SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Dukane’s Recent Advancements In Plastic Welding Technology
Alex Savitski, May 2018
Some of Dukane's recent advancements in plastic welding are presented in this presentation
Laser Welding Plastics: Rapid Prototyping To Mass Production Using Quasi-Simultaneous And 2D/3D Mask Welding
Andrew Geiger, May 2018
Laser welding is a viable method for rapid prototyping of plastic components. Using quasi-simultaneous welding technology rapid part change and design modification is possible. Final design welding implementation can be optimized using traditional 2D mask welding or the new 3D mask welding concept. Coupled together, the two technologies allow for simple advancement from product infancy to maturation and market release.
Methods Of Polymer Weld Quality Evaluation
Miranda Marcus, May 2018
Evaluation of the quality of polymer welds is essential to the development and production maintenance of a welding process. However, it can be challenging to select an evaluation method due to the wide variety of options. A comparison of some popular weld quality evaluation methods is discussed in this paper, as well as the preparation procedures for each and what can be learned from each method.
Ultrasonic Welding 20 Khz Vs. 15 Khz - Challenges Posed By Highly Crystalline Material
Dave Krysiak, May 2018
A comparative view of the effect of differing ultrasonic weld frequencies with the goal of reducing flash and part deformation.
Understanding Meltdown During Quasi-Simultaneous Laser Transmission Welding
Philip Bates, May 2018
Meltdown or collapse occurs when molten material flows from the interface during polymer welding. This study shows how several quasi-simultaneous (QS) laser transmission welding (LTW) processing parameters affect meltdown in a T-weld geometry using polycarbonate. The total meltdown depends linearly on the total line energy defined as the product of power and the number of passes divided by the scan speed. Increasing the total scan length increases the critical line energy for meltdown to begin.
Accounting For Differences In Modulus And Stress Relaxation Behavior In Plastics Undergoing Chemical Resistance Testing
Mark Yeager, May 2018
Chemical resistance testing via strain fixtures ranks resistance based on the maximum strain at which the plastic can resist an applied strain without loss of mechanical integrity or appearance. While this comparison works well for materials within a family of plastics, such as unfilled polycarbonates, it can be misleading when comparing materials that differ in stiffness and stress relaxation properties. Adjusting for these differences yields a more realistic chemical resistance ranking for most applications.
Elastomeric To Engineered Thermoplastic Polyurethanes
Anthony Walder, May 2018
Medical device engineers found Thermoplastic Polyurethanes (TPU) quickly after their introduction almost 60 years ago. Some of the reasons for TPU acceptance are strength, biocompatibility and that they can be shaped using common melt processing techniques. Since the introduction of the first TPUs, different chemistries have involved under the TPU umbrella. The attributes of the various TPUs will be discussed in relationship to physical and chemical properties and application requirements.
Advantages Of CT Scanning For Industrial Applications
Melissa Butrie, May 2018
After a brief explanation of how CT scanning works, advantages and examples of its applications in manufacturing and industrial environments will be reviewed. Focus will be on the efficiency of CT scanning versus traditional metrology methods for first article inspections. We will also discuss applications that can be used for mold builds and steel modifications, for the identification of assembly issues, and for CAD model creation of legacy parts.
Change Molds For Efficient Customer Development / Prototype
Tom Worcester, May 2018
Improving the capability of the Mold Maker to be able to add R&D and Prototyping to their portfolio of services. Through the use of the "Change Mold" and the options of inserts that are available or possibly manufactured by the MoldMaker. These could include SLM Additive Manufactured with possible Conformal Cooling, Polymer based inserts for minimal volume of parts. This benefit would decrease the overall timeline for "Time to Market" for the end user.
Application Of J-Integral Methods To Tough Pipe Materials
Anja Gosch, May 2018
In this work, the fracture resistance of three different and very tough piping materials was characterized for the development of multi-layered pipes based on biomaterials. For these materials both stiff and brittle, and soft and ductile materials are necessary. While the fracture mechanical characterization of the former can be seen as quite straight forward, the later can prove rather difficult. Therefore, two methods from elastic plastic fracture mechanics were examined, applied and discussed in detail for the use with very tough pipe grade materials.
Quantifying Oxidative Degradation In Polyolefin Pipe By Ir Spectroscopy
Don Duvall, May 2018
Infrared spectroscopy has been used for decades as a means to quantify oxidation of polyolefins. One method used on piping has been determination of a carbonyl index. Another method developed for use on UHMWPE from orthopedic implants is detailed in ASTM F2102. Results of both methods applied to polyethylene pipe will be compared to assess the extent to which results of the two methods can be correlated.
Examining Design Changes Potentially Influencing The Lifetime Of Electrofusion Socket
Jan Poduska, May 2018
This article deals with lifetime calculations of electrofusion socket joint. Lifetime of electrofusion socket is calculated using a combination of linear elastic fracture mechanics lifetime and finite element modelling. The lifetimes are calculated for a basic situation and then influence of possible design changes on the lifetime is discussed.
Open-Cell Foaming Of Pp/Ptfe Fibrillated Composites
Yu Guang Chen, May 2018
In the study. PP/PTFE composites with different degree of fibrillation were prepared. Crystallization and rheology behavior was investigated. The presence of PTFE fiber enhanced the kinetics of isothermal crystallization of PP. The second modulus plateau at the low ω and a tan δ peak indicates the existence of a three dimensional networks. Extrusion foaming results shows that addition of PTFE increase a 2 orders increase in cell dencity and 10-fold decrease in expansion ratio due to addition of PTFE compared to that of PP. With PTFE nanofiber, open-cell content of the composites was increased.
New High Strength Low Density Glass Bubble Products For Ultra-Lightweight Composites
Stephen Amos, May 2018
3M Company is continuing to develop new high strength to density ratio 3MTM Glass Bubbles for use in thermoplastics and thermosets. Recently launched new products can be applied to Sheet Molding Compound (SMC/BMC), paints and coatings, plastisol, additive manufacturing, extrusion and injection molding.
Advanced Materials For Increasing Output And Reducing Energy
Will Johnson, May 2018
New patented technology to increase throughput in extrusion and injection molding. This technology can be used in any thermoplastic system to increase speed and improve additive distribution, while stabilizing the process reducing scrap from variation.
Use And Utility Of Metal Soaps In Polyolefins
Robert Sherman, May 2018
Metals soaps, such as calcium stearate and zinc stearate, are commonly used as additives in polyethylene and polypropylene. They are most commonly used as antacids but are also used as lubricants, mold releases, tracer elements, and antistatic agents. A general discussion of the types of available metals, soaps, and considerations for choosing them will be given. A general discussion of how metal soaps are made and special properties of certain soaps will also be covered.
Nucleation Of Semi-Crystalline Polymers With Minerals
Saied Kochesfahani, May 2018
A study has been conducted to determine the effect of minerals, mineral loading, and time/aging on the nucleation of semi-crystalline polymers including polypropylene and nylons. The performance of talc, mica, wollastonite, and kaolin will be covered including the effect of parameters such as particle size and morphology. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) data will be presented as well as mechanical properties of the semi-crystalline polymers.
Preventing Plastic Failure
pa tres, May 2018
Preventing Plastic FailureRights are already granted to publishing house Carl Hanser Verlag of Munich, Germany
Knowledge-Based Product Planning And Designing Of Injection-Molded Parts
Rene Andrae, May 2018
This paper presents a procedure for an integrated design process regarding injection-molded parts. The support of the designer occurs from a knowledge-based production process and material selection, throughout the designing to a rheological part optimization. Techniques of the model-based systems engineering (MBSE) were used for the acquisition of requirements as well as for the development of this supporting system. For validation, selected methods are implemented and tested in a CAD-system.
Influence Of Gas-Counter Pressure On The Foaming Behavior And The Cell Morphology Of Flexible Polyurethane Foam
Daniel Schneider, May 2018
Discontinuously produced polyurethane (PU) foams can be found in various applications and branches. Typically used blowing agents show significant economic or ecologic disadvantages. Using CO2 as a sustainable blowing agent displays different processing challenges. In this context the influence of gas-counter pressure, which is introduced in the cavity of the mold before injection, and of the CO2-amount on the foaming characteristics and the foam-morphology have been analyzed.

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How to reference articles from the SPE Library:

Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:

Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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