The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Effect of the Localization of Silica Particles on the Morphology of Poly(Lactic Acid)/ Polyethylene Blends
In this study, the effect of the addition of spherical silica particles on the morphology of poly (lactic acid)/polyethylene blends is studied. It is shown that the silica particles are selectively localized in the PLA phase. The effect of silica particle concentration in the PLA phase on the overall morphology of the blend structure is studied in detail.
Relaxation Zones in Extrusion Dies
When designing extrusion dies very often only the flow in the die is balanced. To avoid polymer depositions in the die the wall shear rate and the wall shear stress are calculated. For minimal internal stresses in the extrudate a relaxation zone upstream of the land length is helpful. The characteristic values for designing the relaxation zone are the relaxation time and the critical shear rate. The calculation used is the finite volume element method.
Melt Spinning Polyethylene Terephthalate Nanofibers
The process of making nanofibers using centrifugal forces was explored for melt spinning of Polyethylene Terephthalate. Processing boundaries were established for PET fibers from low viscosity resin. An average diameter of 4300 nm was achieved with a stable process. The effect of process variables and the role of viscosity in controlling the fiber diameter were discussed.
Material Selection Based on Feel: A Methodology for Technical Evaluation
This paper discusses the use of feel as an evaluation method for plastic material selection. This method is intended to complement existing material selection methods.
PPE Macromonomers - Use in Anhydride Cured Epoxy
Polyphenylene ether (PPE) telechelic macromonomer and hexahydrophthalic anhydride were used to cure epoxy resins. This unique combination different curing agents resulted in single phase morphologies over the compositional range studied. Broad enhancements in performance were noted compared to anhydride cured epoxy resins. Indeed, there was an increase in glass transition temperatures (Tg), impact strength, flexural strength, fracture toughness. In addition, the dielectric properties were lower and there was a decrease in moisture absorption.
Amphiphilic PPE-PHE Block Copolymers as Compatibilizers for Polyester Blends
Unique amphiphilic polyhydroxy ether-polyphenylene ether (PPE) block copolymers were evaluated as compatibilizers between thermoplastic polyester and polyphenylene ether. Variables studied were PPE content and MW in the block copolymer on morphology and physical properties. Overall there were broad performance enhancements, which included significant increases in toughness.
Die Drool Phenomenon in Polymer Extrusion
In this work, breakthrough works in the field of unwanted die drool phenomenon occurring in the polymer extrusion processes are reviewed with specific attention to the role of die design and processing conditions.
Improving Impact Performance of PMMA through Prestress and Orientation
This work studies the optimization of prestressed Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), through equibiaxial compression with increasing amounts of shear and simple shear prestress for improved impact performance. The equibiaxial compression prestress with the slight shear demonstrates the highest performance at low velocity rates. The simple shear prestress is also combined with orientation of PMMA, which improves performance suppressing the large radial crack growth that is inherent for simple shear prestress.
Poly (Lactic Acid)/Polyamide11/Cellulose Multiphase Systems
Nano crystalline cellulose (NCC) / PLA/bio-Polyamide11 (PA11) blends were prepared at different compositions by melt blending. A homogenous nano-scale NCC dispersion in PLA/PA11 blends was achieved. Both Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) reveal the localization of NCCs in both phases and at the interface. Also, the images show no significant changes in the morphology of the PLA/PA11 blends for up to 2 wt% NCC.
Polypropylene Based Olefin Block Copolymers as Tie Layers for Multilayer Packaging
Dow has developed a new family of polypropylene (PP) based olefin block copolymers (OBCs), based on proprietary chain shuttling catalyst technology. This novel family of block copolymers offers break-through system performance when used as a component in multilayer structures for combining polyethylene (PE), and PP. These multilayer systems offer customers unique combinations of properties such as exceptional adhesion and temperature resistance. They also enable PE to participate in some traditionally PP applications in packaging.
New Isosorbide-Polycarbonate via Interfacial Polymerization
Polymers based on aliphatic diols derived from bio-sources are of great interest in the plastics industry for the preparation of bio-derived products. Such products may show noticeable advantages compared to their oil-based counterpart such as biodegradability, biocompatibility and a low net environmental impact. The present paper discloses the synthesis and basic characterization of a new class of isosorbide-containing polyester carbonates.
Elongation and Shear Deformation of Polymers in a Wedge Slit
To achieve a good homogeneity of polymer melts in single screw extruders mixing elements are common. There are distributive and dispersive mixing elements available. A dispersive mixing element works better with additional elongational flow in a wedge slit. The elongation and the shear deformation are determined and the total deformation is calculated.
Numerical Study on Deformation Behaviors under Compressive Load when PET Bottles Changed Form
Even though many researches have been carried to reduce thickness of the PET bottle for saving manufacturing cost, but there is challenges to guarantee mechanical strength under top-loading after making the PET bottle of thin thickness. This paper investigates the large deformation characteristics of a PET bottle under compressive load by an experimental and a FEA. The Arc length method is used in nonlinear FEA to understand the buckling phenomenon of the PET bottle.
Assessment of the Changeability of Plastics Processing Systems
Changeable production systems are still being developed, especially in the field of plastics processing. Here, the assessment of the changeability is a decisive factor. This investigation deals with the assessment of the changeability of a modular pilot plant, and derives approaches for the further development of an evaluation system, as well as potential means to increase the changeability.
Lean Design of Experiments for Plastics Processing: A Lean Statistical Thinking Case Study
Manufacturing companies all over the world have significantly improved their competitive posture by adopting lean philosophies and methods. A logical next step is to apply lean principles beyond the factory floor and extend them to R&D and process engineering. Company managers can ask themselves: • Are my production processes optimized? • Are my process optimization methods lean? • Is my product development process lean? This paper provides some answers to these questions in case study format.
Compatibilization Improvement of Nylon 6/Polypropylene Blends
This paper is a case study of different types of compatibilizers for nylon 6 and polypropylene blends. The compatibilizers that were investigated in this study were maleic anhydride grafted copolymers. The compatibility was evaluated by thermal properties, knit line tensile strength, and other mechanical properties of blends. The blends that exhibited strong knit line tensile strength were considered as highly compatibilized.
Evaluation of Different Heat Transfer Models for 9-Layer Film Blowing Process by Using Variational Principles
In this work, coextrusion experiments utilizing an industrial 9-layer Brampton Engineering coextrusion film blowing line has been performed in order to evaluate three different heat transfer models by using variational principles.
Injection Molding of Highly-Porous Polypropylene Foams
This paper presents the injection molding of highly-porous polypropylene foams with the core-back technique and a crystal-induced strategy. Through introducing the core-back foam expansion process near the crystallization onset of polypropylene, cell nucleation would be promoted, and thereby, increasing the probability of cell wall opening. Foam experiments were conducted over a range of dwelling times to examine the proposed strategy. At the optimal dwelling time of 48s, microcellular open-cell morphologies were achieved.
Fundamentals of Abuse Performance of LLDPE/LDPE Blends in Blown Film Applications
Blends of LLDPE and LDPE are used in many film applications. This study was undertaken to understand the behavior of LLDPE/LDPE blends over the entire composition range in terms of Elmendorf tear, dart impact, and puncture strengths in order to understand the relationships between these film properties, orientation effects, and intrinsic properties of the blends.
New Polyphenylene Sulfide Compounds
A new technology has been developed to enable polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) to start the recrystallization at a higher temperature with a fast speed. New PPS compounds with this new technology have demonstrated at production scale trials to have several benefits, including shorter cycle time, improved de-molding of parts, and improved flatness and dimensional precision. Laboratory data regarding the recrystallization behavior and production trial results will also be discussed.
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