The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Understanding and Developing Human Capital
The focus of this paper is to probe the aspect of Human Capital in today's growing companies. Human Capital is the sum of the intangible pieces of a company outside of its physical assets. Human Capital is more than human resources, more than training. Human Capital and the way it's used defines the success of a company. This paper will uncover how to understand and how to develop it in our companies. Case studies will give the benefits of developing the greatest asset we have in Human Capital.
The Use of a Design of Experiments (DOE) to Optimize Processing Conditions of an Injection Molded Gear
A Design of Experiments (DOE) was performed to optimize processing conditions of an acetal copolymer injection molded gear. Nineteen experiments were performed using five independent variables. The independent variables were melt and mold temperature, injection speed, hold pressure, and hold time. Dependent variables (outputs) included weight, dimensions, total composite error (TCE), tooth-to-tooth error (TTE), and tooth break strength. The results of the DOE indicate there are molding parameters that will meet the dimensional and functional requirements.
The Use of Color Tolerancing Schemes to Accurately Analyze and Control Color in the Plastics Industry
The consumer judges the quality of all products, including plastics, in part by the color and appearance of those products. One issue involved is the determination of the target color for a product. This is essentially an issue of agreement between customer and vendor. Possibly more important, is the determination of an acceptable tolerance. What is deemed acceptable color, and what is unacceptable. What tolerance scheme should we use, and how do we determine what is an acceptable limit? This paper has been written to explore these important issues.
The Use of Nanometer Sized Glass as a Filler for Polyvinylidene Floride (PVDF)
This project is structured around the idea that Polyvinylidene Floride (PVDF) is an expensive engineering grade resin. This research will attempt to use nanometer sized glass filler with the virgin material at the correct loading to attain the desired properties and become more cost effective. The glass filler will compliment the chemical resistance of the PVDF which is one of its most desired properties, as well as, increase the flame retardance of the manufactured product.
Usefulness of Numerical Injection Molding Simulation Results for Prediction of Mechanical Behavior of Plastics Components
Several companies and institutions contributed to a project for which thick-walled gas tube connectors were injection molded of high-density polyethylenes applying different molding parameter combinations. Connectors were mechanically tested, and numerical simulations of injection molding were carried out. With a simple ranking method it was possible to show correlations between performance under internal pressurization and predictions of shear rates, shear stresses, and thermal shrinkage differences between different locations.
Using Castings for Molds for Competitive Advantage.
Rapid tooling, prototype or production, molds and mold inserts cast net shape into ceramic molds can give you an edge over competition.Decorative tooling, impossible to machine or EDM molds with intricate features such as horse replicas.Near net shape, mold inserts with minimal finish stock on the cavity shape and partings in a sand or ceramic casting process. Casting in all parting line relieves, saving rough machining, time, process steps and money.Conformal cooling, mold inserts with cast in waterlines conforming to the shape of the cavity, allow faster cycle times, reducing mold weight, material costs and press wear.
Using Large Area Automated Microscopy to Characterize Fiber-Reinforced Composites
Establishing a quantitative linkage between materials, method of fabrication, and the final properties and on-site performance of a manufactured component is a key requirement for the further usage of composite materials in critical applications. Detailed and large-scale topological characterization is an essential first step in this direction. Here we show how Large Area Automated Microscopy (LAAM) can be used to characterize fiber-reinforced composites by detecting (1) fiber misalignment and (2) porosity.
Viscoelasticity of New Molecularly Designed Polypropylenes
The linear viscoelastic properties of a series of new molecularly designed polypropylenes were studied. The high melt strengths of these gel-free materials make them suitable for a wide range of applications. The results of dynamic measurements were combined with creep compliances to provide broad experimental windows. The impact of changing molecular structure on the relaxation spectrum is elucidated and compared with that metallocene polyethylene.
Warpage Prediction of Latch Housing
With the increasing demand for weight reduction in vehicles, the electronic devices are becoming more compacted, and the plastic fixtures for the electrical components are becoming more complicated. In this paper, the warpage of a plastic latch housing is investigated using Moldflow Plastics Insight (MPI). Inside this housing, several copper traces are embedded. Proper boundary conditions are applied within MPI and the predicted warpage matches well with the prototype results.
Wear Mechanisms in Plasticating Units - A Literature Survey -
This literature survey focuses on the phenomena of wear that occur in screw-barrel systems. Some studies have shown that various types of wear occur in the individual zones of the screw depending on the materials processed and process parameters. Abrasion, corrosion and adhesion are the factors that limit the service life of the processing machines, especially as the overlapping of several mechanisms, that occurs sometimes, lead to accelerated wear.
A Web Based Stretch Blow Moulding Simulation
A simulation of the injection stretch blow moulding process has been developed. However an in-depth knowledge of Finite Element Modelling is required to enable it to be used. The object of this work was to provide a user-friendly Web-based interface that would enable engineers without Finite Element experience to investigate preform and bottle designs. A form is provided for the user to submit the required blow moulding parameters. Once the simulation has been completed a contour plot of the thickness distribution of the formed bottle and an animation of the simulation are made available on the web server.
3D-Chromography, A New Way of Representing Homogeneity in Color and Appearance
This paper introduces a new method for representing the color composition of an object as a space diagram. A computer program for digital image analysis generates the cage-like tridimentional CIE L*a*b* spectrum of a test sample's image acquired from a high resolution flatbed scanner or color camera and calculates the detailed population distribution of all individually color-coded pixels composing the image. This makes it possible to determine quantitatively the sample's homogeneity, either by differential color population analysis in the L*a*b* cage, or by plotting a 3D-Chromography of the sample in the three individual L*, a* and b* modes separately, thus revealing all possible defects or color deviations in the sample.
3D-FE Simulation of Injection Molding - Calculation of Fiber Orientation and Crystallization
The simulation of injection molding has considerably gained in importance for mold design as well as for process design. Therefore, at IKV a 3D-simulation program based on finite elements has been developed, which has recently been enhanced through a module for the calculation of fiber orientation in short fiber reinforced parts. For reasons of numerical efficiency the simulation program makes use of a tensor model for the description of fiber orientation.Mechanical and optical properties of polymers are to a large extent influenced by morphological properties, especially by the degree of crystallization. Therefore, a model for the calculation of crystallization kinetics is currently being implemented into the simulation software.
Acrylate Elastomer Modified Polyolefinic TPEs
Soft polyolefinic TPEs are increasingly being favored over PVC based TPEs for automotive interiors. The major drivers for this change are the recycling and environmental aspects of PVC. Some strengths of polyolefinic TPEs are good low temperature performance, retention of properties after exposure to sunlight and high temperatures, low fogging, and little or no odor. The challenges in switching from PVC to polyolefinic TPEs involve attaining the desired melt processing characteristics and the mechanical and aesthetic properties at a relatively low cost. This paper will discuss Eliokem's use of a specialty acrylate elastomeric modifier in designing polyolefinic TPEs for automotive interiors and other applications
Acrylic Capping Resin Compositions
This paper describes acrylic-based resin compositions for use in co-extrusion over various substrates including PVC, ABS and CPVC. These acrylic compositions exhibit significantly improved weathering performance along with excellent impact strength when compared to existing vinyl-based compositions used in applications such as siding, windows and fencing.The acrylic-based compositions require the use of some modifiers to improve impact strength, gloss, flow and other physical properties. A comparison between the modified acrylic-based resin and PVC resin is discussed.
Adapting Finite Element Analysis to Perform Small Molecule Permeation Analysis
Until recently, there has been no extensive research done to predict small molecule permeation through polymer membranes using computer analysis. Advances have been made using finite element analysis software to help to try to predict this phenomenon. This has been successfully completed with two-dimensional models, but has not been performed on a three-dimensional model, which is necessary for products such as blow molded bottles. This paper will analyze a three-dimensional finite element analysis and compare those results to hand calculations to determine if finite element analysis software can serve as a reliable mean of analysis for permeation.
Additives for Improved Surface Adhesion in Polyolefin/Acrylate Monomer Blends
Blends of metallocene polyolefins and acrylate monomers are a new technology which provide materials with an attractive combination of physical properties. To utilize this new technology in as large a number of application areas as possible, modification of the surface adhesion properties of the cured blends is desired. A study of the effect of additives on the adhesion properties of representative blends has been carried out. The additives include monomeric, oligomeric and polymeric compositions. Functionality on these additives included groups that are expected to participate in the cure chemistry, as well as non-reactive additives. The effects of these additives on adhesion to typical inks, paints and coatings will be described.
Adhesion of Ethylene-Styrene Copolymers to Polyethylene in Microlayers
The effects of styrene content and temperature on the adhesion of ethylene-styrene copolymers (ES) to low density polyethylene (LDPE) were examined by measuring the delamination toughness of LDPE/ES microlayers in the T-peel test. Experiments on microlayers with relatively thin (8 to 18?m) ES layers demonstrated that delamination toughness was proportional to ES layer thickness. Excellent adhesion was observed between LDPE and ES. Increased styrene content led to decreased delamination toughness. Major transitions in delamination toughness and delamination mechanism were observed at the glass transition of the ES and the ?-transition of the LDPE.
Adhesion of Polypropylene to Metallocene/Ziegler-Natta Polyethylene Blends in Microlayers
The adhesion of polypropylene (PP) to blends of a metallocene and a Ziegler-Natta polyethylene (PE) was highly dependent on the density of the metallocene PE. The systems with the lowest density metallocene PE showed the highest adhesion to PP. This finding supported the hypothesis that a layer of low molecular weight, amorphous chains, originating from the Ziegler-Natta PE, formed at the PP/PE interface. The lower density metallocene PE was believed to misciblize the amorphous chains of the Ziegler-Natta PE and prevent their migration to the interface, thus improving adhesion to polypropylene.
An Adipate Based Polymeric Plasticizer with Improved Low Temperature Properties
Adipic acid based polymeric plasticizers are the workhorses of the polymeric plasticizer market. They offer a useful combination of softening efficiency and permanence at a cost that is reasonable as polymeric plasticizers go. One property of polymeric adipates that does not quite meet the performance requirements of vinyl com pounders is low temperature flexibility. In particular the wire and cable industry requires improvement in low temperature properties to pass the lower brittleness temperature tests that resulted from post-NAFTA harmonization of the Canadian and U.S. standards for electrical insulation. In addition, while the viscosities of adipates are not high relative to polymeric plasticizers based on other chemistries, lower viscosity for equivalent molecular weights is a characteristic that would be desired by anyone handling polymeric plasticizers. The lower viscosity also accounts for processability improvements in vinyl.This paper will introduce a new adipic acid based plasticizer developed by Velsicol Chemical Corp. that lowers the brittle temperature of a vinyl com pound by 3 to 4 °C over Admex 6996®, a benchmark plasticizer of the same molecular weight. Permanence characteristics and softening efficiency are similar to the performance of the benchmark. The viscosity at 25°C is 25% lower than conventional adipates of equal molecular weight.
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