SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Digital Printing Technologies For Plastics – Focus on Color Inkjet and Laser Marking
Jeff Peterson, May 2018
This presentation will examine both digital decorating processes - laser marking and digital inkjet - and look at the advantages and disadvantages of each. The discussion will include suggestions on which process is best for particular plastics decorating applications.
Effects Of Processing Variables On Crystallization Phases Of P(Vdf-Trfe-Cfe) Thin Films
hao pan, May 2018
In this work, Poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoro-ethylene-chlorofluoroethylene) terpolymer [P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)] has been prepared as thin films with different processing conditions including coating temperature, annealing temperature and nanoclay loading level. The chain conformation of obtained films was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is shown that lower coating temperature is favorable for obtaining β-phase crystals, whereas higher annealing temperature leads to α-phase. Nanoclay can be added to increase total crystal amount.
New Transparent High Heat Polycarbonate Copolymer Resins For Thermo-Optical Applications
Mark van der Mee, May 2018
SABIC has launched a new LEXANTM CXT resin portfolio designed to offer potential solutions for optical lenses with its unique combination of high heat resistance, water clear transparency and high flow in a broad processing window. The high heat resistance of these resins may allow the use of assembly processes like low temperature soldering of parts onto printed circuit boards, and/or demanding part operation conditions. The high flow capability of LEXAN CXT resins without excessive yellowing may allow significant benefits in productivity and system cost.
Reduced Density Polyamide 66 Compounds For Extrusion Applications
Ying Shi, May 2018
Polyamide 66 is widely used in the automotive industry especially for under the hood applications where resistance to high temperature, pressures, and various chemicals are needed. This paper describes the preparation of high melt viscosity, light weighting, and reinforced polyamide 66 compounds made from common injection molding grade. This material is suitable for blow molding and sheet extrusion applications where high melt strength is required. The viscoelastic properties of the compounds were characterized using capillary and oscillation rheometer.
How Polymer Rheology Impacts The Extrusion Blow Molding Process
Todd Hogan, May 2018
Will provide once it clears the Dow internal release process
Clear Impact Co-Polymers For Thermoforming
Kevin Herrington, May 2018
A new technology from Braskem extends the use of clear polypropylene to thermoformed containers for refrigerated conditions. Typical clear polypropylenes have poor impact properties at low temperature. Polypropylene impact copolymers have greatly improved impact properties compared to polypropylene homopolymers and random copolymers but are opaque. This work explores what causes haze in thermoformed polypropylene impact copolymers, how that haze can be improved, and how Braskems new impact copolymer compares to conventional impact copolymers, random copolymers, and with blends.
Modeling Film Behavior In Pallet Unitization Applications
Pavan Valavala, May 2018
Paper will present how modeling can help establish a relationship between film material properties and application performance.
Extrusion Performance Analysis Protocol
David Kazmer, May 2018
Instrumentation and analytical methods are presented for on-line, real-time analysis of performance in single screw extrusion processes. The methodology implements analytical models for heating and cooling power for each zone, screw torque, apparent viscosity, and specific energy. In additional, numerical methods are implemented to provide real-time estimate of the process variation. The protocol defines volumetric, adiabatic, theoretical, and robustness efficiency measures useful for extrusion process engineering and optimization. Validation data is provided for general-purpose and barrier screw designs.
Cost Analysis For Installing New And Optimized Screws For Single-Screw Extrusion Lines
Mark A. Spalding, May 2018
Optimization of an extrusion process for maximum rate and product quality can lead to substantial cost reductions. The value to the converter can be very large and thus the payback period can be very short. This paper discusses the economic evaluations of two commercial case studies.
A Simple System Analysis For The Small Extrusion Screw And Die
Jingyi Xu, May 2018
A simple system analysis for the small screw and die in extrusion line is one of the keys to design the screw and optimize the machine performance. It explains several critical issues and features of plasticizing and extrusion performances in small extruder and die. This simplified model of small extruder will be used to analyze the size of the screw and specific die with different screw parameters as a system. The result is useful to design the small size screw, and to optimize the performance of the small extruders.
Melting And Residence Time In The Single Screw Extrusion
Clemens Martin Grosskopf, May 2018
The image analysis of the investigation of the melting process, as Maddock has already done in 1959, is further developed by means of modern image analysis. The experiments are carried out on the two most common screw types in the plastics industry: the general-purpose screw and barrier screw. Control of the residence time is essential for the production of high-quality products and is also important for biodegradable and other time-sensitive polymers. The results indicate that both the general- purpose screw and the barrier screw have significant stagnation zones and broad residence time distribution.
Evaluation Of Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU) Resins As Possible Substitues Of Current Resins For Escalator Handrails
Qingping Guo, May 2018
Two new thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) were evaluated in their possibility to substitute two TPUs currently used in the production of escalator handrail. The assessment is carried out through comparison of their thermal, rheological and mechanical properties. It was found that although the new TPUs show promise, changes should be carried out to make them more compatible with the current process set up and conditions.
Micro-Layered Tubing And Pipes Via Multi-Layer Co-Extrusion
Tyler Schneider, May 2018
A die was designed and validated for a layer multiplication co-extrusion line, capable of producing layer structures of tens to thousands of layers, and achieving layer thicknesses from millimeters to tens of nanometers. Validation extrusion runs utilizing the die shows the ability to successfully produce high layer number, micrometer layer thickness, samples with annular structure for an LDPE layered system. Weld lines and the formation of a concentric layer structure were achieved by the implication of an annular land having angular rotation capabilities.
Transportation And Storage Film
Tom Stalun, May 2018
Discuss new advancements in industrial film for use in pallet containment. Compare the benefits of different film wrap techniques such as stretch wrap and stretch hood.
Multilayer Injection Molding Of Thick-Walled Optics Using Dynamic Mold Tempering And Optimized Layer Thickness Distribution
Malte Röbig, May 2018
Multilayer injection molding is an established process for an economical production of thick-walled optical components with complex geometric designs. Thereby, plastics optics are built up layer by layer in injection molding. The individual layers require significantly shorter cooling times compared to conventional single-layered optics. In addition, the shrinkage of the individual layers is lower. As a consequence the replication accuracy is increased.
Are Your Linear Robots Properly Sized for Your Injection Molding Machine and Project?
Robert Arsenault, May 2018
There are many options and sizes available with today’s linear robots. How do you know if your robot has the proper payload or strokes to handle your work today and in the future? In this presentation, we will review key factors for sizing robots for injection molding machine including:• Tips on choosing properly sized linear robots• How robot designs affect choosing robot size.• Tips and suggestions on how to size robots for larger tonnage injection molding machines
Moldflow Optimization Of Micro-Cavities Filling During Injection Molding Process
ali rajhi, May 2018
This paper investigates the fabrication of micro-molded features using Moldflow analysis to optimize processing parameters. Melt temperature, mold temperatures, injection velocity, and packing pressure were all examined to help understand the process of microinjection molding. Micro pillar type features with different cross sectional shapes, diameter, and height were investigated using Moldflow® analysis to optimize filling. Critical processing parameters were identified for common thermoplastic polymers such as Polystyrene (PS) and Thermoplastic Polyurethane (TPU).
Adhesive Free Bonding Of Pine By Vibrational Welding
Curtis Covelli, May 2018
In this study, the welding of pine wood was studied with a 240Hz vibrational welder traditionally used for welding plastics. The effects of weld pressure, amplitude and weld time were varied to determine their effects on lap shear weld strength. The morphology of the weld zones were also analyzed to gain insight into the mechanics of the welding. Two of the most important welding parameters factors affecting the weld strength were the weld force and melt down (weld time).
New Plastics Joining Technologies
Jason Dornbos, May 2018
Extol is introducing 3 new plastics joining technologies: a new InfraStake, an all-new staking technology, and a new internet of things process control and monitoring technology. This presentation offers an overview of each new technology and how they will benefit plastics manufacturers.
Correlating Ultrasonic Weld Quality With Melt Layer Thickness
Alex Savitski, May 2018
Dukane’s recent research has shown that there is correlation between the thickness of the melt layer resultant from ultrasonic welding process and the strength and consistency of the weld. An assumption can be made that this melt layer thickness can serve as a reliable predictor of weld quality. This study was designed to revisit previous data and confirm the observations related to this correlation between melt layer thickness and weld quality, with the end purpose of confirming the validity of this hypothesis.

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How to reference articles from the SPE Library:

Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:

Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

Note: if there are more than three authors you may use the first author's name and et al. EG Brown, H. L. et al.

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