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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Polymer Welding of Powder Injection Molded Ceramics and Metals
H. Potente, J. Schnieders, May 2004

Ceramic or metal-filled plastics are increasingly being used for the production of sintered parts today, with the function of the plastic being to ensure that the compounds can be processed on the standard types of injection molding machines currently in use.In this way, it is also possible to use the plastic matrix to join individual components and produce material composites of mold steel/structural steel, for example, before sending the joined parts to be debound and sintered.

Novel Foam Composite Having Thick Skin and Core-Stiffening Dividers
Hideo Sekiguchi, Naonori Shiina, Akira Kitaichi, Eisuke Oda, Takaaki Kemmotsu, Hiroo Miyairi, May 2004

Using a conventional RM process, we have developed various types of foam composites having a hard skin and a foamed core which is finely separated in divisions by solid walls. One type has characteristics of light weight and good mechanical properties, and another of excellent thermal insulation.This report describes the production method and some properties of novel foam composites.

Rotational Molding of Micropelletized Polypropylene-Based Copolymers
Stanley K. Baczek, Michael E. Starsinic, May 2004

Deficiencies in grinding performance of polypropylene homo- and copolymers have restricted their use for rotationally molded articles. This paper will demonstrate that micropelletization overcomes these deficiencies, allowing these resins to be processed into rotationally molded articles. Four different propylene-based copolymers were molded under varying conditions. Low temperature impact strengths, tensile and flex properties and oxidative induction times were determined. Results will be compared to commercial LLDPE products.

Optimization of a Rotationally Molded Pressure Vessel
Neil Carroll, Mike McElhaney, May 2004

Optimization software is used to optimize the structure of a rotationally molded pressure vessel by suggesting a shape that maximizes strength and minimizes material investment while incorporating the manufacturing constraints. A previous design is utilized as a starting point that will be the basis for comparison of strength, material, and cost.

Rotomoldability of Cyclic Polybutyleneterephthalate
R. Al-Zubi, Yi-Feng Wang, P. Larson, May 2004

This study investigates the rotomoldability of a new and innovative plastics technology called Cyclics thermoplastics. It outlines the general guidelines for successful rotomolding of this material as well as, establish the (as rotomolded) Impact and tensile properties of cyclic Polybutyleneterephthalate (CPBT). This material has several features that make it attractive the rotomolding industry.

Particle Size Distributions in Rotomolded Parts
Blair A. Graham, May 2004

This study quantifies how different sized particles distribute themselves in bi-axially rotationally molded parts. The paper will demonstrate that within normal particle size distributions found in rotational molding, that it is difficult to obtain well-sorted layers in the final molded part. This paper compliments recent papers on powder characteristic in rotational molding.

Filling Pattern of Underfill and Particle Distribution
Yue Huang, David Bigio, Michael Pecht, May 2004

Underfills can improve flip chip reliability. However, the fillers used in some underfills to enhance coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) properties can be dispersed unevenly, causing less than optimal reliability. In this study, underfill dispensing was conducted using various fill patterns. Experimental results show that particle migration is a secondary mechanism, which causes uneven filler distribution. Particle settling mainly occurred during the curing process, rather than during dispensing, and was affected by the surface tension.

Three-Dimensional Simulation of Wire Sweep during Semiconductor-Chip Encapsulation
Sejin Han, Franco S. Costa, Shishir Ray, May 2004

In this paper, numerical methods to analyze the wire sweep during semiconductor-chip encapsulation are presented. The flow simulation necessary for wire-sweep analysis is based on a three-dimensional model. Different methods to calculate the force on the wire from the flow simulation results have been investigated. The calculation methods have been applied to typical semiconductor-chip encapsulation cases. The comparison between numerical and experimental results in terms of wire-sweep values shows reasonable agreement.

Interactions between Reactive Impact Modifiers and Carbon Black in Copolyesters
Douglas McWilliams, May 2004

Conductive fillers are frequently added to thermoplastics such as polyesters to impart electrical conductivity; however, the addition of these fillers can be detrimental to the impact properties of the plastic. Reactive impact modifiers such as ethylene-methyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate copolymers (E/MA/GMA) are effective for toughening polyesters, but they can also interact with carbon black making it ineffective for imparting conductivity. Copolyester formulations exhibiting conductivity and good impact strength are realized by varying the GMA level.

Characterization of Structural Changes in Polypropylene Nanocomposites by Infrared Thermal Wave Imaging
A. Hernandez-Luna, Nandika A. D’Souza, May 2004

Thermal wave imaging (TWI) technique using an infrared thermal camera has been used to follow the mechanical deformation of polypropylene nanocomposites. Images were acquired real-time during fracture toughness testing. TWI proved to be a useful tool to identify the differences in deformation mechanisms as well as to distinguish the plastic contribution in each of the specimens. Calculations of surface energy were done using data obtained from the thermal images.

The Effect of Nanoclay on the Deformation Behavior of Polypropylene and PPGMA Blends Using Online Birefringence Measurement System
Jane Fujiyama, M. Cakmak, May 2004

The influence of organically modified montmorillonite (Mt) on the stress-strain behavior and structural development of polypropylene-grafted-maleic anhydride film was investigated. The presence of nanoparticles causes a decrease in overall birefringence when these films are stretched from partially molten state. On the other hand WAXS analysis indicate ,the orientation in the crystalline regions of PP was found to increase for films stretched to same true strain when nanoparticles are present.

Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Polyamide-6, Polyamide-66 and Their Nanocomposites
N.K. Borse, M.R. Kamal, S. Hasni, May 2004

Isothermal crystallization kinetics of Polyamide-6, Polyamide-66 and their nanocomposites (NC) were studied using differential scanning calorimetry and high-pressure dilatometry. Calorimetry data for all samples follow Avrami’s equation. High pressure dilatometry yields two regions for PA-6 and PA-6NC crystallization: initially for the formation of ?- and ?-forms, and later for only the ?-form. Only one region was observed for PA-66 and PA-66NC under high pressure. Relevant kinetic parameters are discussed.

Low Temperature Impact Resistant Coextruded Polypropylene Composite
Subir K. Dey, Victor Tan, Dale Conti, May 2004

The demand for thermoformable Polypropylene food container is rising. Polypropylene homopolymer does not offer high cold impact properties. The polypropylene copolymers offer better cold impact properties at the reduced crystallinity and hence the rigidity and top use temperature. In this article, an attempt was made to coextrude polypropylene with SIS core to achieve better cold impact strength. Cake-baking trays were thermoformed from these sheets. The wall thickness distributions of the trays were used to compare the thermoformability of these sheets.

Study on Adhesion to Metal Film by Measurement of Energy Release Rate in Skin Region of Injection Molded Substrate
Keiji Higashi, Naoto Ikegawa, Masahiro Sato, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2004

In the MID, which is an injection molded substrate electronic circuitry is formed three-dimensionally on, it is important to achieve high adhesion strength between metal film and a substrate.To study the adhesion by mechanical properties in the skin region of a substrate, a new evaluation method called “micro-cutting test” was proposed. We calculated the energy release rate and showed that it has positive correlation with the peel strength considering fracture phenomena.

Introduction of a Novel Exterior PET-Bottle Plasma Coating System
Ernst Schmachtenberg, Sebastian Göbel, Rainer Dahlmann, May 2004

In the recent decade PET-Bottles became more and more widespread. In order to extend the shelf life of sensitive beverages an improvement of the barrier behavior of the PET is essential. One new option to achieve this aim is the novel plasma polymerization process. With this process the cycle time may be reduced compared to other already established processes and no FDA approval is necessary, since only the exterior of the bottle is coated.

X-Ray Studies of Structural Development during Sequential and Simultaneous Biaxial Stretching of Polylactic Acid Film
Xuesong Ou, Miko Cakmak, May 2004

Cast unoriented Polylactic acid(PLA) films were biaxially stretched in both sequential and simultaneous modes to a series of stretch ratios and were then subsequently annealed to induce higher crystallinity and dimensional stability. Wide angle X-ray scattering analysis of these as stretched and annealed films were carried out to assess the effect of stretching mode on development of crystal structure and orientation during stretching and annealing processes.

Determination of the Deformation of Thermoplastics under Unidirectional Compressive Stress
Ernst Schmachtenberg, Thorsten Krumpholz, May 2004

Today, the usage of plastics extend to fields, where they have to stand high compressive load. It is often a problem to dimension these parts in a technically safe and economically meaningful way. One reason for this is the lack of suitable values. Due to this, a stress-appropriate dimensioning is not possible and in most cases values from tensile tests are used. Therefore, the aim of the current investigations at the IKV is to establish a guideline for the determination of characteristic compression values for plastics.

A Comparison on the Effect of GMS in LDPE and PP Foams
Jin Zhao, Mark B. Standlee, Martin H. Tusim, May 2004

The addition of glycerol monostearate (GMS) to low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) foams will not only affect the blowing agent permeation but also affect the antistatic performance. A comparison study is made between LDPE and PP foam by measuring permeation rate of a blowing agent, surface static potential, surface resistance, and static decay of the foams. A differential effect of GMS in antistatic properties and gas permeation properties in both PE and PP foam has been found and is related to the rate of crystallization.

Fracture Toughness and Impact Resistance of Syntactic Foam
E.M. Wouterson, F.Y.C. Boey, X. Hu, S.-C. Wong, May 2004

In this study we assessed the fracture toughness, KIc, and the impact resistance of syntactic foam reinforced with glass microspheres of different densities and polymer binder as a function of microstructures. The preliminary results showed that both KIc and the linear elastic energy release rate, GIc, increased with increasing volume fraction of glass microspheres and the increase was higher for microspheres possessing a higher density. The latter also demonstrated a higher impact resistance.

Foam Expansion of Styrene-Acrylic Acid Copolymers Using Baking Soda
Chung P. Park, May 2004

Styrene-acrylic acid copolymers were successfully expanded into low-density foam using sodium bicarbonate as the blowing agent. Sodium bicarbonate reacts with the acrylic acid moiety to form sodium acrylate, thereby releasing carbon dioxide and water that act as the blowing agents. The ionic cross-linking resulting from association of sodium acrylate aids in bubble stability. Closed-cell foams having densities below 40 kg/m3 were readily achieved on a conventional extruder with no special cooling zone. Foam sheet was prepared by the technology without using an organic blowing agent.

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