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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Structure and Properties of New Polyimide Bonded Magnets with Enhanced Benefits
Vladimir E.Yudin, Joshua U. Otaigbe, Valentin M. Svetlichnyi, Tho X. Bui, May 2004
We report a new method for preparing thermally-stable and processable polyimide (PI)-bonded magnets via the chemical transformation of PI prepolymers (based on diacetyl derivatives of diamines and dianhydrides) filled with magnetic Nd-Fe-B alloy particles (75-100 ?m). The prepolymers with amorphous structure, after removing of up to 5% volatile, can be melted at 220±10°C to give a fluid with a very low viscosity of 15±5 Pa?s. This low viscosity of the prepolymer facilitates blending it with the magnetic particles at relatively high volume fractions up to 85 vol. %. The resulting PI-bonded magnets were found to exhibit excellent thermal stability, high storage modulus of 10 GPa at 400°C; and a 10% increase in energy product over that of commercially available bonded magnet materials.
Compatibilization of Poly(Phenylene Ether) and Polyamide-6 Blends by Functionalized Polystyrenes
Hui H. Chin, May 2004
In this paper the compatibilizing effect of a polystyrene which was synthesized via controlled free radical polymerization and endcapped with an epoxy function in the immiscible blends of PPO and PA-6 was investigated. The properties being examined were notched Izod impact and tensile of injection molded parts. Tensile properties during exposure in a xenon arc weatherometer under exterior automotive conditions per SAE J1960 were investigated. The morphology was examined by scanning electron microscope. Results had shown that mechanical properties improved with addition of this functionalized compatibilizer. Blends of PPO/PA-6,6 and PPO/PA-6 were also compared.
A New Insturment to Monitor the True Stress-True Strain-Birefringence Behavior during Multiaxial Deformation and Annealing of PET Films
M. Hassan, M. Cakmak, May 2004
With the recent and very fast developments in the polymer processing techniques, which led to very fast and highly productive production lines, the need for fast measurement and monitoring techniques has grown greatly. Knowing that, the off-line or after-the-fact characterization techniques are unable to track the very fast structural changes in the polymeric materials under processing, the demand for on-line fast measurements is increasing. One of the most useful techniques for characterizing the orientation and crystallization of the macromolecules is the birefringence where, optical properties depend on the molecular structure and strong birefringence can be observed if highly polarizable bonds (multiple bonds) are present and if, during processing, they adopt a preferred orientation. We have developed real-time spectral birefringence measurements systems to monitor true stress-true strain-birefringence behavior during multiaxial deformation and annealing of polymer films. The system is able to track the orientation, crystallization and developed stresses in the films in order to facilitate better understanding for the processing-structure relationships in polymeric materials.
Uniaxial Stretching of PLA Using Fully Automated On-Line Birefringence Coupled with True Stress - True Strain Measurement - Part I: Stretching Rate Effects
Jake H. Mulligan, Miko Cakmak, May 2004
The effect of deformation rate on fundamental deformation-structure relationships in melt cast amorphous Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films was investigated using a stretch birefringence apparatus that allows for direct measurement of true stress, true strain, and birefringence. Crystalline phase behavior was elucidated with WAXD and DSC. Relationships between stress, strain, and birefringence are strongly affected by stretching rate. The effect of stretching rates on the molecular mechanisms of uniaxial deformation in rubbery state PLA films and its affect on the various levels of structure are elucidated in this study.
Uniaxial Extension of PLA Using Fully Automated On-Line Birefringence Coupled with True Stress - True Strain Measurement - Part II: Temperature Effects
Jake H. Mulligan, Miko Cakmak, May 2004
The effect of temperature on the fundamental deformation-structure relationships in amorphous Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) melt cast films was investigated using a stretch birefringence apparatus that allows for direct measurement of true stress, true strain, and birefringence. The crystalline phase behavior was elucidated with WAXD and DSC. The relationships between stress, strain, and birefringence, and structure are strongly affected by the stretching temperature. The effects of temperature on molecular mechanisms of this deformation and structural development are elucidated in this study.
Drop Retraction Methods to Measure Interfacial Tension between Compatibilized Blends
Sachin Velankar, Hua Zhou, Hyun Kyoung Jeon, Christopher W. Macosko, May 2004
Surface-active compatibilizers, commonly used to facilitate blending of immiscible polymers, are known to lower the interfacial tension between the immiscible polymers. Here we seek to measure the equilibrium interfacial tension of compatibilized polymer interfaces using the Imbedded Fiber Retraction Method and the Deformed Drop Retraction Method. These methods, popular for measuring the interfacial tension of uncompatibilized interfaces, are shown to give anomalous results for compatibilized interfaces. Both these methods use the kinetics of interfacial evolution to obtain interfacial tension. We employ computational fluid mechanical simulations to demonstrate that this interfacial evolution causes the local concentration of compatibilizer on the interface to deviate from the equilibrium value, leading to gradients in interfacial tension along the interface. These gradients appear to be the main reason for the errors in interfacial tension measurements noted experimentally.
A Technique for Absolute Biaxial Birefringence Measurements and its Applications
A. Ajji, May 2004
In this study, we discuss the applications of a birefringence technique for on-line or off-line quantitative measurement of biaxial orientation in transparent films, sheets, bottles, etc. Absolute values of biaxial birefringence are measured in two directions using a technique based on an incident multi-wavelength double beam and a photodiode array assembly, combined with in-house developed software. Both machine and transverse direction birefringences (relative to the normal direction) are measured simultaneously. Film and sheet of different thicknesses were tested and birefringence values from 0.0005 to 0.25 were measured. The technique was tested on different materials and under different conditions and its applications, particularly for online monitoring of biaxial orientation processes, are discussed.
Processing of Intractable Polymers Using High-Pressure Carbon Dioxide.
Manuel Garcia-Leiner, Alan J. Lesser, May 2004
A modified extrusion system is used to process a variety of polymers (HDPE, LDPE, FEP, PTFE, s-PS) in the presence of high-pressure CO2. The extruder’s design includes a modified feed section that allows a given mass of polymer to interact with CO2 prior to the extrusion process. This alternative design provides a new and easy route to melt process high melt viscosity polymers of commercial importance such as PTFE, FEP and s-PS. The inherent shear mixing and the presence of CO2 allow for a specific control over the extrudate morphology. Some of the relevant parameters in the process are analyzed and related to the nucleation and plasticization effects brought about by the presence of CO2.
Prediction of the Melting Temperature of Polymers
Musa R. Kamal, Lijun Feng, Tao Huang, May 2004
A generalized equation is introduced to clarify conceptual definitions of copolymer melting temperatures. This treatment incorporates the effects of comonomer volume, crystal length, folding surface free energy and enthalpy of fusion, when comonomers are excluded from the crystallite lattice. Both the Gibbs- Thomson Equation for homopolymers and a modified application to copolymers have also been derived from the proposed equation as two special cases. The equation satisfactorily evaluates the melting temperatures of linear polyethylene homopolymers (including paraffins) and various ?-alkene-ethylene copolymers.
The Effect of Shear-Induced Migration of Conductive Fillers on Conductivity of Injection Molded Articles
Chang-Min Hong, Jongdae Kim, Sadhan C. Jana, May 2004
Conductive filler particles tend to migrate in nonuniform shear fields such as during mold filling from the regions of high shear stress to low shear stress leading to the loss of conductivity in polymeric articles. In this work, the effect of conductive filler migration on surface and volume conductivity was investigated in conductive compounds of polystyrene and polypropylene and carbon black. Injection molded articles with mean particle concentration of ?c and 3.5?c, where ?c is the percolation threshold, showed volume conductivity values of respectively 10-18 and 10-4 S-cm, while compression molded specimens with same composition offered volume conductivity of 10-4 S-cm. Removal of surface layers from injection molded specimens by excimer laser ablation technique restored the conductivity to 10-4 S-cm. The extent of migration was evaluated in terms of the thickness of polymer layers removed from the surface, which depended on the type of polymer used.
UV Degradation of Recycled Photo-Degraded Polymers
I.H. Craig, E. Loyd, W. Stevenson, J.R. White, May 2004
The ultraviolet (UV) degradation of molded bars containing recycled polymer has been studied to determine whether products of photo-degradation act as pro-degradants. Recyclate that had been photo-degraded prior to recycling was mixed with virgin granules to mold new bars. Bars were also prepared from a mixture of virgin polymer with recyclate that had not been photo-degraded.Bars made from blends of virgin and recycled polymer were photo-degraded in the laboratory. For exposures of less than a month, the mechanical properties of both polystyrene and polypropylene were inferior when previously photo-degraded material was included. After extended exposure, the effect of including photo-degraded material diminished but by this time, the properties of the materials were unacceptable.
Polymer/Clay Nanocomposite Foams Prepared by CO2
Changchun Zeng, Yong Yang, Xiangmin Han, L. James Lee, D.L. Tomasko, May 2004
Polymeric foams are widely used in many applications. In this study, we prepared polymer/clay nanocomposite foams using carbon dioxide as the foaming agent. The effect of clay dispersion (intercalation vs. exfoliation), clay concentration and types of polymers on foam morphology were investigated. It was found that clay nanoparticles serve as an efficient nucleation agent. The nucleation efficiency is affected by both clay dispersion and polymer-clay-CO2 interaction. By controlling nanocomposite composition and foaming conditions, PMMA nanocomposite foams with cell size as small as ~0.4 ?m and cell density as high as ~1012 cells/cc can be produced. These foams exhibit good combination of stiffness, toughness, weight saving and dimension stability. In addition, PLGA nanocomposites foams were also prepared and they can be used for tissue engineering scaffolds.
Copolycarbonate of Bis-Phenol A and 4,4'-Dihydroxydiphenyl
James Y.J. Chung, James P. Mason, Melanie Moethrath, Michael Erkelenz, May 2004
In comparison to a bisphenol A polycarbonate, a copolycarbonate of bisphenol A and 4, 4’- dihydroxydiphenyl has a higher birefringence, higher heat-distortion temperature (HDT), better resistance to boiling water and ASTM Reference Fuel C, higher notched Izod impact strength at thick section and low temperatures, and better resistance to embrittlement after heat aging.The high birefringence and HDT as well as the better resistance to boiling water and Reference Fuel C of the copolycarbonate are attributed to the linearity and rigidity of the diphenylene unit in the copolycarbonate chains. In contrast, its outstanding impact strength under a variety of test conditions is attributed to its propensity to shear yield due to the low rotational-energy barriers of the phenylene rings around the axis of “inter-ring” C-C bonds in the diphenylene units.
Mechanochemical Devulcanisation of Unfilled SBR Vulcanisates
Samra S. Sangari, Nhol Kao, Sati N. Bhattacharya, Keerthy Silva, May 2004
The feasibility of the mechanochemical process for devulcanisation of model sulphur-cured unfilled SBR vulcanisates was investigated. The effect of mechanochemical devulcanisation on crosslink density and gel content of vulcanised SBR was measured using swelling methods. The devulcanised SBR samples were revulcanised utilising the same recipe and curing conditions as used for the virgin compound. The cure characteristics and mechanical properties of the devulcanised SBR were compared with those obtained for vulcanised SBR. It was found that the devulcanisation resulted in a significant decrease in the crosslink density and the gel content. The cure characteristics of devulcanised samples differed from those of the vulcanised samples. The stress-strain results for the revulcanised vulcanisates were comparable to that of vulcanised SBR.
Anionic Copolymerization of Lauryl Lactam and Polycaprolactone to Produce Polyesteramide Tri-Block Copolymer
In Kim, James L. White, May 2004
This paper examines the anionic polymerization of lauryl lactam to polyamide12 and copolymerization of lauryl lactam with a diisocyanate end capped polycaprolactone to produce a polyester amide block copolymer. The molecular weights of polyester polyols used in the preparation of diisocyanate end capped polycaprolactone are varied in this study.The products were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrum (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), mechanical properties were measured in a Instron mechanical tester. The influence of the molecular weight of polyol was considered.
Relationship between Structure and Properties of PBT Injection Moldings in the Thickness Direction
Miaki Shibaya, Naoto Ohkubo, Hideaki Ishihara, Katsuhisa Yamashita, Nori Yoshihara, Chisato Nonomura, May 2004
Poly(butylene terephthalate) injection moldings have definite skin-core morphology because of the rapid rate of crystallization. In this study, in order to investigate the relationship between structure and properties of PBT injection moldings in the thickness direction, specimens were sliced. Then, tensile properties and microstructure were studied. It was obvious that necking starts at high strain region with increasing depth from surface, and the decrease of tensile modulus and yield stress near the surface mainly depends not on the orientation but on the crystallinity.
Morphological and Mechanical Evaluation of Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Thermoset Copolymers of Dicyclopentadiene and Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane
Gregory S. Constable, E. Bryan Coughlin, Alan J. Lesser, May 2004
A new class of organic/inorganic hybrid thermoset copolymers have been by prepared by ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) catalyzed with bis(tricyclohexylphosphine)ruthenium dichloride. Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) and norborylene-substituted polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) with isobutyl pendent groups have been copolymerized at 60 °C over a range of POSS concentrations. The X-ray structure of the copolymers shows small aggregates of POSS at higher concentrations with uniform dispersion below 10 wt % POSS. These copolymers exhibit a decrease in Tg from128 °C for PDCPD to 114 °C with the addition of 20 % wt POSS. The stiffness, in tension and compression, is decreases with increasing POSS concentration. Additionally, the incorporation of POSS changes the fracture mechanism from shear banding or ductile to brittle failure and is accompanied by a decrease in the fracture toughness of the copolymers.
Characterization of Polymer Resins Produced by Melt Disentanglement
J.P. Ibar, Sophie Morneau, May 2004
Disentangled polymers (PC, PET) were produced by a patented technology of viscosity reduction by melt disentanglement described elsewhere. The new process generates pellets from original ones supplied by the resin manufacturers, after the melt has passed through a succession of treatment stations designed to reduce their viscosity by a combined effect of shear and extensional force under vibration. In order to understand the characteristic differences between the disentangled resins and the original ones, we submitted the resins to a variety of tests.We show that disentangled resins, produced by melt disentanglement, exhibit novel properties consistent with the fact that they are, indeed, disentangled, ant that the changes depend on their level of disentanglement. In particular, disentangled polymer resins show a higher fluidity, and therefore better processability, when remelted, a lower density at room temperature, a greater gas permeability, and have less Internal Energy, as determined by DSC. For semi-crystalline polymers, both the crystallinity percent and the rate of crystallization are interactively affected by the state of disentanglement of the melt. Benefits will be discussed in the paper and at the conference.
The Effect of Surface Tension and Contact Angle on the Filling Behavior of Flip-Chip Underfill Dispensing Process
Yung-Yuan Wang, Huan-Chuang Tseng, Rong-Yeu Chang, May 2004
In this work, the capillary flow, which is influenced by the surface tension of encapsulant and the contact angle among encapsulant, bumps and substrate of dispensing process for flip chip underfill would be discussed by the theoretical and numerical analysis. The velocity field, melt-front shape and melt-front position are solved using a method base on 3D Collocated Cell-Centered Finite Volume Method. Most of the past studies neglected the dynamic contact angle of encapsulant and the influence of bumps. By applying different dynamic contact angle model parameters, we found that the contact angle changes during flow will influence the flow time greatly. By applying different boundary conditions at bump walls, we found that bump will influence both the flow time and the melt-front. Consequently, the influence of dynamic contact angle and bumps shall not be neglected. By applying suitable model parameters and wall boundary conditions, the flow behavior of Flip-Chip encapsulation is simulated correctly in this work.
Effects of Spinning and Process Conditions on Appearance and Diameter of Electrospun Polyamide-6 Nanofibers
Chidchanok Mit-uppatham, Pitt Supaphol, Manit Nithitanakul, May 2004
In this work, polyamide-6 in formic acid was used to study the effects of various spinning and process conditions on the appearance and diameter of the ultrafine, electrospun fibers obtained. These influencing conditions include concentration of the solutions, molecular weight of polyamide-6, polarity and level of the applied electrostatic field, and nozzle-to-collector distance. The resulting polyamide-6 fibers were characterized for their appearance and diameter, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique. It was found that the fiber diameter was in the range of 60 to 300 nm. Interestingly, flat fibers were observed when negative electrostatic field was applied on polyamide-6 solutions of high viscosity.

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