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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Effects Of Tris(Nonylphenyl) Phostite On Mechanical Property Of Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate-Co-3-Hydroxyhexanoate)
Takashi Kuboki, May 2018

This study investigates the effects of tris(nonylphenyl) phostite (TNPP) on the mechanical property of bacterial polyester, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBH). Two types of PHBH were used: One has 5.6 mol% of 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HH) (PHBH5.6) and the other has 11.1 mol% of 3HH (PHBH11.1). PHBH/TNPP samples were prepared by melt-compounding and injection molding, and TNPP content varying from 0 to 3wt%. Tensile test results suggested that the addition of TNPP slightly decreased Young’s modulus and strength of both PHBH5.6 and PHBH11.1. However, the addition of TNPP influenced strain at failure and fracture energy of the two types of PHBH in a different manner, that is, significant increase of strain at failure and fracture energy for PHBH11.1, in contrast to decrease of strain at failure and fracture energy for PHBH5.6. The results suggest that TNPP can be used as an additive to significantly improve ductility and fracture energy of PHBH with high 3HH content.

High Fracture Resistance, Filler Adhesion And Dispersion In Epoxy Carbon Nanofiber Composites
Muhammad Anwer, May 2018

This study evaluates the morphological, fracture and mechanical characteristics of composites of epoxy with carbon nanofibers (CNFs). These composites were prepared via modified solvent exchange process resulting in significant filler dispersion and matrix filler adhesion as evidenced from the SEM micrographs. Composites with 0.1, .5, and 1t% fillers were evaluated. The crack resistance, KIC of these composites with just 1wt% CNF is more than 2 times that of neat epoxy. The tensile strength and modulus of the epoxy CNF composites show more moderate changes with increase in the CNF content.

Damage Induced Surface Texturing Of Short Fiber PDMS Composite Materials
Reza Rizvi, May 2018

Damage induced surface texturing (DIST) is a newly developed technique based on fiber de-bonding and pullout in composite materials. This method consists of two stages - in the first stage fibers are aligned longitudinally in the compliant material and during the second stage, the composite is cut perpendicular to the direction of aligned fibers to generate the textured surface. Characterization of the produced composite demands thorough investigation of process parameters like matrix and fiber stiffness, fiber geometry, fiber volume percent ratio. In the present study, surface textured composites are produced using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as the compliant material, which has been reinforced with various fibers to manipulate the surface functionality of the cut surface. The results indicate that increasing fiber elastic modulus, fiber diameter and fiber tensile strength will increase de-bonding and pullout length. In contrast, enhancing critical strain energy release rate (G2c), matrix modulus, the friction coefficient between fiber and matrix and fiber/matrix misfit strain can decrease de-bonding and pullout length. Furthermore we show that increased de-bonding and pullout lengths impart the generated surfaces with increased hydrophobicity.

Acoustic And Flame Retardant Light Weight Reinforced Composite
Ruomiao Wang, May 2018

Acoustic performances are commonly required by different industries, such as building and construction, automotive and others. Based on the specific application, the requirements and also test methods can be significantly different from one area to another. Flame retardant performance represents another type of commonly specified requirement as well, and this kind of performance also shows significant dependence on test methods, which are determined by the applications. In this paper, two new grades of light weight reinforced thermoplastic (LWRT) composites are introduced. Acoustic performance tested by ASTM E1050 and ASTM C423-17 methods, and flame retardant (FR) performance tested by ASTM E84 and SAE J369 methods will be discussed. The physical properties and mechanical properties of the new composites will also be compared with the standard LWRT materials.

Potential Of Biocarbon As Reinforcement For Pbt In Automotive Applications
Manjusri Misra, May 2018

Over the last few decades, the move towards more sustainable development and environmental protection has offered many opportunities to develop both biodegradable and biobased composite materials with excellent performance. This new class of materials promises to enable the circular economy concept and sustainable development for our future. In this work, the properties comparison between renewable bioresourced fillers and synthetic conventional fillers were presented and discussed. This works reveals that biocarbon-filled poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT) hold very high potential to replace existing mineral filler-filled PBT composites in automotive applications. With high biobased content, lower density and cost, it is obvious that the biocarbon filler can be used as a substitute for conventional fillers to develop more eco-friendly products.

Synergistic Reinforcing And Toughening High Density Polyethylene By Introducing Dynamic Shear Force Field And Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene
Tong Liu, May 2018

In this work, simultaneously strengthened and toughened high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites were successfully prepared by the self-designed loop oscillating push-pull molding (LOPPM) machine. A series of related characterization methods were used to investigated the properties of resulted samples. The tensile strength, impact strength and Young's modulus of LOPPM samples was dramatic increased compared to the CIM samples due to the existence of aligned shish-kebab, demonstrating a simultaneously reinforced and toughen HDPE-based sample was obtained. SEM and 2D-WAXD results indicated that the incorporation of complex dynamic shear force field and UHMWPE induced the highly crystal orientation and thus regular shish-kebab was observed. According to the relationship of structure and properties, the mechanism of simultaneously strengthened and toughened was discussed and provide a controlled way to manipulate the congregated structure of crystalline polymer via external dynamic force field.

Effects Of Extruder Screw Configuration On Thermal Properties Of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide 6 Composites Throughout The Direct Long-Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastics Process
Takashi Kuboki, May 2018

This study investigates the effects of screw configuration of the second extruder on the thermal properties of glass fiber reinforced polyamide 6 (PA6) composites throughout the direct long-fiber reinforced thermoplastic (D-LFT) process. Two screw configurations, which generate low and high shear stress in composite melts, were applied to the second twin-screw extruder in the D-LFT process. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses were performed on samples taken from different locations along the D-LFT process. TGA results showed that thermal stability of the final products can be improved by decreasing shear stress in composite melts in the second extruder. Non-isothermal DSC crystallization analysis revealed no substantial changes to the material’s degree of crystallinity with the variations in screw configuration. Isothermal DSC crystallization analysis also showed that the screw configurations had little effect on crystallization half-time of the final products.

Carbon Black Selection For Successful Through Transmission Laser Welding And Joining
Avraham Benatar, May 2018

Laser welding to join thermoplastics is used in a wide range of applications because it is a non-contact heating method with short cycle times. and lower cost. For both surface heating and through transmission heating, carbon black is the most frequently used colorant. It was found that carbon black types that have low particle aggregation and distribution were most effective for laser heating. Experiments with laser line beam scanning showed that a slight tilt in the laser head could produce different heating when traveling forward as compared to backward. For dissimilar polymer joining, it was found that surface texturing increased the adhesion joint area and the amount of mechanical interlocking resulting is superior joints.

Robotic Use In Pad Printing
Chris DeMell, May 2018

Factory automation is quickly becoming more common place in today’s manufacturing sector. With labor shortages and rising wages; factories want to automate pad printing to replace workers. Unfortunately, most companies are not doing this because of technical and commercial reasons. Pad printing machines have evolved into complex pieces of equipment many with precision movements with guide rails and servo motors. However, over 95% of pad printing machines are loaded by on operator. An operator will feed the parts into the machine and take them out at the end of the cycle. Pad printing can be more challenging to automate than other processes due to the diversity of products that can be run in one machine and the sensitivity of the inks to the process. Pad printing is behind on the automation of loading parts into a printer. Many companies have developed high level machines with vision systems, rotating fixtures, high speed movements, auto unload, etc… but the system is still loaded by an operator. This operation can many times use more than just the loading operator because there must be someone to bring raw goods to the machine, take finished goods away from the machine, and tend to the inks and other needs of the printing equipment. It takes little imagination to realize that one operator can run a cell like this if the material were automatically loaded and unloaded from the print system. A common answer for this is feeder bowl technology. Many times, feeder bowls are a good solution for this type of situation, however, this is a large investment and it is dedicated to a particular product. Most managers are looking for more diversity in their solutions and want to be able to change things later, this makes a feeder bowl a limited solution. By using robot technology, one can automate the loading of the work cell and have a flexible solution. A robot can be set up with memory and be used to perform many different tasks if the proper job is put into the memory. The capital cost is still there, but the dedicated solution becomes a diverse solution that can utilized for many different projects.• Details to fill in:o Methods of delivery product to a robot Conveyor with camera to tell robot where product is Conveyor with dead stop nest • Both of these systems can be tied to an injection molding machine Tray• Stack up and stack downo Different styles of robots and their specific capabilities 6 axis SCARA Gantryo Technological advancements in pad printing to allow for full automation Automatic ink viscosity Tape clean Camera inspectiono Other reasons why full automation is better than an operator Consistency Productivity Speed

Applications For Low Energy Ebeam Curing Technology In Consumer Product Flexible Packaging Applications
Anthony Carignano, May 2018

Ultraviolet (UV) and low energy electron beam (ebeam) curing technologies are often grouped together. Both technologies are used to initiate the rapid polymerization of the monomers and oligomers contained in photopolymer coatings, inks and adhesives in a process referred to as "radiation curing" or "energy curing."  This presentation will discuss the fundamental differences between UV and ebeam curing technologies and include a discussion regarding the typical differences in formulations and curing equipment configurations commonly used for UV versus ebeam applications.  The presentation will then focus on the evolution of low energy ebeam applications and its “miniaturization” over the past decade. Ebeam piezo inkjet printing along with electrophotographic printing and embellishment applications for indirect food contact filmic packaging will be discussed. This presentation will discuss the variety of visual and tactile affects that can be achieved with ebeam finishing for flexible packaging applications using both 100% solid and waterborne photopolymer chemistry. The presentation will then review inline and near line standalone integration options for ebeam which focus on extending the future application potentialof ebeam into 2D and 3D functionalized surfaces which incorporate printed electronics.

Effects Of Surface Treatment On Hard To Bond Plastics
Matthew Miner, May 2018

Difficult to bond plastics, such as polyolefins and fluoropolymers, are commonly used in various industries for some of the following reasons: the cost of the materials and their inherent chemical and thermal resistance. It can be challenging for manufacturers to find solutions to join these difficult to bond materials together.This paper will provide background information on difficult to bond materials, review techniques for quantifying the surface energy of a plastic, review the latest solutions for surface modification and introduce innovative adhesive solutions to meet the challenges ofbonding these specific substrates.

One-Step Electrochemical Treatment Of Metal Inserts For Tight Polymer-Metal Hybrid Applications
Tobias Kleffel, May 2018

One common method for the manufacturing of electronic systems with a high resilience is the encapsulation of metal inserts using assembly injection molding. Due to the exposure of such parts to different mediums such as oil or saltwater during use, ensuring tightness still is a challenge. This paper deals with the assembly injection molding of tight electronic systems using microstructures on the metal insert introduced by a one-step electrochemical treatment. It can be shown that the electrochemical treatment increases both the tightness and the strength of the bond between metal insert and polymer component. Furthermore, the effects of the electrochemical treatment on the surface and geometry of the metal insert are presented.

Thermoelectric Properties Of Open Cellular Polymer Templates Coated With 1D And 2D Carbon-Based Nanoparticles
Siu Ning (Sunny) Leung, May 2018

In this study, a novel technique was developed to fabricate organic thermoelectric (TE) materials with enhanced TE conversion efficiencies. The synergistic effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) as conducting nanofillers were investigated to enhance the TE properties of polymer nanocomposites. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) foams with open-cellular structures were employed as polymeric templates in combination with MWCNT and GNP as hybrid conducting fillers, to fabricate polymer nanocomposite foams for TE applications. The results of this study proved the template-assisted localization of conducting nanofillers within polymer matrices as an effective strategy to simultaneously tune all TE parameters of polymer nanocomposites and substantially promote their TE efficiency. Experimental results also revealed that utilizing hybrid nanofillers with optimized mixing ratio is beneficial for promoting the TE efficiency of polymer nanocomposite materials because of the synergistic effects of the 1D and 2D structures of the conducting fillers.

Effects Of Processing Variables On Crystallization Phases Of P(Vdf-Trfe-Cfe) Thin Films
hao pan, May 2018

In this work, Poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoro-ethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) terpolymer [P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)] has been prepared as thin films with different processing conditions including coating temperature, annealing temperature and nanoclay loading level. The chain conformation of obtained films was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is shown that lower coating temperature is favorable for obtaining β-phase crystals, whereas higher annealing temperature leads to α-phase. Nanoclay can be added to increase total crystal amount.

New Transparent High Heat Polycarbonate Copolymer Resins For Thermo-Optical Applications
Mark van der Mee, May 2018

SABIC has launched a new LEXANTM CXT resin portfolio designed to offer potential solutions for optical lenses with its unique combination of high heat resistance, water clear transparency and high flow in a broad processing window. The high heat resistance of these resins may allow the use of assembly processes like low temperature soldering of parts onto printed circuit boards, and/or demanding part operation conditions. The high flow capability of LEXAN CXT resins without excessive yellowing may allow significant benefits in productivity and system cost.

High Temperature Dielectric Film
Matthew Niemeyer, May 2018

A review of the key CTQ’s of high heat dielectric films and their relationship to the manufacturing process and electrical performance of a wound film capacitor. Clean energy, global CO2 reduction and the electrification of vehicles have been driving factors for the need for higher performing - higher temperature film products. SABIC has recently commercialized ULTEM UTF120 capacitor grade film, developed to meet the most stringent technical capacitor demands through a wide temperature range (-40 to +175 °C) and exhibits stable properties through temperature and frequency. Film is available for multiple applications requiring high temperature resistance during processing or end use.

Highly Filled Biochar/Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene/Linear Low Density Polyethylene Composites For Electromagnetic Interference Shielding
SUIYI LI, May 2018

Highly filled biochar/ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)/linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) composites were prepared using extrusion and hot-compression methods. Bamboo charcoal (BC) carbonized at 1100 °C exhibited good electrical conductivity and had strong interfacial interactions with the polymer matrix. The addition of BC remarkably improved the electrical conductivity and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composites; the composite with 80 wt.% BC had a conductivity of 107.6 S/m and an ultra-high EMI SE of 46.7 dB at 1500 MHz. The loading of BC did not severely affect the crystal structure of the UHMWPE/ LLDPE blend.

Mechanical Characterization Of Polycarbonate Reinforce With Woven Glass Fiber.

This work presents the physical and mechanical characterization of a polycarbonate reinforced with 4 % woven glass fiber oriented at 0/90° and ± 45° produced by film injection and compression molding process.Fiber alignment, volume fractions, and density were measure; these results showed an improvement of 141% in tensile strength for the specimens reinforced with 0/90º glass fiber, as compared to the specimens without reinforcement. The film injection-compression process reduces fiber misalignment in a range of 1.16° to 2.13°.This result proves the potential for the fiber-woven polycarbonate as a useful material for thermoplastic polymers. The production of composites by film injection-compression molding presents the advantage of being manufactured with faster production cycles than thermosets.

Correlation Of Chain Dynamics To Mechanical Properties Of High Performance Crosslinked Systems​
Shaw Hsu, May 2018

The merits of crosslinked polymers (thermosets such as epoxy, imine and phenolics) include high mechanical performance and dimensional stability especially at elevated temperatures. However, these attractive physical attributes are also the reasons making them extremely difficult to characterize. In our laboratory, we have used a combination of techniques (DSC, infrared and low field NMR) to clarify the underlying structure responsible for the macroscopic properties observed. DSC provides information regarding the onset curing temperature and the extent of curing. Both near and mid-infrared spectroscopy provide information regarding the chemical structures being formed. We found the low field NMR (LFNMR) to be extremely informative regarding segmental mobility of the crosslinked chains. This unconventional usage of NMR has shown to be effective in establishing the correlation between the spin lattice relaxation time and the mechanical properties obtained for the various types of crosslinks employed. We have analyzed two types of crosslinked systems, one based on phenolics and a second one based on well-characterized epoxies with known crosslink density. By fitting the spin lattice relaxation data at different temperatures to theory, the average activation energy for the molecular motion were obtained. Therefore, the increase in the activation energy to achieve mobility and the broadening of relaxation distribution can be determined quantitatively. The results of our study provide the foundation to analyze the crosslinking process and the resultant structure of high performance crosslinked systems.

Chasing The Bottom Of The Energy Landscape: Vapor Deposited Amorphous Fluorocarbons
Gregory McKenna, May 2018

One of the major challenges in the study of the behavior of glass-forming materials, including polymers, is to know the equilibrium behavior below the glass transition temperature Tg. This is due to the need for a fundamental understanding of the equilibrium behavior in order to have a baseline to the non-equilibrium response inherent in the deep glassy state where materials are used[1]. In the present work we describe experiments in which we have used vapor deposition methods to make extremely stable amorphous fluorocarbon polymer films which have fictive temperature reductions relative to the Tg of nearly 60 K[2]. Hence, they are deep into the energy landscape[3]. By making viscoelastic measurements on films of these materials one can establish upper bounds to the equilibrium relaxation times and, consequently test theories of the glass transition and potentially distinguish among different theories. In particular, one can compare the dynamics with those expected by the theories, but now far below Tg. Initial work suggests that, consistent with prior results [4] on an ancient amber material, theories that predict a divergence of time-scales at a finite temperature are not consistent with the present upper bound results. Rather it appears that there is a strong deviation of the response from, e.g., WLF behavior, towards an Arrhenius-like response, albeit with a high activation energy. [1] G.B. McKenna and S.L. Simon, "50th Anniversary Perspective: Challenges in the Dynamics and Kinetics of Glass-Forming Polymers," Macromolecules, 50, 6333-6361 (2017).[2] H. Yoon, Y.P. Koh, S.L. Simon and G.B. McKenna, "An Ultra-Stable Polymeric Glass: Amorphous Fluoropolymer with Extreme Fictive Temperature Reduction by Vacuum Pyrolysis," Macromolecules, 50, 4562-4574 (2017).[3] C.P. Royall, F. Turci, S. Tatsumi, J. Russo and J. Robinson, "The race to the bottom: approaching the ideal glass?" arXiv:171104739v1 [cond-mat.soft] 13 Nov 2017.[4] J. Zhao, S.L. Simon, G. B. McKenna*, "Using 20-million-year-old amber to test the super-Arrhenius behavior of glass-forming systems," Nature Communications, 4, 1783-1 - 1783-6 (2013).

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