SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Investigation of Injection Molding Process Robustness for Various Molding Strategies
Angela S. Albertson, Michelle V. Brendel, May 2002

Several different methods are used throughout the industry to set up the injection phase of the injection molding process. This study is intended to look at the long-term robustness of several methods. Investigating the peak pressure and cycle integral consistency when regrind and check ring wear are introduced will do this.

Investigation of Long-Chain Branching in HDPE Using Triple-Detector GPC
J. Lu, K. Hammons, H.-J. Sue, Wallace W. Yau, May 2002

An effective technique for characterizing long-chain branching (LCB) in polyethylene resins has been being developed. Triple detectors (concentration, RI or IR; viscosity, DP; and light scattering, LS) are added to the GPC system to render a powerful capability of studying polyolefin structures. As a result, low levels of LCB in HDPE can be clearly detected. In this work, three model HDPE resins were studied and the level of LCB is found to have a profound effect on the morphology formation in film blowing.

Investigation of Stress Cracking and Fatigue Failure in Two-Shot Cavities Using Finite Element Analysis
David D. Camlin, May 2002

The purpose of the research was to discover the contributing factors of unexplained cavity cracking in a two-shot molding process. This project used Finite Element Analysis to study the effects of pressure and fatigue stress on the given cavity insert.

Ionomer-Class Nanocomposites with Clay Nanofiller
L. Kovarova, A. Kalendova, J. Malac, J. Vaculik, Z. Malac, J. Simonik, May 2002

For compounding experiments, Surlyn types of ionomer extrusion materials were used. Comparison was made between two zinc types of ionomer copolymers with respect to the degree of exfoliation of clay nanofiller characterized by XRD and electron microscopy. Thermomechanical properties were characterized by the temperature dependence of complex modulus on DMA. Abrasion resistance was evaluated as well.

Kinetic Study on PMMA-CO2 System by Raman Spectroscopy
Masayoshi Takahashi, Yoshitaka Yamamoto, Y. Paul Handa, Victoria Nawaby, May 2002

Raman spectroscopy of PMMA was obtained to find out the effect of dissolved CO2 on the phase change of the plastic. It has been demonstrated that the measuring method is useful to evaluate the amount of dissolved CO2 and to recognize the phase change in the polymer induced by the retrograde vitrification.

Knowledge Based Computer Model for Product Mold Cost
Brad Williams, Jeffrey Exley, May 2002

Molds used for injection molding are a critical element of part cost. A computer system can be an excellent way to create a mold cost estimation system including components. This paper covers the creation of a knowledge based computer model for production mold cost and demonstrates the most critical factors affecting the overall cost.

Laboratory Tests on Fungal Resistance of Wood Filled Polyethylene Composites
Craig M. Clemons, Rebecca E. Ibach, May 2002

A standard method for determining the durability of structural wood was modified for testing the fungal resistance of composites made from high density polyethylene filled with 50% wood flour. Moisture content, mechanical properties, and weight loss were measured over 12 weeks exposure to brown- and white-rot fungi. Mechanical properties were decreased, but irreversible damage due to water sorption made separating this effect from that of fungal attack difficult. Further modifications to test methodology are suggested.

Light Emitting Polymer Displays
Karl Heeks, May 2002

The burgeoning demand for portable devices with high quality, high information content display capability is driving the search for new display technology. Polymer light emitting diode (PLED) technologies offer the prospect to satisfy these demands as well as other display and non-display applications such as solar cells. The current performance for PLED technology will be described together with a wide range of applications and a discussion on the general commercialisation of the technology.

Material Characterization of LDPE Composites Reinforced with Granite Fines
Tony Filliberti, Joseph Greene, May 2002

Characterization of LDPE composites reinforced with granite fines demonstrates unique properties. The granite fines were compounded with LDPE powder and injection molded into tensile bars. Granite-filled LDPE had a higher tensile strength, but a lower tangent modulus and elongation than unfilled LDPE. The reduction in tensile strength can be attributed to the large size distribution of particles or agglomeration of particles that were observed in the SEM micrographs and serve as stress concentrators.

Mechanical and Fracture Properties of Nanoclay-Filled Polypropylene
Shing-Chung Wong, Ling Chen, May 2002

Maleic anhydride modified polypropylene was compounded with commercially available surface modified montmorillonite in an extruder. Re-compounding ensured the removal of visible tactoids from extrudate but TEM and XRD techniques showed non-uniform dispersion of clay platelets. In this study, we investigated the mechanical and fracture properties of nanoclay-filled polypropylene. Tensile strength and stiffness increased steadily with nanoclay content. The J-integral fracture resistance was also attempted on this novel material.

Mechanical Properties of Two Component Injection Molded Parts
D.B. Tchalamov, A.M. Cunha, May 2002

Monosandwich, overmolding and push-pull are special injection molding methods by which parts composed of two different materials can be produced. While the first two techniques yield structures in which the core material is totally encapsulated (monosandwich) or side surrounded (overmolding), the parts obtained via push-pull exhibit multiple oriented layers of the two materials. A comparison of the morphological developments and the flexural and impact properties induced by the three methods is made.

A Microcellular Model Evaluation for Dynamically Vulcanized EPDM/iPP Blends
Kathryn J. Wright, Kishore Indukuri, Alan J. Lesser, May 2002

The origins of elasticity in thermoplastic vulcanizates have been debated for the past decade. Previous modeling attempts provide numerical solutions that make assessment of constituent concentration and interactions unclear. A microcellular modeling approach is proposed and evaluated herein to describe the steady-state deformation behavior of dynamically vulcanized blends of ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) and isotactic polypropylene (iPP). This approach provides an analytic result including terms for composition and cure state.

The Modelling of Large Deformations of Pre-Oriented Polyethylene
J. Sweeney, P. Caton-Rose, P.D. Coates, May 2002

We have measured the state of molecular orientation in extruded polyethylene sheet using reversion tests. This state gives rise to anisotropy in stress-deformation behaviour. A novel constitutive relation, consisting of an established large deformation, rate dependent model into which is incorporated a preoriented Gaussian network, is used to model this effect. It has been implemented within the finite element package ABAQUS and applied to large extensions of specimens at various angles to the extrusion direction.

Modified Clay in Polyvinylchloride (PVC)
A. Kalendova, L. Kovarova, Z. Malac, J. Malac, J Vaculik, J. Hrncirik, J. Simonik, May 2002

Modification of two types of Cloisite 30B and Na+ montmorillonite clays is made by its intercalation with polyvinylchloride (PVC) plasticizers, both low molecular and high molecular. Plate like filler particles are generated by compounding the modified clay with PVC. Plasticized PVC sheets without haze can be obtained. Morphology of such composites is evaluated with XRD and the scanning electron microscopy. The PVC nanocomposites were tested for abrasion resistance, E-modulus and flame resistance.

Morphological Influences on Density and Deformation of Ethylene-Propylene Copolymers
Kathryn J. Wright, Alan J. Lesser, May 2002

Density and deformation of ethylene-propylene copolymers are investigated in terms of composition and morphology. The morphology, crystallization kinetics and basic mechanical behavior are examined as a function of sample age in a previous study (1). Initial density appears to be dictated by composition and not crystallinity while changes in density are due to hexagonal crystal formation. Ductility is dependent on branching density and appears to be controlled by selective strain-induced crystallization.

Morphology Development in Immiscible Polymer Systems by Bakers Cut
Madhusudan Sau, Sadhan C. Jana, May 2002

Chaotic mixing produces self-similar mixing structures through repeated stretching and folding of materials interfaces, which can be exploited in processing of polymers to produce morphologies unachievable in conventional single and twin screw extrusion processes. In this study, the self similar mixing process is idealized by baker's cut, whereby materials are affinely stretched and folded or stretched, cut, and stacked. The process is repeated to produce morphology in the blending of immiscible polymer systems of polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS).

Neuro-Fuzzy Quality Recognition in Vibration Welding of Thermoplastics
Joerg Vetter, Branson Ultraschall, May 2002

On a worldwide scale, no commercial or scientific method is available for reliable, non-destructive rating of vibration welds. Industrial production depends on mechanical spot checks and statistical methods. Therefore an innovative quality concept (fundamentals: process knowledge, artificial intelligence) was developed. Since being presented at ANTEC '93 (1), it has been optimized and tested with simple specimen and complex applications. The system now enables reproducible joint strength classification, just by analyzing the vibration welding process.

New Functional Biopolymer Natural Fiber Composites from Agricultural Resources
C. Lanzillotta, A. Pipino, D. Lips, May 2002

In this paper we report about a research on innovative exploitation of agricultural resources.Thermoplastic biopolymers such as PLA or MaterBi can be derived from vegetal carbohydrates. Properties of biopolymers are similar to those of commodity resins; to improve their performance they can be compounded with vegetable fibers. Biocomposites are pelletized and injection molded or produced in form of mats suitable for compression molding. Possible applications in automotive field are investigated through the production of car part prototypes.

A New Test Method for Flexural Creep
Brett Davidson, Jonathan Hufman, May 2002

Creep properties are shown by applying a constant stress to a plastic specimen and measuring the strain as a function of time. The flexural creep of a material is related to temperature and stress effects. This study measures the effect, constant temperature has on creep properties of polycarbonate (PC) while different stresses are applied. Specifically, a heat deflection temperature testing apparatus is used to provide a constant temperature when a fixed amount of pressure is applied to the plastic.

New Thermoplastic Vulcanizates (TPV): Polymers with Elevated Future Prospects
H.G. Fritz, F. Jin, May 2002

Innovative thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV) with high oil resistance will be described, consisting of thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) as matrix material and a dynamically crosslinked synthetic rubber phase. For the latter one ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers (EVA) are used. The vulcanization step is realized by means of an organosilane crosslinking concept. For catalysis and water addition, necessary to accelerate hydrolysis- and condensation reaction, new catalyst (?Lewis acids) and water carrier systems are proposed and applied.

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