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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
SWELLING OF PLA MELT DUE TO CO2 DISSOLUTION
Syed Mahmood, Chul Park, May 2012
The superior mechanical properties of microcellular foams such as, heat resistance, lightweight and high performance to weigh ratio, are important factors to be considered with respect to the automotive industry and foaming industries. Therefore, an understanding of the thermophysical and rheological properties of polymer/gas mixtures is critically important. This paper focuses on the pure PLA 3001D volume swelling measurement and its comparison with varying talc content. Effect of D content on swelling ratio is also discussed.
INVESTIGATION OF AIR FILTRATION EFFICIENCY FOR NANOFIBER BASED FILTERS IN ULTRAFINE PARTICLE SIZE RANGE
Martin Zatloukal, Wannes Sambaer, Dusan Kimmer, May 2012
In this work, 3D filtration modeling utilizing realistic SEM image based 3D structure model has been proposed and used for different polyurethane nanofiber based filters. For the model validation purposes, two polyurethane nanofiber layers prepared by the electrospinning process were combined to form 2 pairs of nanofiber based filters and their filtration efficiency characteristics were determined experimentally in the ultrafine particle size range (20-400 nm).
PREPARATION AND PROPERTY STUDY OF TOUGHENED AND REINFORCED NYLON WITH NON-HALOGEN FLAME-RETARDANTS
Xin Jang, Bin-yi Chen, Hao-yang Mi, Qiang Fu, Xiang-fang Peng, May 2012
The best basic composition of PA66 composites with better flame retardant properties and mechanical properties was determined by orthogonal test. POE-g-MAH was added to enhance impact strength and silane coupling agent KH-550 as surface modifier of Mg(OH)2 (MH) to modify the flame resistance of the basic composites. TGA, DSC, SEM and mechanical property testing equipments were employed to study the properties of PA66 composites. A best formula of PA66 composites was obtained.
STUDY ON PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF POLYLACTIDE/GRAFTED SILICA NANOCOMPOSITES
Bin-yi Chen, Xin Jing, Zhi-gang Hu, Hai-bin Zhao, Xiang-fang Peng, May 2012
In this article, epoxy resin with silane coupling agent and bisphenol A epoxy resin were used to graft nanosilica. A comparative study of PLA/nanosilica composites prepared by grafted nanosilica was conducted. The properties were characterized by mechanical properties, FTIR, DSC and SEM. It confirmed that the functional groups has been successfully grafted onto nanoparticles, and improve the properties of PLA. Results show that the nanocomposites with bisphenol A epoxy resin obtain the better properties.
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ABS/SPARKLE ALUMINUM COMPOSITES
Jingjing Zhang, Xiaoting Xiao, Haiyan Zhu, May 2012
The Taguchi method was used to study the effect of aluminum content, coupling agent content, screw speed and barrel temperature on the mechanical properties of ABS/sparkle Al composites. Signal to noise ratios for mechanical properties were calculated to obtain the optimum set of processing parameters. It was observed that a lower sparkle Al content, higher coupling agent content, medium screw speed, and medium barrel temperature were desirable for better mechanical properties of ABS/sparkle Al composites.
STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR OF EXPANDED POLYMER COMPOSITES AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES
Katherine M.H. Shipley, K. Jayaraman, K.L. Nichols, May 2012
Stress-­?strain curves under uniaxial tension have been evaluated at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 145 C for glass bead filled polypropylene, glass flake filled polypropylene and unfilled polypropylene. Debonding of the fillers in the elastic regime leads to growing voids in the composites, which affects the yield point and the plastic deformation of the expanded composites. Models were fitted to the elastic and plastic regimes of deformation in the various materials at different temperatures.
AN EASY APPROACH OF MEASURING THE RESIDENCE TIME DISTRIBUTION WITH THE USE OF NIR-SPECTROSCOPY
Andreas Witschnigg, Ramesh Kumar Selvasankar, Stephan Laske, Clemens Holzer an Laske,, May 2012
The residence time distribution of polypropylene was determined directly in-line with the help of near infrared spectroscopy and with the use of an UV-absorber as tracer. Different experiment alignments such as screw speed and mass throughput and their influence on mean residence time and especially residence time distribution have been investigated.
JOURNAL OF PLASTIC FILM AND SHEETING - HOW IT CAME TO BE AND TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW
John R. Wagner, Jr, May 2012
The history and growth of the Journal of Plastic Film and Sheeting which was founded by James P. Harrington in 1984 will be reviewed along with a film technology overview.
DIFFUSION PROPERTIES IN POLYMER MEMBRANES BY FT-IR-ATR
James M. Sloan, May 2012
In order to understand membrane transport and thereby develop suitable membranes for protection and separation, there are a few characteristics of the membrane and the diffusing constituents that must be known. These include the molecular states of the diffusing components, their diffusion coefficients, permeabilities and the membrane selectivity. In general, the fundamental physical property required to design and optimize polymers used as barrier and membranes is the mutual diffusion coefficient.
MEASUREMENT AND MODELING OF PLANAR AND UNIAXIAL EXTENSIONAL VISCOSITIES FOR LDPE POLYMER MELT
Martin Zatlouka, May 2012
In this work, novel patent pending rectangle and circular orifice dies have been used in order to determine planar and uniaxial extensional viscosities for extrusion coating LDPE through entrance pressure drop determination on conventional twin bore capillary rheometr. It has been revealed that the uniaxial extensional viscosity/uniaxial extensional strain hardening is higher in comparison with the planar extensional viscosity and recently proposed non-Newtonian fluid model can described the measured rheological data reasonably well.
PREPERATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PP-PET SEA-ISLANDS TYPE BICOMPONENT AS-SPUN FIBERS BY HIGH-SPEED MELT SPINNING
Joo-Hawn Yoo, Wan-Gyu Hamn, May 2012
In this study, to investigate characteristic fiber deformation behaviors in high-speed melt spinning process of sea-islands type bicomponent fiber, high-speed melt spinning for PP-PET sea-islands type bicomponent fiber was conducted upto 7 km/min. Overall diameter profiles from nozzle to winder for single- and bi-component fibers could be obtained through on-line measurement of diameter. Structure evolution of obtained as-spun fibers was systematically investigated by using 2D WAXD, DSC, birefringence, and tensile test etc.
PULL AND FOAM - INJECTION MOULDING METHOD: FOAMED RIBS FOR STIFFENING PLANE COMPONENTS
Hans-Peter Heim, Mike Tromm, Stefan Jarka, Joachim Schnieders, Stefan Gövert, May 2012
The pull and foam method is a foam injection moulding method which introduces the possibility to partially foam a component. In this way, thin-walled, hardly foamed components with foamed ribs can be made in one processing step, thus also components with graded properties. One the one hand this components possess a high stiffness, one the other hand a high surface quality. The method introduces the advantages of foam injection moulding procedure to new application fields.
A NOVEL METHOD TO PREPARE PET NANOCOMPOSITES BY WATER-ASSISTED MELT COMPOUNDING
Maryam Dini, Pierre J. Carreau, Tahereh Mousavand, Musa R. Kamal, Minh-Tan Ton - That, May 2012
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanocomposites were prepared via melt compounding of PET using a twin screw extruder. Water was fed to the extruder to assist in intercalation/exfoliation. The ratio between the water and PET feed rates was varied and Cloisite Na+, Cloisite 30B and Nanomer I.238E were used. Wide angle x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and rheometry were used to characterize the PET nanocomposites.
DEVELOPMENT OF A RING TENSILE TEST FOR EVALUATING THE CHEMICAL COMPATIBILITY OF PLASTIC PIPES
Michael D. Hayes, May 2012
A test method for evaluating the chemical compatibility of plastic pipe has been developed. It is a simple extension of the tensile creep rupture method to ring samples excised from pipes. Simple mechanics equations are used to determine the load required to match the stress to that of a pressurized pipe. Analysis and results of demonstration experiments are provided. This method has the advantage of simulating the real application more realistically than a displacement-controlled test.
ULTRASONIC MEASUREMENT OF FILLER CONCENTRATION
Charles Fry, Zhigang Sun, May 2012
TE Connectivity conducted a joint effort with the Nation Research Council of Canada to investigate using ultrasonic measurement techniques to determine filler concentrations during the extrusion process. The results of that project are presented here. Ultrasonic attenuation and velocity are sensitive to several extrusion factors such as pressure, extrusion rate, carrier material, and filler concentration. We have demonstrated the ability to detect relative changes from a process baseline. The technique shows promise for more improvements.
COMPARISON OF WHEAT STRAW AND TALC ON POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES
Arathi Mohan Sharma, Leonardo C. Simon, May 2012
The study includes two fillers (wheat straw and talc; from 20 to 40wt %) and two polypropylenes (homopolymer and impact copolymer). The combined effect of the fillers at 30wt % was also evaluated. Mechanical properties and density were measured. The flexural modulus increased with filler level. In case of polypropylene copolymer, increasing the percentage of filler/fiber decreased the impact strength of the composite. Each filler had a different contribution to the specific flexural modulus.
THE EFFECT OF HOST POLYOLEFIN PROPERTIES AND PROCESSING CONDITIONS ON THE ANTISTATIC PERFORMANCE OF K-IONOMER BLENDS
Xiyun S. Fan, May 2012
K-ionomer antistatic agent is highly effective in polyolefin host resins. In addition to the many unique features it imparts to the end-uses, the K-ionomer shows good compatibility with polyolefins and is easy to process. This paper presents an in-depth discussion on several material and processing factors that need to be properly controlled in order to achieve a favorable blend morphology and further improve the antistat performance.
THE THREE DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL ANALYSIS AND VALIDATION OF COMPRESSION MOLDING PROCESS
Sejiin Han, Xiaoshi Jin, Jin Wang, Franco Costa, Roy Bendickson, May 2012
In this paper, a program for the three-dimensional analysis of compression molding of thermoset composites has been developed. This program can predict the flow pattern as well as fiber orientation and length distribution. The simulation results were compared to the experimental results from an actual case. The results compared include short shots and fiber orientation. The fiber orientation images were obtained using a CT scanning. The comparison shows reasonable agreement between simulation and experiment.
DROP OF PRESSURE OF POLYMER MELTS IN MICROSCOPIC CHANNELS
Thomas Ottnad, Franz Irlinger, Tim Lüth, May 2012
In plastics processing industry does exist the trend of miniaturization. Control of all production parameters, especially control of pressure, plays a decisive role influencing the quality of products produced with injection molding and extrusion. When downscaling the size of products to microproducts control of pressure gets more important and difficult. This work investigates the possibility to apply the Bagley correction in microchannels to determine the drop of pressure in cross-section reductions without using pressure sensors.
THE FIVE FACTORS THAT CONTROL TOOL ROOM PERFORMANCE
Steven Johnson, May 2012
Molding shops and mold builders realize more and more that the continued practice of a re- active “fixes it when it breaks” maintenance strategy is an exercise in futility. Excessive tooling and labor costs, missed production shipments and repeating part quality issues caused by knee jerk solutions and quick, cheap repairs stifle company growth. Changing a long standing re-active maintenance culture involves understanding the “5 factors of focus” that control tool room performance.


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