SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Elastomeric Property Characterization of Thermoplastic Elastomers
Kevin G. Cai, Charles G. Reid, Satchit Srinivasan, Norbert Vennemann, May 2004
The elastomeric properties of polyolefin thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV) have been characterized by compression set, recoverable strain after hysteresis, and thermal scanning stress relaxation (TSSR) analysis. Unlike a thermoset rubber, a TPV is a two-phase system with highly crosslinked fine rubber particles dispersed in a thermoplastic matrix. Compression set, which was originally designed to characterize the elastomeric properties of a thermoset rubber, does not truly characterize the unique elastomeric properties for a TPV. Compression set for a TPV is not only highly dependent on the crosslinking density and structure, but also very sensitive to the orientation of the two phases in the TPV. For the same TPV with a fully crosslinked rubber phase, the compression set value can vary substantially depending on sample preparation and thermal history. Elastomeric properties can be better characterized by the recoverable strain after hysteresis and TSSR stress-temperature curve. The thermal-mechanical properties or stress relaxation behaviors provides more useful information for designing and producing all-thermoplastic parts, such as automotive seals, from TPV.
Characterization of a Poly(Ether-Block-Amide) Copolymer and its Significance for Polymer Processing Operations
Xiaoping Guo, May 2004
Thermal and rheological properties of a poly(etherblock- amide) copolymer were characterized by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic rheological approaches. Based on the calorimetric and rheometric data, the microphase separation transition (MST) was studied, showing that upon heating the copolymer solid could be transformed into three different states: restructured solid, structured melt, and homogeneous melt. The driving force for the conversion among the three states is primarily due to crystal re-organization, crystallization, and melting. It is also found that different crystal structures in the solid state could be introduced by changing the conditions of cooling from a homogeneous molten state. The existence of a wide MST range and the conversion of the states imply a variety of proper process windows for various polymer processing operations. This knowledge is essential for understanding the processes and further assisting in rational process development.
"Hidden" Innovations in the Development and Commercialization of LLDPE
William A. Fraser, May 2004
Technology revolutions sometimes span such a long timeline of business realization that critical innovations along the way can become lost or hidden in commonplace commercial acceptance. An essential understanding or supporting technical advance developed at just the right time and which contributed important value to business success can go under-appreciated or even unrecognized.The development and commercialization of LLDPE created new catalyst, process, and product technologies and seeded the emergence of new, world scale competitors in the polyolefins industry. It was a revolutionary development.This paper describes market facing technology innovations that were instrumental to LLDPE business success. These developments have helped set the stage for another burst of innovation in the ongoing development and commercialization of metallocene and other single-site catalyzed polyolefins.The polymer molecular design capabilities of the new single-site catalysis have created whole new families of polyolefins and has launched a new technology revolution for our industry. This product revolution builds upon and extends some of the innovations from Z/N LLDPE commercialization.
Relationship between Mould Temperature and Properties of Injection-Moulded Pure and Beta Nucleated Polypropylenes
Roman Cermák, Martin Obadal, Martina Polášková, Karel Stoklasa, May 2004
An influence of the mould temperature (MT) on structure and properties of the samples injection-moulded from pure and ? nucleated isotactic polypropylene (?-iPP) was investigated. Pure and 0,03 wt. % of nucleating agent NJ Star NU-100 doped iPP was isothermally solidified in the range of mould temperature 40-120 °C. Polymorphic composition studied by means of wide-angle X-ray scattering did not show significant sensitivity to MT. On the contrary, moulding temperature notably influenced mechanical behaviour of both pure and ?-iPP samples.
The All Composite One Piece Bumper
Brian Knouff, September 2003
PowerPoint Presentation
Composites Use In Heavy Truck
Ed Zenk, September 2003
PowerPoint Presentation
Real Time Cost Impact Assessment of Composite & Metallic Design Alternatives
Christopher Rush, Joe Falque, Karen McRitchie, September 2003
This paper discusses how a process-based parametric cost model SEER-DFM is used to facilitate the real time cost impact assessment of composite and metallic design alternatives. The main purpose is to introduce the underlying cost model methodology and demonstrate its flexibility for developing trade studies. Readers are introduced to the model its premise and how engineers use it to obtain substantial cost savings through ‘real world’ examples.
Conformal Cooling with Solid Freeform Fabrication Technology: Issues & Opportunities
Rick Dove, September 2003
Solid freeform rapid tooling technologies of various sorts have promised new conformal cooling advantages for plastic tooling. In principle these technologies offer geometric design freedoms unavailable by machined or EDMed approaches. In practice all solid freeform approaches are not equal. This paper will discuss opportunities and limitations on design freedoms and important issues associated with material properties; and will show that raster-scanned 3D Printing technology has matured to a point of delivering on the promise.
Composite Design Procedures for Racing Cars
Mario Saccone, September 2003
PowerPoint Presentation
New Application Technologies in Phenolic Moldable Composites
Willem Lossy, Phil Beasley, September 2003
Presentation at ACCE 2003.
Carbon Fiber Composite Applications for Auto Industries
Tetsu Kyono, Yukitane Kimoto, Yasuyuki Kawanomoto, September 2003
Carbon fiber composite drive shaft having crush worthiness which had been developed for rear drive passenger cars will be described. Crash load generated during head collision can be absorbed by newly developed joining technology with no adhesive between carbon fiber composite tube and steel adapter. This technology can add safety value to passenger cars in addition to conventional advantages of composite drive shaft such as weight and noise reductions. Its materials design concept performance data of the composite drive shaft system will be discussed in the paper.
Renewable Source Materials Phase II
Peter W. Vaccarella, September 2003
In phase I soy-based polyesters were introduced in the form of sheet molding compound (SMC) to be used in farm equipment such as combines. In phase II soy-based polyester will be evaluated in the spray- up infusion and resin transfer molding (RTM) processes for similar types of application. Each system was evaluated at room temperature and 120 ° F for surface quality cure and molding ability. This paper will discuss shrink control for room temperature cured parts and surface quality as compared to automotive standards. Physical property data will also be compared to standard polyesters and SMC used in these fields.
Tough Sheet Molding Compound
Lora Mason, September 2003
One of the biggest challenges facing molders of automotive exterior body panels is the reduction of paint pops. Minimizing or eliminating paint pops would greatly reduce manufacturing costs by minimizing rework painting and scrap material. A new SMC formulation has been developed that is more resilient and durable than standard Class A SMC. The material is more resistant to micro cracking the primary source of paint pops while maintaining the physical properties and surface quality required for Class A exterior body panels.
Decorative Laminates For Thermoforming and Insert Molding Processes
Dennis Northrop, September 2003
Decorative films laminated to plastic substrates have been used for many years but the recent wave of technological advances and increased competition offer more variety in design colors materials and performance properties than previously available. This offers part designers and plastic processors the option to use decorative laminate technology for more applications while reducing costs eliminating environmental concerns conversion from non-plastic materials and improving product performance.
Tailored LFT-D Technology
Manfred Bruemmer, September 2003
PowerPoint Presentation
Improvements in Impact and Abrasion Performance of Glass Fiber Thermoplastics by the Localized Introduction of Self Reinforced Polypropylene
Derek Riley, Renita Jones, September 2003
The past few years have witnessed a rapid growth in the use of glass reinforced thermoplastics for automotive applications. New developments in LFT's and GMT's are beginning to meet the industry's demands for complex modular components – such as front ends instrument panel carriers and underbody assemblies – with low-cost lightweight materials which have acceptable mechanical performance. However in terms of damage tolerance particularly resistance to heavy impacts and abrasion LFT's and GMT's are no match for the metals they are designed to replace. This paper will describe the use of a highly impact resistant self-reinforced polypropylene composite to provide localized reinforcement in GMT and LFT components without increasing weight or compromising recyclability.
Fabrication Processing & Mechanical Properties of Flat Braided Thermosetting Composites Using Natural & Coated Jute Yarn
O. Khondker, U.S. Ishiaku, H. Hamada, September 2003
This paper submits investigation on the tensile and bending properties of the flat braided thermosetting composites made using jute yarns. Combining flat braided jute yarns (untreated and coated) and vinylester resin composite specimens were manufactured by hand lamination method. Tensile and 3 point bending tests were conducted. Test samples were polished and pre- and post-failure examinations were carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopy in order to analyze the test results and their relationships to the state of resin impregnation into the fibre bundles fibre/matrix interfacial properties and the fracture and failure mechanisms. While tensile properties were slightly degraded due to coating treatments bending properties of the composite showed improvement when coated yarns were used. These variations in the mechanical properties were broadly related to the state of resin impregnation into the fibre bundles and/or fibre/matrix interfacial interactions.
Fabrication and Mechanical Properties of Multi-Axial Warp Knitted Thermoplastic Composites Using Micro-Braided Yarn
Asami Nakai, Dai Nakaami, Tsutom Narita, Hiroyuki Hamada, Eisuke Fukui, September 2003
In this study multi-axial warp knitted thermoplastic composites were fabricated by our-developed Micro-braiding technique. Cross-sectional observation tensile test and 3 point bending test were performed. The composite with good impregnation state and high mechanical properties was obtained under appropriate molding conditions. The multi-axial warp knitted fabric composite without unimpregnated region had the equivalent mechanical properties with unidirectional composite laminates. From these results continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic panel was realized by combining braiding and knitting technique.
Performance of PP/Clay Nanocomposites with Edge Functionalized Clay
Sharad Kumar, Krishnamurthy Jayaraman, September 2003
The effects of specific functionalization of montmorillonite clay on the mechanical properties of melt-processed PP/clay nanocomposites have been investigated with three different clays. Organically modified montmorillonite was subjected to appropriate silane treatment in order to functionalize the edges. Each of the organoclays was compounded with a maleated polypropylene (PP-g-MA) and a PP in the proportion 5:10:85 by wt. The clay silated in this work was confirmed by XRD to be edge functionalized. This clay led to the composite with the greatest level of exfoliation as determined by both XRD and dynamic viscosity measurements. The same composite also had the highest tensile modulus. However the flexural modulus was found to be insensitive to additional treatment of the clay. Hence the increase in tensile properties reflects the greater extent of dispersion as well as a higher degree of orientation achieved during molding.
Surface Profile and Surfacing Veil: Reducing Printout with a Resin-Rich Surface
Jon Jacobson, September 2003
Printout on the surface of an FRP laminate has one primary source: resin shrinkage. The very property that makes polyester resin with glass reinforcement so durable is its own enemy when surface appearance is an issue. During the curing stage of a laminate resin shrinks and glass goes not shrink. A surfacing veil added to a lamination schedule will dramatically reduce the resin shrinkage at the surface giving it a smooth and consistent resin-rich surface. A consistent resin-rich surface in the composites industry includes a corrosion barrier UV barrier a smooth finish and lower porosity. Surfacing veil added to a process can also increase efficiency including quicker resin flow in closed-mold situations earlier demold time protecting pultrusion dies strengthening the gel coat and bonding the gel coat to the reinforcement.

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