SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

The Effect Of Hygrothermal Exposure On The Thermal Conductivity Of Nanocellulose Based Foams
Whitney LaMarche, March 2019

Environmentally friendly insulation and packaging materials, driven by consumers and growing stringent global regulations against plastics, make biobased alternative materials a competitive market. Cellulose-based foams, consisting mainly of cellulose, are a greener replacement option over traditional petroleumbased insulation materials. One of the challenges associated with cellulose-based foams is their susceptibility to moisture, especially at elevated temperatures. Composite foams of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were fabricated using a freeze casting method with a wide range of cooling rates during freezing. The physical properties of the foams, i.e., density, porosity and thermal conductivity were then evaluated before and after hygrothermal exposure at 40 °C with a relative humidity range from 96 to 77%. The results showed that the foams prepared with the highest rate of freezing exhibited the lowest relative density (0.019 g/cm3) and the lowest thermal conductivity (20 mW/mK). In general, the foams’ thermal conductivity increased after hygrothermal exposure. However, the foams with the highest freezing rate exhibited recoverable thermal conductivity behavior after exposure to heat and moisture. The possible mechanism for the differences were also discussed.

The Importance Of Chemical Stabilization In Recycled Material For Corrugated And Conduit Polyolefin Pipes
Ian Query, March 2019

Much attention has been given to stabilization packages for polyolefin pressure pipes over the past couple decades, however corrugated and conduit pipes have generally been ignored with respect to more robust stabilization packages. Certain groups such as the Florida Department of Transportation have set rules establishing oxidative resistance in HDPE corrugated pipes, but few others have followed this example. A discussion of the simplicity and importance of pipe resin stabilization as well as examples from stabilized pipes will be covered.

Why Titanates And Zirconates Are Better Than Silanes
Salvatore Monte, March 2019

Added to the hopper just like a color concentrate, 2 to 3 parts of a phosphato titanate or zirconate in pellet masterbatch form per 1,000 parts of filled or unfilled compound provides a method (Function 1-Coupling) for in-situ interfacial nano-surface modification of most all inorganic and organic materials in a compound independent of the interface’s hydroxyl content and absent the need for water to effect hydrolysis for coupling as with silanes while providing metallocene-like repolymerization catalysis (Function 2-Catalysis) and (Function 3) nano-intumescence for flame retardance resulting in: the use of larger amounts of regrind and recycle; copolymerization of blends of dissimilar addition and condensation polymers such as HDPE, PP and PET; prevention of delamination of PP/HDPE blends; faster production cycles at lower temperatures producing thermoplastic parts having less heat stress differentials, better finish, and increased stressstrain strength; and control of burn rate and burn rate exponent. Compounds having subject additives age better due to the removal of water at the polymer-reinforcement interface normally left when using a silane or no additives that cause loss of adhesion during water boil tests.

Open Cell Foams - An Emerging, Low-Cost Bacteria Adhesive Surface for Energy And Environmental Applications
Pavani Cherukupally, March 2019

Bacteria adhesive surfaces (BAS) have diverse applications, such as water treatment, biofuels, and solvents production. However, currently their large-scale usage is hindered by high materials cost. Inexpensive open-cell foams can potentially serve as substrates for low-cost BAS, enabling their wider usage. This work demonstrates a passive approach for attachment of Escherichia coli or E. coli to a polyester polyurethane open-cell foam surface using pH of the wastewater. The foam’s ionic-responsive charge property was used to bind negatively charged bacteria to its pore surface at different pH conditions. At the best pH condition, the foam adsorbed E. coli with over 99% efficiency. The pH-driven bacteria adhesion to foam surface is simple, effective, and passive, therefore has potential for industrial-scale applications.

Flame Retardants in Consumer Products: Overview and Perspective on the Proposed CPSC Ban
Andrew J. Worthen, Ph.D. | Jared M. Schwartz, Ph.D. | Davis E. Lee, Ph.D. | Kristin R. Robrock, Ph.D. | Renee M. Kalmes, Ph.D., October 2018

The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) voted on September 20, 2017 to initiate rulemaking which will potentially ban organohalogen flame retardants (OFRs) in some types of consumer products. At the same time they issued a guidance document which recommends that manufacturers refrain from using non-polymeric organohalogen flame retardants in those products. In light of the CPSC actions, this paper summarizes alternative flame retardants currently commercially available to manufacturers, technical considerations of formulation changes, testing options, and an outlook for the future of flame retardants in consumer products.

Machine Upgrades & Rebuilds
Adam Covington, June 2018

What to do with an aging fleet of rotomolding machines? • Sell • Scrap • Maintain & pray • Rebuild & Upgrade

Interfacing with Floor Associates
Ken Bather, June 2018

Nice Sounding Title ...but… Why this presentation • Changing workplace • Changing workforce • Changing attitudes towards co-workers • Changing attitudes towards work & expectations

Rotational Molding Design Case Study - Car Wash Kiosk
Michael Paloian, June 2018

in the Beginning - Initial Meeting: • Highlight major design objectives • Review possible product configurations • Define major product requirements • Review schedule • Investment & cost • Discuss marketing objectives. Current Products – vacuum formed & sheet metal construction

Fuel Tank Regulations
Andrew Meloeny, June 2018

Regulations can be found in all industries: Automotive, Small Off Road Engine (SORE), Marine, Large Spark, etc. This presentation will focus on fuel tanks for the Small Off Road Engine (SORE) Industry. So what is a Small Off Road Engine (SORE) Application?

Nylon 6.6/9: A Lower Melting Temperature Nylon
Bobby Richards, June 2018

Copolymers of Nylon 6 - Benefits: • Good Gasoline Permeability • Long Term Heat Stability • Great Design Flexibility • Good VOC Behavior. Nylon 669: • Excellent Resistance to Hydraulic Fluid • Higher Wear Resistance • Extruded Monofilament • Much Lower Costs than High Number Nylons.

Polyethylene - Expanding Options for Rotational Molded Products
Sandy Scaccia, June 2018

Why Polyethylene? • It is easy to mold. • It is widely available in rotomolding grades. • It has good physical properties. • Cost – offers a cost competitive solution to end users. • Knowledge and Confidence - molders are very familiar with it. • Market Identification – end users know rotomolding is a Polyethylene based industry and therefore design products to suit the capabilities of the material.

Functional Color Concentrates TekTuff™ Impact Enhancement
John Wood | Edwin Tam, June 2018

Teknor Apex Company Capsule: • Founded 1924 • Privately held company, for long term growth and stability • Fully equity financed • Worldwide production, marketing, sales, R&D • Continuous growth through re-investment of profits • Employing ~2,200 staff • Acquired DSM Sarlink TPVs November 2010 • Acquired Viking Polymers rigid PVC February 2014 • Acquired PTS April 2016

Forces On Threaded Inserts
Steve Harris | Connor Landsverk, June 2018

Threaded Inserts: • “How strong is this insert?” • “What is the Torque Strength of this insert?” • Mechanical bond between insert & substrate • Typically Threaded for secure attachment of bolts and fittings • Failure is dictated by their ultimate function!

Effects of Mixing Methods of Color on Mechanical Properties of Rotationally Molded Parts
Anthony Wagner | Nathan Rader-Edkin, June 2018

Equipment Used: • Medkeff-nye Shuttle PD Rotational Molder • 12”x12”x12” Test Box • Ez-Logger Data Acquisition Tool • Leistritz Twin Screw Extruder • Webco Reduction Grinder • PlasMec High Intensity Mixer • Falling Dart Impact Tester • Tinius-Olsen Universal Tester

New Technology in Design, Materials & Processing
Jon Ratzlaff | Glenn Larkin, June 2018

Outline: • Machine – Persico Electric • Mold – 5 Gallon Water Can • Resins – MDPE & LDPE • Design • Processing • Impact Data • Conclusion

Analysis of Internal Temperature Curves for the Process Control of Complex Parts
Denis Rodrigue, June 2018

Content: • Introduction on rotomolding process control • Data profiles • Curve analysis • Conclusion • Acknowledgements

Powder Quality, Mixing, Colorants, Proper Venting and QC Equipment
Bruce Muller, June 2018

Rotational Molding Topics: • Importance of the powder quality • Proper mixing and polishing powder • Static swirling – the ABC’s • Why colorant selection is critical • Proper venting reduces scrap • Important QC equipment

Process Temperature Control
Patrick J. Calderone, June 2018

Process Management & Control: • Classic Temperature & Control • Temperature Profile & Layer Maturation • Process Management System • Process Temperature Profile via Batch Instrumentation • Process Temperature Control via Non-Contact Instrumentation

The Benefits of Automated Conveying in Rotational Molding Plants
Rob Miller, June 2018

How does craft beer relate to our industry? • Companies have the same equipment, but use it differently based on the products that their customer’s demand. • Both industries are very open and collaborative. People freely share their operational ideas and innovations. • Key characteristics are closely monitored in both industries. • Particle size distribution matters. It causes molding issues in roto, and prevents you from getting your grist into the mash in brewing. • The operational set-ups are dependent on product mix. • Both processes are hot and physically demanding. • Both industries have a limited number of raw materials, and it’s up to the designer to use those to create different and wonderful products. • Both industries have to innovate to succeed.

Weathering, UV Rating and Other Testing in the Rotational Molding Market
Gregory Treich | Tom Steele, June 2018

Presentation Outline: • Brief Overview of Solvay • The Need for UV Protection of Plastics • Definition of UV Rating for Rotational Molding • UV Ratings in North America and Europe • Correlating UV Rating with Expected Service Life • Primary Weathering Factors • Correlating Accelerated Testing to Outdoor Exposure • Polymer Testing for UV Rating • Other Considerations for the Rotational Molding Market • Out of Mold Color, Gas Fade, Processing Window, and Cycle Time • Summary

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