SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Effect of Strain Rate on PVC Impact Performance
Amiel Sabbagh, May 2002
The impact behavior of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) siding formulations containing chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) and acrylic core-shell impact modifiers was evaluated using an instrumented impact tester. The samples were tested at room temperature over a range of testing speeds. Differences in strain rate sensitivity were observed for the various formulations. The differences appear to be a result of both the impact modifiers and the overall formulation.
Effect of Structural Relaxation on Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)
B.R. Davis, N. Mekhilef, May 2002
Mechanical spectra of atactic poly(methyl methacrylate) were measured via dynamic mechanical analysis. Measurements were taken on specimens annealed in the temperature range of 23 to 100°C for varying lengths of time. It was found that the effects of thermal treatment are more varied than previously reported, with significant differences found in the breadth and location of the ? and ? relaxation peaks.
Effect of the Mesh Number Elements in the Simulation Results of Normalized Test Specimens Injection Molded
S. Villarroel, R.A. Morales, A. Sánchez, May 2002
The study was made by modifying the simulation mesh model characteristics to mold normalized test specimens. The simulation results were obtained through a filling/cooling simulation program for the injection molding process. The simulated filling time, optimum cycle time and injection pressure, seemed to be influence by the number of elements model. A best agreement between experimental and simulation results were obtained by increasing the number of elements of the mesh model.
Effect of Wall Slip of Polymer Melts on their Relaxation Modulus Behavior
Dilhan M. Kalyon, Halil Gevgilili, May 2002
The determination of the relaxation modulus using the step imposition of a strain is an important step in the fitting of the parameters of viscoelastic constitutive equation. In the nonlinear region the true shear strain imposed on a polyethylene melt is found to deviate considerably from the targeted strain due to the presence of wall slip which is documented here. The presence of the wall slip reduces the range of strains for which the strain-dependent relaxation modulus can be determined for the linear polyethylene melt investigated.
Effects of Additive and Polymer Architecture on Antiplasticization of Model Epoxy Networks
Adam S. Zerda, Alan J. Lesser, May 2002
A new class of antiplasticizers is investigated for epoxy-based crosslinked polymers. In order to elucidate the mechanisms for antiplasticization of epoxy thermosets, effects of additive chemistry and network architecture are considered. Both model and commercial epoxy networks are studied, probing the effect of molecular weight between crosslinks. Additionally, the family of phosphates being studied ranges in molecular weight and density which are shown to strongly influence the degree of antiplasticization. Mechanisms of antiplasticization are discussed.
The Effects of Dynamic Vulcanization on the Morphology and Mechanical Property of Rubber/Plastic Blends
Oansuk Chung, Aubert Y. Coran, May 2002
The effects of dynamic vulcanization on the morphology and mechanical properties of rubber/plastic blends are investigated. This study includes the discussion of why the mechanical properties differ before and after dynamic vulcanization. Enhanced interfacial adhesion by dynamic vulcanization was found to be a major contributor of superior tensile strength of TPV. Rubber elasticity of TPV is a result of the combined effects of crosslinked rubber, morphology, and amorphous PP phase plasticization.
The Effects of Extreme Stress during the Injection Process on Polypropylene
Stephanie L. Bullard, Matthew M. Jackson, May 2002
The strength and viscosity of polypropylene is influenced by extreme stress during the injection process. By varying backpressure of the material in extreme conditions the strength of the part will decrease. Reduced strength of the part will be proven through tensile and impact testing. Numerous material generations of polypropylene will be compared to virgin polypropylene to prove the decrease in strength.
Effects of Lubricants on Processing of Polymer-Wood Composites
Joe B. Williams, Kenn S. Geick, May 2002
A number of lubricants have been evaluated in polymer-wood composites. These lubricants have been evaluated in both HDPE-oak and HDPE-pine composites. Properties measured included extruder torque levels, outputs, extruder shear heating, and visual assessment of extruded part appearance.
The Effects of Machine Nozzle and Sprue Design in Mold Filling Imbalances
Ryan T. Paszkowski, Kathryn E. Garnavish, May 2002
The imbalance between the cavities in a geometrically balanced, multi-cavity mold used for injection molding has previously been explained in theory as shear induced imbalances". (1) The cause of these imbalances can be from uneven shear effects on the melt as it travels to each cavity through the runner. This paper presents a study which finds that the machine nozzle and sprue can have a significant contribution to shear induced mold filling imbalance. The effect of geometry material and process are evaluated."
Effects of Nanocomposites on the Oxygen Barrier Properties of Polyethylene
Shawn D. McConaughy, May 2002
The Permeability of polyethylene limits it's use in applications where oxygen barrier properties are required. Polyethylene, an extremely non-polar molecule, exhibits low permeation levels with polar substances such as water. Conversely, non-polar gasses such as oxygen exhibit high levels of permeation. A silicate nanocomposite was added to reduce the permeation of non-polar gasses while maintaining the low permeation of polar substances. The polyethylene nanocomposite provided better oxygen permeation properties than traditional grades of polyethylene.
Engineering and Specialty Plastics in the World 2000-2010
Françoise Pardos, May 2002
Out of total world plastics consumption currently over 150 million tons, engineering plastics amount to 6 million tons, specialty plastics to 200 000 tons. Overall value figures are much higher compared to volume figures.Engineering and specialty plastics have common characteristics:Higher performance properties than commodity plastics, higher temperature performancesConcentration of few world suppliers.Main applications in the car and electrical industriesFaster growth than commodity plasticsCompetition between commodity and engineering plastics.Some engineering plastics might achieve commodity volumes by 2010
Enhanced Impact Modifier for Rigid PVC Formulations
Lawrence J. Effler, Mark T. Berard, May 2002
A new chlorinated polyethylene has been developed for the impact modification of rigid PVC. In addition to imparting excellent impact, the modifier promotes faster PVC fusion, and enhances the formulation's melt strength. Faster fusion allows for economic savings by reducing fusion promoting ingredients and via higher output. The enhanced melt strength results in better part quality, especially for complex profiles.
Enhanced Weatherability of Exterior PVC Building Products - Part II
Charles Crabb, Peggy Schipper, May 2002
Low levels of acrylics are widely used as impact modifiers and processing aids for rigid PVC. At higher levels, acrylics can also significantly improve the long- term weatherability of PVC. Here we report on the ongoing results of a long-term outdoor weathering study of PVC/acrylic blends. Acrylic level, stabilizer type, and weathering location all affected the property retention of the weathered specimens. With proper formulation, the acrylic blends resulted in a significant improvement in the weatherability of the samples versus the PVC controls.
Epoxy Resins from Vegetable Oils
Zoran S. Petrovi?, Wei Zhang, Randy Miller, Ivan Javni, May 2002
Epoxidized soybean oil was cured with citric acid, phthalic anhydride and Lewis acids. Lewis acid initiators and citric acid gave rubbery materials of relatively low strength and low glass transition. Aromatic anhydrides give glassy polymers when equivalent ratio of anhydride to epoxy group is used. Mechanical strength of rubbers is relatively low but that of the glassy materials is typical for plastic materials.
Evaluation of Design and Processing Parameters for Extrusion Blow Mold Pinch-Off Design
Cody D. Greene, Ian S. Laskowitz, John E. McConnell, May 2002
Pinch-off weld line strength is crucial in ext rusion blow molding. This experiment is intended to determine and quantify the processing parameters and design parameters that will produce the strongest weld line strength. Using a 3 level Design of Experiment (DOE) for making the test specimens, the specimens were tested for tensile strength. This data was then used as a guide for producing quality pinch-off weld lines with less guesswork.
Evaluation of Runner Design for Powdered Metal Injection Molding
Michael Bailey, Andrew Schenck, May 2002
It has been observed that a filling imbalance occurs with powdered metal injection molding in multi cavity molds using geometrically balanced runners. This imbalance is typically opposite to the shear induced imbalance developed n these runners with conventional plastic materials The causes and effects of this reversed condition is studied and alternative runner designs evaluated to reduce the imbalance. The alternative designs include the use of the MeltFlipper technology that has proven to solve the imbalance with conventional plastic materials.
Examination of Finite Element Analysis and Experimental Results of Quasi-Statically Loaded Acetal Copolymer Gears
Paul Wyluda, Dan Wolf, May 2002
An elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the quasi-static loading of two acetal copolymer gears in contact is preformed. Load verses rotation of the gear set is compared to actual experimental results. The gear geometry is modeled by plane strain elements with variable thickness between the rim and web. Gear tooth failure is modeled by both deactivating and separating elements when the tensile strength is exceeded. Failure in the tooth root is best modeled by a nonlinear approach using separating elements.
An Experimental Investigation of Screw Configuration on Temperature Rise in Single Screw-Pump Extruders
Gregory A. Campbell, Hongying Cheng, Chicheng Wang, Matthew Bullwinkel, Mary Ann te-Riele, May 2002
The focus of this investigation was to experimentally determine the effect of barrel rotation and screw rotation viscous dissipation inside the screw pump-extruder. The experimental results can be summarized by noting that barrel rotation generated higher temperature rise than screw rotation. Results are presented for seven screw configurations.
An Experimental Investigation of Solids Conveying - Flow Rate and Temperature Rise in Single Screw Extruders
Gregory A. Campbell, Jason C. Baird, Lonnie Gilette, Matt Bullwinkel, Jennifer Stowe, May 2002
In this paper we will discuss the construction of a new experimental device to evaluate the solids conveying parameters for a single screw extruder. We will describe the device, which works for high modulus polymers, and we will compare the difference of temperature rise and heat flux for polystyrene and polyethylene when extruded under similar conditions. For these two polymers, the effect of retarding pressure on the solid bed regarding output and barrel forces will also be investigated.
An Experimental Study of the Flows in an Energy Transfer Screw
Susan A. Somers, Mark A. Spalding, Joseph Dooley, Kun Sup Hyun, May 2002
A comparison is made between the melting, pumping, and mixing characteristics of a single-screw extruder with an Energy Transfer mixing section and a conventional screw without a mixing section. Results are given for extrusion trials, extrudate sampling, and extrusion solidification experiments performed at different screw speeds and color concentration letdown ratios.

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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