SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Bio-Based Epoxy/Clay Nanocomposites as a New Matrix for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites: Thermophysical and Mechanical Properties Evaluations
H. Miyagawa, A. K. Mohanty, M. Misra, L. T. Drzal, September 2003

The thermophysical properties of bio-based epoxy nanocomposites reinforced with organo-montmorillonite clay and the mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced plastics whose matrix is the bio-based epoxy/clay nanocomposites are reported. A novel sample preparation scheme was used to process the organically modified clay in the glassy bio-based epoxy network resulting in nanocomposites where the clay was homogeneously dispersed and completely exfoliated in the bio-based epoxy network. The storage modulus of bio-based epoxy at room temperature which was below the glass transition temperature of the nanocomposites increased approximately 0.9 GPa with the addition of 5.0 weight percent of exfoliated clay platelets. The glass transition temperature Tg decreased with addition of the organo-clay nanoplatelets. To understand the role of clay platelets in the bio-based epoxy nanocomposites the microstructure of clay platelets were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). Carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRP) were processed using the bio-based epoxy/clay nanocomposites. No difference in elastic modulus and flexural strength was observed regardless of the use of different matrices. It was observed that the interlaminar shear strength of CFRP with bio-based epoxy was improved with adding 5.0 weight percent intercalated clay nanoparticles.

Impact-Tolerant SMC Resins for Demanding Structural Applications
Sean P. Walsh, September 2003

Composite materials have penetrated the transportation market where their lower total component cost and lighter weight have made them the material of choice. As designers and engineers become more comfortable with the use of composites they are being specified in more demanding load-bearing applications. Structural thermoset resins combine high modulus the ability to efficiently translate reinforcing fiber properties with the elasticity to withstand the high stresses and strains of load bearing applications. A new generation of impact-tolerant structural thermoset resins has been developed that have the high modulus critical to achieving maximum structural properties yet exhibit the toughness of thermoplastics. These tough thermosetting resins absorb high transient loads without suffering micro-structural damage that can propagate to failure after repeated mechanical chemical and environmental exposures. Cast resin properties and reinforced composite properties show the potential of these materials as a cost-effective option for transportation applications. Efficiency of reinforcing fiber utilization allows weight reduction without sacrificing structural performance. These new impact-tolerant materials can be processed with standard techniques at the production rates typical of high volume processes such as SMC at very low scrap rates. Composite formulation latitude allows tailoring the mechanical dimensional and appearance properties that typically make composite materials an economically attractive choice.

Cost Effective Use of Carbon Fiber SMC
Brian Hull, September 2003

Viper demonstrated the capability of carbon fiber SMC and the benefit it offers high performance vehicles. That was an important and necessary first step for the broader use of carbon reinforced composites in the automotive industry. The next critical step for carbon fiber SMC (CFSMC) is to make it cost competitive. Only then can CFSMC move beyond high performance vehicles and into the broader automotive market. In the broader market with lower performance requirements CFSMC is not cost competitive. However there is a great deal of work being done all along the supply chain to address the key cost drivers for CFSMC. Once the competitive cost targets are reached CFSMC will be able to compete with glass reinforced SMC as well as Aluminum. In the mean time there is a cost effective approach for using CFSMC in current parts and new applications that need increased stiffness. The key is to use CFSMC where it provides the maximum benefit at the lowest cost.

Structural RIM Choices for Today's Automotive Design
Terry Seagrave, September 2003

Bayer Polymers has been engaged in extensive development of Structural RIM (SRIM) polyurethane materials for over two decades. Out of these developments two traditional plus one new composite technologies have evolved. These afford the automotive designers as well as the engineers to capitalize on the composite advantages that are increasing with the demand for lighter weight cars and trucks. This paper discusses these three composite technologies. Historically SRIM composite have enjoyed interior applications such as door panels roof modules instrument panel retainers sunshades spare tire covers etc. Additionally SRIM materials have enjoyed exterior applications such as seat frames bumper beams truck boxes midgates and tailgates. Recent Bayer SRIM developments have brought about another composite technology choice. This technology combines traditional reinforcing materials with honeycomb cores. The result is a lighter weight composite than ever before with exceptional load bearing properties. Since a variety of manufacturing processes and/or equipment are involved to produce SRIM composites some process descriptions are discussed. Finally real production applications in use today are provided as typical examples.

Innovative Process Technology LFT-D-NF Offers New Possibilities for Emission Reduced Long-Natural Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Components
Frank Henning, Heinrich Ernst, Richard Brussel, September 2003

Automotive components manufactured by using long- fiber reinforced thermoplastics have been firmly established for years for the purpose of large-scale production of semi-structural automotive components. In particular the LFT direct processing method using glass reinforcements has increasingly achieved its objectives due to its cost saving potential and excellent material characteristics and it is the base of operation for the processing of natural fibers. As a manufacturer of LFT and GMT processing plants Dieffenbacher GmbH & Co. meets the high requirements regarding material quality in order to guarantee a process for safe part production including an acquisition and evaluation system (SPC) of process data. The North America Division Dieffenbacher DNA offers this solution to the American market. The process modifications as well as some material properties will be introduced and discussed in this paper.

Compounding with Pushtrusion" Technology "
Stephen T. Bowen, September 2003

Pushtrusion"™ is a new technology that combines continuous fiber reinforcement with molten polymer creating fiber reinforced compounds during the molding process. The continuous reinforcing fibers are cut to specified lengths to create short fiber compounds long fiber compounds or even continuous fiber reinforced materials. The "Pushtrusion" technology can be used with many part forming processes including injection molding compression molding extrusion and filament winding. "Pushtrusion" is a patented process developed by Woodshed Technologies Inc. The process is licensed to end-users. Equipment is manufactured to use existing molding machines (retro-fit) or for new molding machines with pushtrusion technology integrated by licensed OEM machine manufacturers. "

Advanced Technologies for Design and Fabrication of Composite Automotive Components
Scott Wellman, Ron Averill, Johanna Burgueno, September 2003

Structural composites are available in various forms and functionality providing the designer a tremendous amount of flexibility to develop innovative compostie design solutions. But these advantages often cannot be realized without novel manufacturing methods that can accommodate hererogeneous parts of complex shape. Today new manufacturing methods allow the designer to satisfy specific local strength criteria by judicious selection and placement of materials. At the same time the freedom of complex component geometry provides the added benefits of combining multiple components/operations into a one-piece compression molded component. These new material combinations and manufacturing techniques provide a vast and comprehensive set of new opportunities for novel design solutions that exceed previous performance overcome previous limitations and stretch the limits of previous engineering design intuition. In order to take full advantage of these new materials and manufacturing techniques advanced automated design optimization technologies can be used to discover creative solutions. These methods dramatically improve the relevance and speed of complex manual design processes truncating them from months to days or even hours. They concurrently explore hundreds of design parameters and their relationships in product and process design scenarios and intelligently seek optimal values for parameters that affect performance and cost. These design tools have been used in the development of several FRP structural programs solely focused on replacing traditional materials like steel aluminum and cast iron. In this paper a new composite manufacturing method and a new design optimization technique are discussed briefly. Several example applications to real automotive composite components are described to illustrate the benefits of combining advanced manufacturing and design methods to realize novel composite solutions at a fraction of the weight of equivalent metallic parts.

Energy Absorption in Thermoplastically Stamped Composite Grid Structures
Changsheng Gan, Ronald F. Gibson, Golam M. Newaz, September 2003

This paper summarizes results from an analytical/experimental study of the energy absorption characteristics of grid-stiffened composite structures under transverse loading. Tests and finite element simulations were carried out for quasi-static loading of isogrid E-glass/polypropylene panels in 3-point bending. Test panels were fabricated by using a thermoplastic stamping process and co-mingled E-glass/polypropylene yarns. The results of the tests and simulations show that these types of structures have excellent energy absorption characteristics and that most of the energy absorption occurs beyond initial failure. Results for isogrid panels loaded on the skin side will be compared with similar results for loading on the rib side and conclusions regarding design of such structures for energy absorption will be offered.

Roll Forming of Advanced Thermoplastic Composite Materials
R. J. Dykes, September 2002

Roll forming is one of the most efficient and pervasive metal working technologies for forming metallic sheet. Recently this technology has been successfully adapted for forming a variety of fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite materials. This paper offers a general overview of the roll forming operation as well as a summary of recent advances in the processing technology. An outline of the various application areas is also summarized with particular emphasis given to the potential cost savings that can be achieved using the roll forming method.

Developments in Thermoplastic Door Modules
Maria Cilberti, September 2002

The use of door modules as a pre-assembled functional unit inside a car door is discussed. This includes reasons why a door module should be used and why a long glass fibre reinforced PP material is a good choice. As an example the development of the door modules for the new Ford Fiesta is given including the mechanical and production design of the StaMax P carrier. Special attention is paid to the excellent dimensional reproducibility of this material. Further integration potential for future door modules is also highlighted.

Alternatives in Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics
Nathan Johnson, September 2002

PowerPoint Presentation at ACCE 2002.

Creating High Performance Conductive Composites with Carbon Nanotubes
Pat Collins, September 2002

Multiwall carbon nanotubes are a very small high aspect ratio conductive additive for plastics. The high aspect ratio means that a lower loading of nanotubes is needed compared to other conductive additives. This low loading preserves more of the resins toughness especially at low temperatures as well as maintaining other key performance properties of the matrix resin.

Advanced Materials for a Smart Lightweight Design
H. Dittmar, September 2002

PowerPoint Presentation at ACCE 2002.

Sandwich Construction for Surface Transportation
Alejandro (Alex) Gutierrez, September 2002

PowerPoint Presentation at ACCE 2002.

Processing and Handling of Verton® Composites
Rick Gregory, September 2002

PowerPoint Presentation at ACCE 2002.

Process Simulation Long Fiber Thermoplastic Polypropylene Bus Seat Component
Uday Vaidya, September 2002

PowerPoint Presentation at ACCE 2002.

Soy Biobased Materials for Automotive Applications
Professor Richard Wool, September 2002

PowerPoint Presentation at ACCE 2002.

Bio-based Thermoset Resins and Their Composites
M. Misra, September 2002

PowerPoint Presentation at ACCE 2002.

Growing and Processing Natural Renewable BAST Fibers for Natural Fiber Composites
Hugh S. McKee, September 2002

PowerPoint Presentation at ACCE 2002.

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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