The American plastics industry is at a crossroad created by increased international competitive pressures as well as industry maturation and consolidation. Coming from this crossroad most likely will be a new set of value propositions aimed at battling not just on component price, but adding value to other parts of OEM’s and other customers’ businesses. One such value proposition integrates speed and flexibility to drive lower overall total cost of acquisition.
Injection Molding Product Design and Development Decision Support Technologies
We face increasing sophistication of plastic product development as well as a need to improve competitiveness. To meet these challenges, a large number of computer technologies are being developed, each promising to be the ‘silver bullet’ to success and profitability. This proliferation of new systems includes automation products, optimizations, simulations, monitoring, collaborative tools, etc...This paper explores the injection molded product design and development process and identifies what roll software should play in the process.
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