SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Terpolymer Sequences and Geometric Distribution
Kal. Renganathan Sharma, May 2002

Chain sequence distribution calculations for terpolymers using probability model and Monte Carlo simulation methods are discussed. The SSS, AAA, SAS, SSA, ASA, AAS trial concentration are obtained. Molecular weight and ceiling temperature effects are studied using the Monte Carlo method.

Three-Dimensional Simulation of Thermoset Molding Applied to Semiconductor-Chip Encapsulation
Sejin Han, Franco Costa, Peter Cook, Shishir Ray, May 2002

In this paper, numerical methods to analyze the flow of thermoset materials during the molding process have been developed. A finite-element method is used for the three-dimensional flow analysis. The numerical analysis results have been verified by comparing with experiments. In the experiment, a semiconductor chip encapsulation process using a thermoset-molding compound has been used to observe the melt-front advancement shapes. The calculated and experimental results show good agreement.

Time-Resolved SAXS Studies on the Crystallization Behaviors of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) and its Copolymers
Byeongdu Lee, Tae Joo Shin, Seung Woo Lee, Moonhor Ree, May 2002

Using synchrotron radiation sources of Pohang Light Source, Pohang University of Science & Technology, Korea, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements have been carried out for poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(ethylene isophthalate-co-terephthalate) s which undergo isothermal crystallization and during subsequent re-melting. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurements were additionally conducted.

Transient Behavior of Extruders: Input Disturbances
Rajath Mudalamane, David Bigio, May 2002

A model of the transient response of an extruder to varying input feed rates and screw speed was developed and used to study the effect of input disturbances on the extrusion process. Simulated tests reveal that given a screw design, there is a critical frequency below which disturbances will not be damped significantly by the extruder. The relationship between screw geometry and this critical frequency is presented. The effect of specific throughput (Q/N) on damping ability of a screw geometry is also presented in this paper.

Transient Simulation of Film Blowing Process
Ravi Mayavaram, J.N. Reddy, May 2002

Analysis of film blowing process using a transient, axisymmetric, non-isothermal, viscoelastic model is presented in this paper. The model developed is solved using the finite element method. Constitutive behavior of the polymer is described using a combination of modified Phan-Thien-Tanner model and anisotropic Kelvin-Voight model. A simple crystallinity model is used to describe the phase change and crystallization kinetics. Steady state solutions predicted by the model are compared with experimental results, these results along with transient results are presented in this paper.

Troubleshooting Dehumidifying Dryers
Pete Stoughton, May 2002

Engineering materials - such as nylon polycarbonate and the like - have a molecular attraction for moisture and are hygroscopic polymers. When exposed to a humid atmosphere these materials take up and retain water. However this process can be reversed if the pellets are exposed to an artificial environment where the air temperature and dewpoint is precisely controlled for a pre-determined length of time. A good understanding of four fundamental drying parameters along with the basic principles of operation of a dehumidifying dryer are essential to troubleshooting a drying system."

Ultrasonic Application Solutions Using the Latest Advances in Equipment Technology
Jeffrey L. Frantz, May 2002

Ultrasonic welding is used in many applications. The benefits of the welding process include: elimination of consumables, fast cycle times, compact machine footprint, and relatively low cost capital investment. New advances in ultrasonic products and technology make this method possible for applications not previously suitable for ultrasonics. Today’s equipment can program and profile weld and hold force as well as amplitude during the weld cycle. Also, new frequencies have been introduced which expand the capabilities of horns and energy transmission.

Understanding and Developing Human Capital
R.L. Braido, J.R. Szymankiewicz, May 2002

The focus of this paper is to probe the aspect of Human Capital in today's growing companies. Human Capital is the sum of the intangible pieces of a company outside of its physical assets. Human Capital is more than human resources, more than training. Human Capital and the way it's used defines the success of a company. This paper will uncover how to understand and how to develop it in our companies. Case studies will give the benefits of developing the greatest asset we have in Human Capital.

The Use of Color Tolerancing Schemes to Accurately Analyze and Control Color in the Plastics Industry
Bob Binder, May 2002

The consumer judges the quality of all products, including plastics, in part by the color and appearance of those products. One issue involved is the determination of the target color for a product. This is essentially an issue of agreement between customer and vendor. Possibly more important, is the determination of an acceptable tolerance. What is deemed acceptable color, and what is unacceptable. What tolerance scheme should we use, and how do we determine what is an acceptable limit? This paper has been written to explore these important issues.

The Use of Nanometer Sized Glass as a Filler for Polyvinylidene Floride (PVDF)
Matthew W. Baker, Scott J. Moravek, May 2002

This project is structured around the idea that Polyvinylidene Floride (PVDF) is an expensive engineering grade resin. This research will attempt to use nanometer sized glass filler with the virgin material at the correct loading to attain the desired properties and become more cost effective. The glass filler will compliment the chemical resistance of the PVDF which is one of its most desired properties, as well as, increase the flame retardance of the manufactured product.

Usefulness of Numerical Injection Molding Simulation Results for Prediction of Mechanical Behavior of Plastics Components
Rolf Koster, May 2002

Several companies and institutions contributed to a project for which thick-walled gas tube connectors were injection molded of high-density polyethylenes applying different molding parameter combinations. Connectors were mechanically tested, and numerical simulations of injection molding were carried out. With a simple ranking method it was possible to show correlations between performance under internal pressurization and predictions of shear rates, shear stresses, and thermal shrinkage differences between different locations.

Using Large Area Automated Microscopy to Characterize Fiber-Reinforced Composites
S.C. Barwick, A. Sinha, T.D. Papathanasiou, May 2002

Establishing a quantitative linkage between materials, method of fabrication, and the final properties and on-site performance of a manufactured component is a key requirement for the further usage of composite materials in critical applications. Detailed and large-scale topological characterization is an essential first step in this direction. Here we show how Large Area Automated Microscopy (LAAM) can be used to characterize fiber-reinforced composites by detecting (1) fiber misalignment and (2) porosity.

Viscoelasticity of New Molecularly Designed Polypropylenes
Chunxia He, Paula Wood-Adams, Robert L. Sammler, Teresa P. Karjala, May 2002

The linear viscoelastic properties of a series of new molecularly designed polypropylenes were studied. The high melt strengths of these gel-free materials make them suitable for a wide range of applications. The results of dynamic measurements were combined with creep compliances to provide broad experimental windows. The impact of changing molecular structure on the relaxation spectrum is elucidated and compared with that metallocene polyethylene.

Warpage Prediction of Latch Housing
Ruihua Han, May 2002

With the increasing demand for weight reduction in vehicles, the electronic devices are becoming more compacted, and the plastic fixtures for the electrical components are becoming more complicated. In this paper, the warpage of a plastic latch housing is investigated using Moldflow Plastics Insight (MPI). Inside this housing, several copper traces are embedded. Proper boundary conditions are applied within MPI and the predicted warpage matches well with the prototype results.

Wear Mechanisms in Plasticating Units - A Literature Survey -
Maël Garnier, May 2002

This literature survey focuses on the phenomena of wear that occur in screw-barrel systems. Some studies have shown that various types of wear occur in the individual zones of the screw depending on the materials processed and process parameters. Abrasion, corrosion and adhesion are the factors that limit the service life of the processing machines, especially as the overlapping of several mechanisms, that occurs sometimes, lead to accelerated wear.

3D-Chromography, A New Way of Representing Homogeneity in Color and Appearance
C.H. Stapfer, U. Bosch, May 2002

This paper introduces a new method for representing the color composition of an object as a space diagram. A computer program for digital image analysis generates the cage-like tridimentional CIE L*a*b* spectrum of a test sample's image acquired from a high resolution flatbed scanner or color camera and calculates the detailed population distribution of all individually color-coded pixels composing the image. This makes it possible to determine quantitatively the sample's homogeneity, either by differential color population analysis in the L*a*b* cage, or by plotting a 3D-Chromography of the sample in the three individual L*, a* and b* modes separately, thus revealing all possible defects or color deviations in the sample.

3D-FE Simulation of Injection Molding - Calculation of Fiber Orientation and Crystallization
W. Michaeli, M. Kratz, May 2002

The simulation of injection molding has considerably gained in importance for mold design as well as for process design. Therefore, at IKV a 3D-simulation program based on finite elements has been developed, which has recently been enhanced through a module for the calculation of fiber orientation in short fiber reinforced parts. For reasons of numerical efficiency the simulation program makes use of a tensor model for the description of fiber orientation.Mechanical and optical properties of polymers are to a large extent influenced by morphological properties, especially by the degree of crystallization. Therefore, a model for the calculation of crystallization kinetics is currently being implemented into the simulation software.

Acrylate Elastomer Modified Polyolefinic TPEs
Nisha Patel, Satish Sharma, May 2002

Soft polyolefinic TPEs are increasingly being favored over PVC based TPEs for automotive interiors. The major drivers for this change are the recycling and environmental aspects of PVC. Some strengths of polyolefinic TPEs are good low temperature performance, retention of properties after exposure to sunlight and high temperatures, low fogging, and little or no odor. The challenges in switching from PVC to polyolefinic TPEs involve attaining the desired melt processing characteristics and the mechanical and aesthetic properties at a relatively low cost. This paper will discuss Eliokem's use of a specialty acrylate elastomeric modifier in designing polyolefinic TPEs for automotive interiors and other applications

Acrylic Capping Resin Compositions
Craig Bastian, David Marshall, Riichi Nishimura, Joseph Silbermann, Takahiko Sugaya, Kazuhisa Tajima, May 2002

This paper describes acrylic-based resin compositions for use in co-extrusion over various substrates including PVC, ABS and CPVC. These acrylic compositions exhibit significantly improved weathering performance along with excellent impact strength when compared to existing vinyl-based compositions used in applications such as siding, windows and fencing.The acrylic-based compositions require the use of some modifiers to improve impact strength, gloss, flow and other physical properties. A comparison between the modified acrylic-based resin and PVC resin is discussed.

Adapting Finite Element Analysis to Perform Small Molecule Permeation Analysis
Daniel P. Bennett, May 2002

Until recently, there has been no extensive research done to predict small molecule permeation through polymer membranes using computer analysis. Advances have been made using finite element analysis software to help to try to predict this phenomenon. This has been successfully completed with two-dimensional models, but has not been performed on a three-dimensional model, which is necessary for products such as blow molded bottles. This paper will analyze a three-dimensional finite element analysis and compare those results to hand calculations to determine if finite element analysis software can serve as a reliable mean of analysis for permeation.

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