SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Multilayer Injection Molding Of Thick-Walled Optics Using Dynamic Mold Tempering And Optimized Layer Thickness Distribution
Malte Röbig, May 2018

Multilayer injection molding is an established process for an economical production of thick-walled optical components with complex geometric designs. Thereby, plastics optics are built up layer by layer in injection molding. The individual layers require significantly shorter cooling times compared to conventional single-layered optics. In addition, the shrinkage of the individual layers is lower. As a consequence the replication accuracy is increased.

Are Your Linear Robots Properly Sized for Your Injection Molding Machine and Project?
Robert Arsenault, May 2018

There are many options and sizes available with today’s linear robots. How do you know if your robot has the proper payload or strokes to handle your work today and in the future? In this presentation, we will review key factors for sizing robots for injection molding machine including:• Tips on choosing properly sized linear robots• How robot designs affect choosing robot size.• Tips and suggestions on how to size robots for larger tonnage injection molding machines

Adhesive Free Bonding Of Pine By Vibrational Welding
Curtis Covelli, May 2018

In this study, the welding of pine wood was studied with a 240Hz vibrational welder traditionally used for welding plastics. The effects of weld pressure, amplitude and weld time were varied to determine their effects on lap shear weld strength. The morphology of the weld zones were also analyzed to gain insight into the mechanics of the welding. Two of the most important welding parameters factors affecting the weld strength were the weld force and melt down (weld time).

New Plastics Joining Technologies
Jason Dornbos, May 2018

Extol is introducing 3 new plastics joining technologies: a new InfraStake, an all-new staking technology, and a new internet of things process control and monitoring technology. This presentation offers an overview of each new technology and how they will benefit plastics manufacturers.

Correlating Ultrasonic Weld Quality With Melt Layer Thickness
Alex Savitski, May 2018

Dukane’s recent research has shown that there is correlation between the thickness of the melt layer resultant from ultrasonic welding process and the strength and consistency of the weld. An assumption can be made that this melt layer thickness can serve as a reliable predictor of weld quality. This study was designed to revisit previous data and confirm the observations related to this correlation between melt layer thickness and weld quality, with the end purpose of confirming the validity of this hypothesis.

Dukane’s Recent Advancements In Plastic Welding Technology
Alex Savitski, May 2018

Some of Dukane's recent advancements in plastic welding are presented in this presentation

Laser Welding Plastics: Rapid Prototyping To Mass Production Using Quasi-Simultaneous And 2D/3D Mask Welding
Andrew Geiger, May 2018

Laser welding is a viable method for rapid prototyping of plastic components. Using quasi-simultaneous welding technology rapid part change and design modification is possible. Final design welding implementation can be optimized using traditional 2D mask welding or the new 3D mask welding concept. Coupled together, the two technologies allow for simple advancement from product infancy to maturation and market release.

Methods Of Polymer Weld Quality Evaluation
Miranda Marcus, May 2018

Evaluation of the quality of polymer welds is essential to the development and production maintenance of a welding process. However, it can be challenging to select an evaluation method due to the wide variety of options. A comparison of some popular weld quality evaluation methods is discussed in this paper, as well as the preparation procedures for each and what can be learned from each method.

Ultrasonic Welding 20 Khz Vs. 15 Khz - Challenges Posed By Highly Crystalline Material
Dave Krysiak, May 2018

A comparative view of the effect of differing ultrasonic weld frequencies with the goal of reducing flash and part deformation.

Understanding Meltdown During Quasi-Simultaneous Laser Transmission Welding
Philip Bates, May 2018

Meltdown or collapse occurs when molten material flows from the interface during polymer welding. This study shows how several quasi-simultaneous (QS) laser transmission welding (LTW) processing parameters affect meltdown in a T-weld geometry using polycarbonate. The total meltdown depends linearly on the total line energy defined as the product of power and the number of passes divided by the scan speed. Increasing the total scan length increases the critical line energy for meltdown to begin.

Accounting For Differences In Modulus And Stress Relaxation Behavior In Plastics Undergoing Chemical Resistance Testing
Mark Yeager, May 2018

Chemical resistance testing via strain fixtures ranks resistance based on the maximum strain at which the plastic can resist an applied strain without loss of mechanical integrity or appearance. While this comparison works well for materials within a family of plastics, such as unfilled polycarbonates, it can be misleading when comparing materials that differ in stiffness and stress relaxation properties. Adjusting for these differences yields a more realistic chemical resistance ranking for most applications.

Elastomeric To Engineered Thermoplastic Polyurethanes
Anthony Walder, May 2018

Medical device engineers found Thermoplastic Polyurethanes (TPU) quickly after their introduction almost 60 years ago. Some of the reasons for TPU acceptance are strength, biocompatibility and that they can be shaped using common melt processing techniques. Since the introduction of the first TPUs, different chemistries have involved under the TPU umbrella. The attributes of the various TPUs will be discussed in relationship to physical and chemical properties and application requirements.

Advantages Of CT Scanning For Industrial Applications
Melissa Butrie, May 2018

After a brief explanation of how CT scanning works, advantages and examples of its applications in manufacturing and industrial environments will be reviewed. Focus will be on the efficiency of CT scanning versus traditional metrology methods for first article inspections. We will also discuss applications that can be used for mold builds and steel modifications, for the identification of assembly issues, and for CAD model creation of legacy parts.

Change Molds For Efficient Customer Development / Prototype
Tom Worcester, May 2018

Improving the capability of the Mold Maker to be able to add R&D and Prototyping to their portfolio of services. Through the use of the "Change Mold" and the options of inserts that are available or possibly manufactured by the MoldMaker. These could include SLM Additive Manufactured with possible Conformal Cooling, Polymer based inserts for minimal volume of parts. This benefit would decrease the overall timeline for "Time to Market" for the end user.

Application Of J-Integral Methods To Tough Pipe Materials
Anja Gosch, May 2018

In this work, the fracture resistance of three different and very tough piping materials was characterized for the development of multi-layered pipes based on biomaterials. For these materials both stiff and brittle, and soft and ductile materials are necessary. While the fracture mechanical characterization of the former can be seen as quite straight forward, the later can prove rather difficult. Therefore, two methods from elastic plastic fracture mechanics were examined, applied and discussed in detail for the use with very tough pipe grade materials.

Quantifying Oxidative Degradation In Polyolefin Pipe By Ir Spectroscopy
Don Duvall, May 2018

Infrared spectroscopy has been used for decades as a means to quantify oxidation of polyolefins. One method used on piping has been determination of a carbonyl index. Another method developed for use on UHMWPE from orthopedic implants is detailed in ASTM F2102. Results of both methods applied to polyethylene pipe will be compared to assess the extent to which results of the two methods can be correlated.

Examining Design Changes Potentially Influencing The Lifetime Of Electrofusion Socket
Jan Poduska, May 2018

This article deals with lifetime calculations of electrofusion socket joint. Lifetime of electrofusion socket is calculated using a combination of linear elastic fracture mechanics lifetime and finite element modelling. The lifetimes are calculated for a basic situation and then influence of possible design changes on the lifetime is discussed.

New High Strength Low Density Glass Bubble Products For Ultra-Lightweight Composites
Stephen Amos, May 2018

3M Company is continuing to develop new high strength to density ratio 3MTM Glass Bubbles for use in thermoplastics and thermosets. Recently launched new products can be applied to Sheet Molding Compound (SMC/BMC), paints and coatings, plastisol, additive manufacturing, extrusion and injection molding.

Advanced Materials For Increasing Output And Reducing Energy
Will Johnson, May 2018

New patented technology to increase throughput in extrusion and injection molding. This technology can be used in any thermoplastic system to increase speed and improve additive distribution, while stabilizing the process reducing scrap from variation.

Use And Utility Of Metal Soaps In Polyolefins
Robert Sherman, May 2018

Metals soaps, such as calcium stearate and zinc stearate, are commonly used as additives in polyethylene and polypropylene. They are most commonly used as antacids but are also used as lubricants, mold releases, tracer elements, and antistatic agents. A general discussion of the types of available metals, soaps, and considerations for choosing them will be given. A general discussion of how metal soaps are made and special properties of certain soaps will also be covered.

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How to reference articles from the SPE Library:

Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:

Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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