SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Overview of Ultrasonic Welding - Principles and Applications
Joon Park, May 2002
Welding of plastic components has been playing a very essential role for system and subsystem integration of subcomponents. Ultrasonic welding process has been one of most popular welding processes for thermoplastic assembly. Effective usage of ultrasonic energy generated by the ultrasonic welding machine has been allowing various types of manufacturing processes such as welding, precision degating of molded parts, staking, seaming, embossing, ultrasonic molding, and so on. The most positive advantage of the process is the highly precise process control with a quick cycle time.
Photodegradation of Poloystyrene
Young Eric, May 2002
The rate of photo degradation of polystyrene in our society (Tropical Climate) has really limited its applications to mostly indoor use. This led to a wide range of research works on the effect of our Climatic condition on the photo degradation of polystyrene. Through studying and compilation of research findings and industrial informations, the primary causes, effect and factors affecting photo degradable in our society are discussed.
Plastic Laser Welding
Paul Rooney, May 2002
This paper reviews the evaluation of simultaneous through transmission infrared welding (STTIr) for joining selected under the hood applications." It was found that applications such as a brake fluid reservoirs could be effectively welded with STTIr without part marking or generation of particulates."
Polymers in Tissue Engineering: Basic Principles, Main Challenges and Characterization Requirements
R.L. Reis, May 2002
This keynote lecture discusses the use of biodegradable polymers as tissue engineering scaffolds. The basic principles of tissue engineering are addressed, going from scaffolds processing to some brief information on biological studies. These topics are introduced in a way that an audience composed by plastic engineers can easily became aware of the importance of the field and understands its complexity, as well as the role of biodegradable polymers on its success.
Polyolefin Market Review - 2002
William Kuhlke, Thomas S. Walsh, May 2002
We will present a review of the world and US and Canada" demand for polyethylene and polypropylene from 2000 with a forecast to 2010. We will also look at the relative profitability of producing these resins in 2000. The polyethylene portion will be broken down into grades produced by the conventional high pressure process by the low pressure linear low density grades and high density grades.The paper will be based on 2000 data but the presentation at ANTEC will include some 2001 year end data."
Polypropylene Produced by Binary Supported Catalyst Based on Metallocene
Carla C. Pombo, Anunciata Conte, Maria de Fátima V. Marques, May 2002
The binary silica supported catalyst system comprising the Cp2ZrCl2 and SiMe2(Ind)2ZrCl2 metallocene compounds was prepared with different immobilization methods and evaluated at different propylene polymerization conditions. The homogeneous isolated catalysts and also the homogeneous catalyst mixture were also employed for comparison. High activities were obtained with the supported systems and the molecular weight of the produced polypropylene was invariably higher than the homogeneous precursor.
Predicting the Heat Seal Performance of Ionomer Films
Barry A. Morris, May 2002
The heat seal strength of a flexible plastic package depends on the extent of molecular penetration at the seal interface, which in turn is a function of sealing jaw temperature, line speed and film thickness. Thinner films reach the maximum seal strength at lower jaw temperature or faster line speed than thicker films. A model is developed that combines heat transfer with molecular diffusion at the interface. The model points to how laboratory data may be used to predict the sealing performance of ionomers in high-speed packaging lines.
Prediction of Failure and Fracture Mechanisms of Fiber Reinforced Composites Using Finite Element Analysis
E. Ghassemieh, May 2002
A finite element (FE) model is developed to study the stress transfer from matrix to fiber in a short fiber reinforced composite. The critical length of fibers to insure the ultimate stress transfer, is predicted by the model. The interfacial stresses evaluated by FE model are compared with the well known shear lag (SL) and modified shear lag (MSL) models. The competing failure mechanism in short fiber reinforced composites and the triggering stresses for that are recognized.
Prediction of Parison Swell in Extrusion Blow Molding Using Neural Network Method
Han-Xiong Huang, Chang-Ming Liao, May 2002
A neural-network-based model approach is present where the effect of the die temperature and flow rate on the diameter and thickness swells of parison in the continuous extrusion blow molding of HDPE was incorporated. Comparison of the neural network model predictions with experimental data yields very agreement and demonstrates that the network model can predict the parison swells at different processing parameters at a high degree of precision (within 0.001).
The Prep Virtual Factory: A Suite of Processing Simulators
Kirk Cantor, Timothy Weston, Stanley Baczek, May 2002
The Plastics Resources for Educators Program (PREP) has produced a vast array of multimedia training materials for plastics educators and the plastics industry. Products completed so far include graphics, animations, and teaching modules. The latest product is a suite of plastics processing simulators called the PREP Virtual Factory." This fully interactive teaching facility includes "machines" for extrusion injection molding and blow molding. Using these tools learners can discover proper operating procedures and investigate the influence of various process parameters on product properties."
Pressure Distribution in Screw Extruders
C. Rauwendaal, May 2002
Pressure in extruders is usually measured only at the end of the extruder barrel (P-barrel) and at the die inlet (P-die). In some extruders multiple pressure transducers are placed along the length of the extruder barrel so that the axial pressure profile can be measured. Such information provides invaluable information about the behavior of the extruder and is extremely useful in troubleshooting extrusion problems. This paper discusses various pressure profiles and explains what they tell us about the processes occurring within the extruder.
Product Designer Wish List Can Be Done Now!
Paul E. Allen, May 2002
This paper will cover the use of Patent Number: 5,932,164 and its effect in product design. It will briefly review the economic and physical barriers put on the product designer by the injection molding process. These include, draft angle, surface finish, and physical ejector placement. It will show how a designer can design a product with minimal draft angle, and/or no mechanical ejector system, and/or less expensive mold, and/or less cost to produce.The above will include very deep texture with little or no draft angle, and no stripper ring (to flash) on round parts.
Properties of High Density Polyethylene and Poly(Ethylene-CO-octene) Blends
Marisa C.G. Rocha, Maria José O.C. Guimarães, Fernanda B.M. Coutinho, May 2002
In this work the mechanical properties of high density polyethylene toughened with two grades of metallocene elastomers based on ethylene/1-octene (EOC) were studied . It was observed a synergistic effect on the tensile properties and a supertough behavior for blends with elastomer concentrations higher than 5 wt%. Cavitation, plastic deformation and fibrillized cavitation were the operating mechanisms in the deformation processes.
PVC/Wood Flour Composites Compatibilized with Chlorinated Polyethylene
Virginia O. Guffey, Amiel B. Sabbagh, May 2002
Chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) has been demonstrated to be an effective compatibilizer for dissimilar materials in various mixed-polymer or recycled-polymer systems. In this paper the use of chlorinated polyethylene to compatibilize polymer/natural fiber composites is discussed. Examples of applications in PVC/wood flour composites are given.
Raman Spectroscopy: A Useful Tool for Characterizing the Polymerization Kinetics of Polyurethanes
Shane Parnell, K. Min, M. Cakmak, May 2002
In this study, the polymerization kinetics of an uncatalyzed polyester based thermoplastic polyurethane formulation was investigated with Raman spectroscopy. The normalized scattering intensity of the 1530 cm-1 diisocyanate band was used to calculate conversion as a function of time. Kinetic parameters obtained from these experiments correlated well with those obtained from analogous calorimetric experiments.
Real-Time Monitoring of Fluorescence Anisotropy and Temperature during Processing of Biaxially Stretched Polypropylene Film
Anthony J. Bur, Steven C. Roth, May 2002
Using an optical sensor, fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence temperature measurements were carried out during the processing of biaxially stretched polypropylene films in a tenter. The fluorescence derived from a dye that was doped into the resin. Anisotropy measurements were made as a function of machine stretching ratios.
Residual Strength-Based Lifetime Prediction of Polymeric Composite Materials
Scott Case, John Bausano, Jack Lesko, May 2002
In this work, we present the philosophy of a lifetime prediction scheme for polymeric composite materials based upon damage accumulation concepts that allow the calculation of the residual strength. Key features of the method are that it readily admits the effects of multiple damage mechanisms and can be used to develop design guidelines based upon reliability concepts.
Reverse Engineering of Polymeric Materials
J.C.J. Bart, May 2002
Introduction The real value of polymer/additive analysis becomes apparent when it is put to solve relevant industrial problems, to study important materials or to control vital processes. At a par with Manufacturing or Operational Excellence programs industry also strives for Analytical Excellence. In this paper we present best industrial practices related to the analysis of additives in polymers.
A Review of Recent U.S. Utility Patents on Tamper-Evident Resealable Push-Pull Bottle Closures
Amad Tayebi, May 2002
A review of design options, disclosed in recent U.S. utility patents, for tamper evidence in resealable push-pull bottle closures is presented. Each of the selected patents is analyzed with regard to choice of location and nature of tamper evidence means.
Rheological and Tensile Strength Characteristics of Polymer Melts
M. Zatloukal, P. Štach, P. Liu, J. Vl?ek, P. Sáha, May 2002
Cogswell [1] and Wagner [2] methodology was employed to determine the rheological and tensile strength properties of two LDPEs and two metallocene LLDPEs resins through capillary and Haul-off (Rheotens-like) measurements. It has been shown that the tensile strength properties obtained by both methods yield almost the same values. Moreover, these values can be correlated to the drawability in tubular film blowing for corresponding materials.

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Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:

Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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