SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Investigation of Applicability of Two Biodegradable Polymers for Mechanical Applications
Rolf Koster, May 2002
Three types of specimens of a polyester-amide and a poly-hydroxybutyrate have been tensile and tensile-impact tested. These specimens represent different geometric characteristics; one specimen has a cold weld line. The influence of injection molding settings on tensile behavior was in agreement with tensile-impact results. Embrittlement was found for all specimen types and both materials after 20 months of storage. The beneficial effect of annealing on toughness was shown for poly-hydroxybutyrate specimens without weld line.
Investigation of Injection Molding Process Robustness for Various Molding Strategies
Angela S. Albertson, Michelle V. Brendel, May 2002
Several different methods are used throughout the industry to set up the injection phase of the injection molding process. This study is intended to look at the long-term robustness of several methods. Investigating the peak pressure and cycle integral consistency when regrind and check ring wear are introduced will do this.
Investigation of Long-Chain Branching in HDPE Using Triple-Detector GPC
J. Lu, K. Hammons, H.-J. Sue, Wallace W. Yau, May 2002
An effective technique for characterizing long-chain branching (LCB) in polyethylene resins has been being developed. Triple detectors (concentration, RI or IR; viscosity, DP; and light scattering, LS) are added to the GPC system to render a powerful capability of studying polyolefin structures. As a result, low levels of LCB in HDPE can be clearly detected. In this work, three model HDPE resins were studied and the level of LCB is found to have a profound effect on the morphology formation in film blowing.
Investigation of Optimum Crystallization Conditions of Polyvinylidene Floride (PVDF)
Stephen G. Hlopick, Matthew W. Baker, May 2002
The purpose of this experiment is to find the time and temperature dependents that yield maximum crystallinity of PVDF as well as its optimum property performance point. We will experiment with a curing temperature range between the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the polymer's melting temperature (Tm) and document the density at set time intervals. We will measure the injection molded article's density to determine the maximum crystallinity because, as the part reaches final crystallization, it will also stop shrinking and will be at its densest state.
Investigation of Stress Cracking and Fatigue Failure in Two-Shot Cavities Using Finite Element Analysis
David D. Camlin, May 2002
The purpose of the research was to discover the contributing factors of unexplained cavity cracking in a two-shot molding process. This project used Finite Element Analysis to study the effects of pressure and fatigue stress on the given cavity insert.
Ionomer-Class Nanocomposites with Clay Nanofiller
L. Kovarova, A. Kalendova, J. Malac, J. Vaculik, Z. Malac, J. Simonik, May 2002
For compounding experiments, Surlyn types of ionomer extrusion materials were used. Comparison was made between two zinc types of ionomer copolymers with respect to the degree of exfoliation of clay nanofiller characterized by XRD and electron microscopy. Thermomechanical properties were characterized by the temperature dependence of complex modulus on DMA. Abrasion resistance was evaluated as well.
Kevlar®: From Invention to Commercialization
Vlodek Gabara, May 2002
Few recent inventions in fiber technology can be compared with Kevlar® as far as its impact not only on a field of technology but also on the fundamental understanding of relationships between structure and properties of materials. We will attempt to trace it both in processing steps leading to the fiber formation as well as in the properties of the final fiber. This will include placing them in the perspective of science of the time with an expectation to shed some light on the process of invention itself. We will finish the paper by examining how these unique properties are influencing development of applications.
Kinetic Study on PMMA-CO2 System by Raman Spectroscopy
Masayoshi Takahashi, Yoshitaka Yamamoto, Y. Paul Handa, Victoria Nawaby, May 2002
Raman spectroscopy of PMMA was obtained to find out the effect of dissolved CO2 on the phase change of the plastic. It has been demonstrated that the measuring method is useful to evaluate the amount of dissolved CO2 and to recognize the phase change in the polymer induced by the retrograde vitrification.
Knowledge Based Computer Model for Product Mold Cost
Brad Williams, Jeffrey Exley, May 2002
Molds used for injection molding are a critical element of part cost. A computer system can be an excellent way to create a mold cost estimation system including components. This paper covers the creation of a knowledge based computer model for production mold cost and demonstrates the most critical factors affecting the overall cost.
Laboratory Tests on Fungal Resistance of Wood Filled Polyethylene Composites
Craig M. Clemons, Rebecca E. Ibach, May 2002
A standard method for determining the durability of structural wood was modified for testing the fungal resistance of composites made from high density polyethylene filled with 50% wood flour. Moisture content, mechanical properties, and weight loss were measured over 12 weeks exposure to brown- and white-rot fungi. Mechanical properties were decreased, but irreversible damage due to water sorption made separating this effect from that of fungal attack difficult. Further modifications to test methodology are suggested.
Latexes of Core-Shell Polymers with High Solid Content Prepared by Microemulsion Polymerization
E. Mendizábal, J.E. Puig, S. López-Cuenca, M. Rabelero, I. Katime, May 2002
In this work we present the synthesis of core-shell polymer latexes with high solid content by microemulsion polymerization. The soft core/hard shell and hard core/soft shell structured polymers were obtained by a two-stage emulsion polymerization process using semicontinuous addition of the monomers. The effect on mechanical properties of the ratio of rigid /soft polymer was studied. It was found that as the amount of rigid polymer increases the material becomes stiffer and present a lower elongation at break.
Light Emitting Polymer Displays
Karl Heeks, May 2002
The burgeoning demand for portable devices with high quality, high information content display capability is driving the search for new display technology. Polymer light emitting diode (PLED) technologies offer the prospect to satisfy these demands as well as other display and non-display applications such as solar cells. The current performance for PLED technology will be described together with a wide range of applications and a discussion on the general commercialisation of the technology.
Material Characterization of LDPE Composites Reinforced with Granite Fines
Tony Filliberti, Joseph Greene, May 2002
Characterization of LDPE composites reinforced with granite fines demonstrates unique properties. The granite fines were compounded with LDPE powder and injection molded into tensile bars. Granite-filled LDPE had a higher tensile strength, but a lower tangent modulus and elongation than unfilled LDPE. The reduction in tensile strength can be attributed to the large size distribution of particles or agglomeration of particles that were observed in the SEM micrographs and serve as stress concentrators.
Mechanical and Fracture Properties of Nanoclay-Filled Polypropylene
Shing-Chung Wong, Ling Chen, May 2002
Maleic anhydride modified polypropylene was compounded with commercially available surface modified montmorillonite in an extruder. Re-compounding ensured the removal of visible tactoids from extrudate but TEM and XRD techniques showed non-uniform dispersion of clay platelets. In this study, we investigated the mechanical and fracture properties of nanoclay-filled polypropylene. Tensile strength and stiffness increased steadily with nanoclay content. The J-integral fracture resistance was also attempted on this novel material.
Mechanical Behaviour of Magnetizable Polymers under Dynamical Load
D. Drummer, G.W. Ehrenstein, May 2002
With magnetic particles filled polymers find in-creasing application for example as signal generators in sensor applications. Apart from the magnetic characteristics in particular also the mechanical behaviour determines the application fields of polymer bonded permanent magnets. Polymer bonded permanent magnets are exposed dynamic loads in practice by high accelerations to usually. Investigations in the article confront comparatively the mechanical characteristics of magnetically high-filled polymers during static and dynamic load and show influences of the filler content and humidity up.
Mechanical Properties of Injection Molded CF/LCP in Direction of Thickness
Chimyon Gon, Akihiro Fujita, Fumiaki Baba, Daisuke Watanabe, Asami Nakai, Hiroyuki Hamada, May 2002
In order to estimate the modulus of the injection molded CF/LCP thin plate, specimen was sliced in thickness direction, and the distribution of modulus in thickness direction was measured with the sliced specimen. As a result, modulus of specimen near the wall and center in direction of thickness were widely different from each other. Moreover, the modulus of sliced specimen was predicted by laminate theory. The predicted modulus was compared with experimental result and they were same tendency with each other in thickness direction.
Mechanical Properties of Two Component Injection Molded Parts
D.B. Tchalamov, A.M. Cunha, May 2002
Monosandwich, overmolding and push-pull are special injection molding methods by which parts composed of two different materials can be produced. While the first two techniques yield structures in which the core material is totally encapsulated (monosandwich) or side surrounded (overmolding), the parts obtained via push-pull exhibit multiple oriented layers of the two materials. A comparison of the morphological developments and the flexural and impact properties induced by the three methods is made.
Mechanical Property and Toughening of Epoxy Nanocomposites
Ki Tak Gam, Jian Jun Lu, Hung-Jue Sue, M. Miyamoto, May 2002
High Tg clay-epoxy nanocomposites were prepared and their morphology and fracture mechanisms were characterized using OM, WAXS, SAXS, and TEM. The addition of 3 wt% of CSR particles to clay-epoxy nanocomposite increases the KIC value from 0.53 to 0.81 MPa?m1/2 (a 53% increase) at ambient temperature. It is concluded that CSR addition to nanocomposites is an effective method to improve the fracture toughness of clay-epoxy nanocomposites. The detailed fracture mechanisms responsible for the observed toughening effect in these epoxy nanocomposite systems will be presented.
Melt Temperature Field Measurement and Modelling in Extrusion
A.L. Kelly, E.C. Brown, M. Woodhead, P.D. Coates, May 2002
Thermal issues in extrusion die flows are addressed. A combination of point and bulk measurements of melt temperature are made using thermocouples, thermocouple meshes, infrared sensors and ultrasonic methods. Data are used to build a thermal map across a 38mm diameter extrusion die used on a single screw extruder. Predictive temperature plots obtained from CFD simulations using commercial software packages are compared to empirical results. The effects of changing extruder variables, including screw speed, and set temperature are described for a low density polyethylene (LDPE).
A Microcellular Model Evaluation for Dynamically Vulcanized EPDM/iPP Blends
Kathryn J. Wright, Kishore Indukuri, Alan J. Lesser, May 2002
The origins of elasticity in thermoplastic vulcanizates have been debated for the past decade. Previous modeling attempts provide numerical solutions that make assessment of constituent concentration and interactions unclear. A microcellular modeling approach is proposed and evaluated herein to describe the steady-state deformation behavior of dynamically vulcanized blends of ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) and isotactic polypropylene (iPP). This approach provides an analytic result including terms for composition and cure state.

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"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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