The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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RHEOLOGICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYMER BLENDS, RADIOPAQUE FILLERS AND COUPLING AGENT
This work studied the effect of blending two different grades of thermoplastic polyurethanes with a constant percentage of radiopaque filler (bismuth subcarbonate) and varying percentages of filler. A titanate binding agent was added to the blend to investigate the impact of improved polymer/filler adhesion. The results showed that varying grades of thermoplastic polyurethane in conjunction with different filler loadings can modulate the physical properties of the compound.
SELF-REINFORCEMENT OF UNIAXIALLY STRETCHED POLYCARBONATE FILM
On manufacturing uniaxially stretched film made of polycarbonate, elevated strengths are obtained. In doing this, the molecular chains are aligned parallel to the stretching direction and thereby elevate the strength. The properties of thermoplastics depend on various process parameters. Orientating the molecules causes the molecular chains to lie close together and the stabilising bonds become active. This change can be detected by using x-ray diffractometer investigations as well as photography.
POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITE FOAM FOR TEXTILE APPLICATIONS
In this study, the foaming of nonwoven fabrics and bulk polymers was investigated. Four different polymers that are commonly used for textiles including were foamed by batch foaming. Among the polymers, TPU seems to be most promising since it possesses the highest cell density. In addition, nanoclay was added to TPU to promote nucleation. Well dispersed nanoclay served as excellent nucleation agents. The cell size decreased to 1?m while the cell density increased to 3*1011cells/cm3.
FOLLOWING CHEMICAL REACTIONS WITH RHEOMETRY AND SIMULTANEOUS FTIR-SPECTROSCOPY
A new combination of a rheometer and a FTIR-spectrometer will be presented. The Rheonaut module allows the coupling of the Thermo Scientific HAAKE MARS rheometer with an FTIR-spectrometer. With this set-up, samples can be characterized rheologically while IR-spectra are being recorded simultaneously. To test this concept, polymerization reactions have been followed with the combination of the HAAKE MARS and the Rheonaut module. Details of the instrument set-up as well as selected results will be presented.
DOSABLE SISAL FIBRES FOR THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES
The aim of this work was to improve the dosability of sisal fibers by coating sisal yarns with a film former prior to cutting, to yield dosable fiber bundles, which can be processed with standard plastics processing equipment and to evaluate the effectiveness of such fibers in a thermoplastic matrix. We found, that it is possible to produce such fiber bundles, which are properly dosable and yielded good properties in polypropylene matrix composites, although there is room for improvement via the selection of a film former, which is more compatible with the matrix.
LATEST UV COATING TRENDS
The UV-cure segment’s growth can be attributed to the coatings’ many competitive advantages, including low energy costs, no pot life issues, reduced environmental impact and a fast cure speed. In fact, one-component (1K) UV-cure coating technology is one of the fastest chemistries currently available. This paper will discuss trends within the two main UV coating platforms – 100 percent solids UV formulation and waterborne UV systems. Both are sustainable chemistries, having ultra-low-volatile organic compound (VOC) levels.
MELT EXTRUSION AND FILM PROPERTIES OF SOY FLOUR/POLYETHYLENE BLENDS FOR PACKAGING APPLICATIONS
Blends of soy flour and linear low density polyethylene were melt-compounded at soy loading levels of 0-40% with and without a compatibilizer. Films were formed from the blends through compression molding and were characterized for thermal, mechanical and barrier properties. Measured shifts in the glass transition temperature of the soy component with and without compatibilizer are reported. Oxygen and water vapor permeation rates of the films are also presented and compared to the neat polyethylene film.
PHA BIODEGRABLE BLOW-MODLED BOTTLES: COMPOUNDING AND PERFORMANCE
PHA biodegradable plastics can be made into biodegradable bottles with reasonable impact and tensile strength. PHBV and P(3HB-4HB) grades of PHA were compounded with processing additives and blow molded into bottles with an extrusion blow molding process. Mirel based P(3HB-4HB) had superior processing properties and demonstrated a wide processing window to two other PHA materials. Mirel based P(3HB-4HB) had superior tensile and impact properties and superior permeation resistance than two other PHA materials from China.
PRACTICAL USE OF CREEP TEST TO OBTAIN THE RHEOLOGICAL DATA AT LOW FREQUENCY RANGE FOR POLYETHYLENE
The creep test was applied to obtain rheological information in low-frequency range that is not reachable by use of the frequency sweep test for polyethylene industrial research and development. The test time scale and the applying stress were considered to make the measurement on a large group of samples. By testing several high molecular weight resins having broad molecular weight distribution or long chain branching, we demonstrated utility of this methodology.
PRACTICAL HEAT TRANSFER IMPLICATIONS OF SLIP BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
The non-Newtonian non-isothermal flow in a capillary die is simulated by means of a 2D axis symmetric model. For the momentum equation, slip as well as no slip conditions are implemented at the wall of the flow geometry, whereas for the energy equation constant wall temperature and constant convective heat flux are specified. The results are analyzed in terms of the resulting temperature profiles arising from the different sets of implemented boundary conditions.
INJECTION MOLDS IN CLEANROOM ENVIRONMENTS
The cleanliness of production facilities is an important quality factor. Higher purity minimizes environmental influences and in this way a better process control can be obtained. Therefore, the use of clean room technology is establishing in industries like automotive more and more. To maintain the controlled contamination throughout the process, injection molds, which are intended for production in clean room environments must be adequate to special needs. Special coatings for lubricant-free manufacturing support these concepts.
EVALUATION OF NON-CROSSLINKED POLYETHYLENE PIPES FOR HEATING
Even for lifeline plumbing, plumbing materials are required to be recyclable. It is needed to develop the new plumbing materials with the performance of long lifetime and recyclable. In this study, PE-RT mixed with several stabilizers was tested to evaluate for long life and the new method for evaluating lifetime. As a result, it was found that HALS was very effective and the hydrodynamic pressure test was useful to evaluate the lifetime.
LOW FREQUENCY SOUND ABSORPTION AND ATTENUATION OF THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERS
This paper presents the results of an experimental study on sound absorption and attenuation of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE). It is shown that the proposed TPE may provide high acoustic transmission loss (TL) within low frequency range. It is suggested here that the high acoustic TL observed in the low frequency range for a solid plate can be as effective as the cellular system, considering the heterogeneous phase framworks and density dispersion in TPE materials.
A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO SCALE-UP OF NEW PRODUCTS FROM DEVELOPMENT TO MANUFACTURING
An overview of common scale-up issues is presented in this paper. This overview includes descriptions of many common scale-up problems as well as examples and suggestions that can help to reduce or eliminate these problems.
TECHNIQUES FOR TROUBLE SHOOTING AND ANALYSIS OF BLOW FILM RELATIVE TO PROPERTY DEVELOPEMT
The physical property development of blown film products are dependent on at least four parameters: first, the properties of the base resin, second, the strain and strain rate in the machine and transverse directions, third, the temperature profile of the process from die to the “freeze line,” and fourth the crystallization rate as a function of position above the die. The last three issues will be discussed in this paper since they are related to troubleshooting and scale up.
THE EFFECT OF WELL EXFOLIATED AND DISPERSED GRAPHENE OXIDE SHEETS ON THE POLYSTYRENE SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE FOAMING
We investigated the nucleation effect of well exfoliated and dispersed GO sheets on polystyrene scCO2 foaming. To get PS/GO nanocomposites with well exfoliated GO sheets, a method based on latex concept were employed. The characterizations based on XRD and TEM demonstrated the exfoliation and well dispersion of GO sheets in polymer matrix. The scCO2 foaming were carried out and the results showed the well exfoliated GO sheets could be a high efficient nucleation agent.
COMPARISON OF WATER-QUENCH VERSUS AIR-QUENCH BLOWN FILM PROCESSES – PART I: FLAT FILM PROPERTIES
This paper investigates the differences in film properties between water-quench versus the traditional air-quench blown film process. The effect of process parameters such as water ring position, water temperature and annealing temperatures on the final film properties were studied. Barrier properties such as water-vapour transmission rate (WVTR) and oxygen transmission rate (OTR) were also compared. Results were correlated to the crystallinity differences observed between the samples using optical microscopy and WAXD.
MELT MIXED PCL - MWCNT NANOCOMPOSITES PREPARED AT DIFFERENT MIXING SPEEDS
Composites of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were produced by melt-mixing in a small scale compounder by varying the screw speed between 25 and 400 rpm at a constant mixing time of two minutes. By that, different levels of dispersions, as assessed by quantitative analysis of area ratio of remaining primary agglomerates from light microscopy, were achieved. With increasing screw speed the state of dispersion increases and levels off starting at about 100 rpm.
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POLYCARBONATE-CARBON NANOTUBE COMPOSITES
Polycarbonate composites were prepared with as-received and surface functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT). The anisotropic thermal conductivity was measured using two separate steady-state techniques for the in-plane and through-plane conductivity. The non-covalent surface treatment of the CNT was seen to improve the thermal conductivity of the composites. In addition, the consistency in the thermal conductivity enhancement due to surface treatment illustrates that the functionalization did not adversely affect the intrinsic thermal conductivity of the CNT.
TIPS FOR OPTIMIZING TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER PERFORMANCE
A collection of 17 techniques is presented for increasing the performance of twin-screw extruders. Processors may be aware of some of these tips, but many are not well known. All are based on solid scientific principles, and have been proven in dozens of extruder installations. Also, all techniques presented are easy to apply, so the benefits can be realized quickly.
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