SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
The Novel STT™ Process Application with the Polymer Plant of the Future
R.A. Holl, E.A. Gulliver, A.N. McGrevy, N.H. Hall, S.A. Sojka, May 2004
This presentation will describe a unique process system called the Spinning-Tube-in-Tube, or STT™, process, which represents a paradigm shift away from the traditional approach to the processing of materials. The patented STT™ process system is a paradigm leap from volume-based to an area-based processing technology. Although applicability of the new STT™ process will be across many market sectors, this presentation will focus on applications within the polymer plant of the future. Several polymer applications will be discussed.
New Developments in Water-Borne Polymer Processes
F. Joseph Schork, May 2004
This paper will highlight areas of promising research in the field of water-borne polymer products. Water-borne polymer products will be taken to mean polymer systems that are either polymerized in an aqueous medium, or applied from an aqueous medium. The talk will be limited to two-phase systems (emulsions, suspensions, etc.), and so water-soluble polymers will not be discussed.
Transient Heat Transfer Coefficients for the Solidification of Blow Molded Parts
H. Massé, P. Debergue, R. DiRaddo, May 2004
We have developed a simplified experimental set-up to measure the transient heat transfer coefficient between a heated polymer sheet and a controlled temperature aluminum plaque. The effect of using non-uniform heat transfer coefficients on the part cooling and solidification is determined for the prediction of the blow molding of an industrial scale part.
FE-Analysis of the Two-Step Stretch Blow Moulding Process
E.h. Walter Michaeli, Wolfgang Papst, May 2004
The initial temperature distribution in a PET-preform determines the quality of stretch blow molded bottles. A new heating simulation based on the zone method allows to determine the 3D temperature distribution to be used for a subsequent blowing simulation. Thus, the stretch blow molding process can be completely analyzed by a FEA. This can be used e.g. to improve the design of infrared-ovens.
Influence of the Stretch Blow Molding Processing Parameters on PET Bottles Properties
Maja Rujniæ-Sokele, Mladen Šercer, Igor ?ati?, May 2004
The paper deals with the analysis of the most influencing factors in the procedure of manufacturing poly(ethylene-terephtalate) bottles for packaging of table oil, injection stretch blow molding. The influence of individual manufacturing factors on the quality guidelines important in the manufacturing of PET bottles for table oil packaging, final volume, and post-shrinkage have been studied. The most influencing factors have been determined which affect the volume and shrinkage of PET bottles by using the central composite design.
Parison Formation in Blow Molding: Parison Dimension Prediction using Neural Network Model
Han-Xiong Huang, Song Lu, You-Fa Huang, May 2004
The parison dimension distributions during the parison formation in extrusion blow molding were determined by analyzing video images of the parison. Two BP neural network models were developed based on the experimental data. The prediction of the parison diameter and thickness distributions can be made on line at any parison length or any parison drop time within a given range using the models.
Part Cooling in Blow Molding: Finite Element Solution
Han-Xiong Huang, Yu-Zhou Li, You-Fa Huang, May 2004
The part cooling stage of the extrusion blow molding process was simulated based on the ANSYS finite element software. The transient temperature profiles across the part thickness were predicted. The experiment results validated that the predictions are reasonable. Then the temperature dependent quiescent crystallinity development across the thickness was calculated using a Nakamura equation. The influence of the processing parameters, part thickness, and the thermal properties of plastics and mold materials can be analyzed.
The Residual Melt Layer Thickness as New Criterion for Ultrasonic Welding
Edmund Haberstroh, Kai Kuhlmann, May 2004
Even today, setting up the process and finding the optimum parameter set for ultrasonic welding sometimes is a big problem. As the residual melt layer thickness is directly linked to the formation of the joint, a real improvement in setting up the process can be achieved by using it as determining criterion.
Characterization of Ultrasonic Plastic Welding Parameters in Lessening the Need for a Design of Experiment (DOE) Analysis
Héctor Dilán, Ken Holt, Gregorio Vélez, May 2004
DOE is a powerful tool used in various process optimizations. In many cases, time and resources are overextended, making this tool unaffordable or impractical. With experimentation, it has been demonstrated that the time-consuming task of using DOE to determine the contribution of a parameter to a welded product, as well as the development of a model that predicts behavior, can be drastically reduced if the parameter characterizations presented in this paper are utilized.
Laser Marking for Automotive Interiors
Jose Downes, May 2004
Laser marking continues to gain acceptance as a preferred means for decorating parts found in automotive interiors. Beam steered laser technology presents a versatile and robust means for applying any design to a wide variety of materials. This paper will cover the fundamentals of laser technology including an overview of key parameters that a design engineer will find useful in supporting a reliable implementation on the production floor.
Automate or Perish: The Future of Pad Printing
John Kaverman, May 2004
Every day another company loses a pad printing application to a more efficient competitor. Many times a paradigm shift away from a vicious cycle of under-investment is necessary for companies to remain competitive.
Extrusion Simulation and Experimental Validation to Optimize Precision Die Design
Srinivasa R. Vaddiraju, M. Kostic, L. Reifschneider, A. Pla-Dalmau, V. Rykalin, A. Bross, May 2004
A CFD-simulation is performed for an existing die and compared with the actual polymer flow and dimensions of the extrudate. Experimental validation of the simulation is used to improve new die design by integrating flow simulation through the 3-D die geometry and the free-surface flow with swelling after the die. Modified die-land-and-lip profile is optimized using the so-called inverse extrusion" simulation with an objective to improve accuracy of extrudate dimensions."
Effect of Elongational Viscosity on the Flow in a Spiral Die
Y. Sun, M. Gupta, May 2004
Three-dimensional flow of a low-density polyethylene in a spiral die for blown-film extrusion is simulated. Effect of elongational viscosity on the flow in the spiral die is analyzed. Elongational viscosity is found to have significant effect on the velocity distribution at the die exit and on the pressure and temperature distributions in the die.
Automatic Balancing of Profile Extrusion Dies: Experimental Assessment
O.S. Carneiro, J.M. Nóbrega, F.T. Pinho, P.J. Oliveira, May 2004
In this work a previously developed die design code is used to optimise the flow distribution of a profile extrusion, using two alternative strategies. The numerical predictions are compared with experimental data gathered during extrusion experiments, the results of which are used to assess the rheological code and the effectiveness of the optimisation algorithm and design strategies implemented.
Eliminating Surface Melt Fracture using PPA: The Role of PPA Domain Size
Mathurin G. Meillon, Dave Morgan, Semen Kharchenko, Kalman Migler, Steve Oriani, May 2004
The investigation of the elimination of sharkskin using polymer processing aids (PPA) requires the consideration of factors such as: PPA domain size, operational shear rate and matrix/PPA viscosity ratio. In this work, the role of PPA droplet size in the elimination of surface melt fracture was investigated. The parameters monitored were the die entrance pressure, the PPA coating thickness and the extrudate appearance. We found a substantial enhancement in coating thickness and speed upon increasing the droplet size.
Modeling of Viscoelastic Coextrusion Flows in Multi-Manifold Flat Dies
M. Zatloukal, M.T. Martyn, P.D. Coates, J. Vl?ek, May 2004
A recently proposed modification of the viscoelastic Leonov model is employed as a stress calculator in FEM analysis with a full u-v-p-? numerical scheme of the coextrusion flow in multi-manifold flat dies with 30 and 90 degree entrance angles. It is shown that the predicted stresses, interface location and streamlines fields are in a good agreement with the measurements. It is also revealed that the extensional viscosity has to be used in the modeling of the coextrusion flow to confirm experimental data.
Elongational Flow in Multiple Screw Extruders
J.E. Loukus, A.C. Halonen, M. Gupta, May 2004
Flows of a low-density polyethylene in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder and in a twelve-screw ring extruder are compared. Effect of the shear as well as elongational viscosity of the low-density polyethylene is included in the simulation. Even though the velocity and pressure distributions in the two extruders have many similarities, because the intermeshing regions constitute a larger fraction of the ring extruder than that of the twin-screw extruder, the degree of elongation, and hence, the quality of mixing, is found to be better in the ring extruder.
Kinematics Model of Solids Conveying of LDPE
Stephen J. Derezinski, May 2004
The kinematics model of solids conveying shows that the solids advance angle is a single empirical factor of solids flow in lieu of friction factors. Furthermore, solids advance angle can be linearly correlated with pressure for LDPE. The linear functions that approximate the solids angle are used with the kinematics model to calculate solids flow of LDPE. The calculations are compared to data to demonstrate the accuracy of the model.
Entropic Mixing Characterization in a Single Screw Extruder
Kirill Alemaskin, Marco Camesasca, Ica Manas-Zloczower, Miron Kaufman, EungKyu Kim, Mark A. Spalding, Walter A. Trumbull, Robert D. Swain, May 2004
The quality of distributive mixing is evaluated via an entropic measure of color homogeneity. We first illustrate this technique in a numerically built rectangular channel representing the unwounded channel of a single screw extruder. We also apply this method for assessing mixing quality of experimentally obtained samples when mixing a color concentrate in ABS resin in a single screw extruder. We discuss application of this technique in numerical simulations of processing equipment.
Melt Temperature Homogeneity in Single Screw Extrusion: Effect of Material Type and Screw Geometry
E.C. Brown, A.L. Kelly, P.D. Coates, May 2004
Thermocouple meshes have successfully been used to measure melt temperature across the material exiting from a 60mm single screw extruder. Temperature profiles are shown to be dependent on screw geometry, set wall temperatures, throughput and material type. Differences in average temperature profile and transient fluctuations have been determined.

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Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:

Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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