SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Design of an Integrated Crash Energy Absorber for Compression Molded Bumper Beams
Anton J. Heidweiller, Frank Sparenburg, May 2002
Due to upcoming demands from insurance companies, there is an increasing need for bumper beams that take care of minimum repair costs after collision. The compression molding technique offers excellent possibilities to integrate crash absorbers into the bumper beam design. Experiments were carried out on six types of reinforced polypropylene cans. The difference in crush energy absorption of these materials was studied. The tests were carried out at crosshead speeds of 50 and 2000 mm/min.
Design, Material and Processing Effects on the Tensile Properties of Filled Polypropylene
Stephen P. Petrie, Ann M. Kirkwood, May 2002
A statistical evaluation was performed to evaluate the effects of design, material and processing conditions on the tensile properties of a filled polypropylene. Coupons were machined from injection molded plaques at different orientations and evaluated using the common tensile test. The results were compared using an analysis of variance (ANOVA). The following effects were found to be of significance in decreasing order: the type of filler, the level of filler and orientation.
Designing Runners to Control Gas Distribution in Gas-Assist Injection Molding
Thomas Pollack, Garrett Miller, May 2002
This paper presents a study about the ways in which shear, developed in the perimeter of the runner, affects the distribution of gas in gas-assisted injection molding. High-shear regions in the perimeter of the runner can be traced and followed into a part-forming cavity. The high-shear regions create variations in the melt viscosity within the cavity. Once gas is injected, the gas flow is significantly influenced by these viscosity variations. A method is investigated which controls the position of these high-shear laminates and thereby the distribution of gas within the mold.
Determining Cause of Failure in Plastic Parts through Microscopic Analysis
Paul K. So, May 2002
A critical first step in analyzing a plastic part failure is the examination of the cracking and the fracture surfaces. Important clues in understanding the failure mechanism are revealed by the recognition of distinctive crack pattern and characteristic fracture surface features. Several actual field failure case histories are described to illustrate the microscopic techniques and how the interaction of mechanical stresses and service environment produce unexpected failures.
Developing a Method for Rapid Design and Manufacture of Tooling
David Edwards, Robert Head Jr., May 2002
Following is the development of a method for the rapid design of bridge or short production tooling for injection molding. Starting with a product definition, part was modeled in a solid modeler. The part model was analyzed by the finite element method for performance under load and by flow analysis software to determine molding characteristics.Once the design was proven, NC code was generated to cut the cavity and runner system. The mold was commissioned and the mold cycle parameters were verified.
Developing Coaches and Mentors in Your Organizations
John R. Szymankiewicz, May 2002
Increasingly, companies are looking for leaders and not managers. Inherent in this move is the necessity for skills to motivate and develop employees. One way to cultivate leaders, as opposed to managers, and to drive positive change in an organization is to implement a coaching and mentoring system for employee development and day to day management. The next logical questions is how do you develop coaches and mentors?" This paper will provide some insight into this question and possible solutions that may work for your organization."
Development of a Data Acquisition and Control Software for an Extrusion Process
Linda Caldwell, Mark Chen, Steve Thompson, Gerry McNally, May 2002
This paper describes the development of a system control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for a Killion KTS-100 extruder. At the heart of this computer based system is LabVIEW software that facilitates the various operational requirements. Particular attention is given to the human-machine interface that allows the operator to observe the extruder's operational conditions and permit necessary operational changes to the process.
Development of a New Elastomeric Homopolymer Polypropylene
Gian De Belder, Emily Boswell, May 2002
A new elastomeric homopolymer polypropylene has recently been developed. Its unique properties are caused by the introduction of a controlled level of stereo-errors into the PP chain. This new-to-the-world material has the possibility to replace existing polymers at low cost such as thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), flexible PVC, rubbers and other high performance polymers with the additional benefit that the polymer is completely recyclable (the only building blocks are propene!).
Development of Blends of HIPS/SB Copolymers with Superhigh Impact Properties
Kolapo P. Adewale, Holly Wilson, May 2002
Synergistic blends of HIPS and SB block copolymer have been prepared with exceptional toughness. Notched Izod values for the blends vary from 240J/m to 470 J/m depending on the composition and type of SB copolymer. The neat experimental HIPS is characterized by either a bimodal or broad unimodal rubber particle size distribution. It is shown that the rubber particle size and distribution not only affect the impact properties of HIPS but also affect the blend effectiveness of HIPS with SB block copolymers. Comparisons with blends of commercial HIPS/SB block co-polymers are made.
Development of New-Type Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics
Hiroyuki Hamada, Kaori Tsutsui, Daisuke Watanabe, Machiko Mizoguchi, Asami Nakai, Yoshinao Kobayashi, Weiliang Wu, May 2002
A new type glass fibers which are coated by thermoplastic resin, PA resin in this paper was used as reinforcements of PP injection molding materials. This fibers and surface the aments created thick interphase and also interdiffusion occurred PA and PP resin. The residual fiber length pellet was longer and interfacial shear strength was larger. Accordingly not only high tensile strength but also high impact strength injection moldings could be achieved by this new type glass fiber.
Direct Sheet Extrusion and Thermoforming of TPO Compounds
M. Malkani, J. Soneta, J.L. Mead, S.A. Orroth, May 2002
This research explores the development of thermoplastic olefin compounds through direct sheet extrusion and their thermoforming characteristics. A number of high rubber content formulations were compounded on a twin-screw extruder and formed directly into sheets via a gear pump. Sheets produced by direct sheet extrusion were thermoformed using a several thermoforming techniques, and the effect of material properties on thermoformability was evaluated for high draw applications. A thermoforming process window was developed for each compound and processing method.
Dispersed Solids Melting Model in Single Screw Extrusion
H. Potente, J. Pape, May 2002
In opposite to most screw designs the geometry of some single screw concepts lead to a break-up of the so called solid bed. Therefore the well known Tadmor-Model is not capable to describe this melting behavior. First approaches for such a model were already made by several scientists. Unfortunately these models assuming some simplifications having a strong effect on the accuracy. Thus a new dispersed solids melting model was developed assuming less simplifications. It shows good agreement with experimental results.
Drawing of UHMWPE Fibers in the Presence of Supercritical CO2
Manuel Garcia-Leiner, John Song, Alan J. Lesser, May 2002
The drawing behavior of UHMWPE fibers in supercritical CO2 is compared to that in air at different temperatures. Temperature substantially influences the drawing properties in air, while in scCO2 a constant mechanical response is observed. DSC and WAXS results show that air-drawn samples crystallize during deformation in an internally constrained manner, promoting changes in their thermal behavior. In contrast, scCO2 allows crystals to grow without constraints through a possible crystal-crystal transformation, increasing the processing temperature to 110°C.
The Effect of Aqueous Media on Creep of Recycled Plastics
Jeffrey Exley, Brad Williams, May 2002
There continues to be a need for additional uses of recycled plastics. A significant portion of recycling applications require outdoor exposure including use in aqueous applications. This paper covers the effects of water on the properties of recycled plastics under tensile loads. The paper also covers long term creep effects.
Effect of Cavitation on Product Cost
Justin E. Boyle, Andrew W. Jaglowski, May 2002
In today's industry, there is a constant debate over the methods used to meet production requirements. Using a single, high cavitation tool is often compared against using multiple low cavitation tools. There are numerous factors that must be considered when deciding on which tooling option to specify and its ultimate effect on part cost. The scope of this paper is to serve as an aid in the tool selection process by providing a step-by-step process that allows a company to make a well-informed decision on tooling layouts while considering the impact of each factor on part cost.
Effect of Gas-Transmission Property in Modified Atmosphere Packaging for Fresh Produce
Shin Kahata, Masao Karouji, May 2002
Changes of gas concentrations inside a package were studied using several kinds of materials in Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) for Fresh produce. Respiration rates of Shiitake mushroom as Fresh produce and gas-transmission rates of these materials were measured and predicted at various temperature.Changes of gas concentration inside a package were simulated using a Michaelis-Menten type equation model and material's gas transmission rates. Suitable packaging material in Modified Atmosphere Packaging was discussed from the viewpoint of it's gas-transmission rates."
Effect of Groove Geometry on the Performance of Grooved Feed Extruders
Christine Ronaghan, John P. Christiano, May 2002
The effect of varying groove geometry on the solids conveying performance of a grooved feed extruder was evaluated. Three groove styles and two resins were evaluated on a single barrier screw design. The results indicate that groove geometry has a strong effect on extruder performance for HDPE but a negligible effect for LLDPE.
Effect of LCP Addition on the Properties of Hybrid Composites
Sreekumar Pisharath, Shing-Chung Wong, May 2002
A hybrid composite consisting of rubber toughened nylon 6,6, glass fiber and LCP was investigated by varying LCP content. The hybrid system exhibited better processability than the glass fiber reinforced composite. A decrease in the total torque was observed with the LCP content indicating the reduction in the energy consumed during the processing of the hybrid composites. Thermal stability of the glass fiber reinforced composites improved with LCP addition. SEM observation of the tensile fracture surface revealed LCP fibrillation in the toughened matrix.
The Effect of Moisture on the Rheological Behavior of Calenderable Copolyesters
Eric J. Moskala, Kab Sik Seo, May 2002
The effect of absorbed moisture on the rheological behavior of a series of calenderable copolyester resins is studied. Moisture has a profound effect on the viscosity of the resins at calendering temperatures and on the glass transition temperature of the resins. However, moisture does not lead to hydrolysis of the copolyesters at the relatively low temperatures used in calendering.
Effect of Runner Design and Gating on Concetricity of High Precision Cylindrical Molded Parts
Richard Wheeler, Kathy Garnavish, May 2002
This paper presents a study on how shear induced melt variations, developed in runners, continue into a cavity and affect the shape of high precision cylindrically molded parts. Melt variations from the runner create asymmetrical conditions within the part forming cavities. These asymmetrical conditions can create side-to-side variations which effect concentricity in high precisions parts such as gears. Effects of process, gating locations and runner designs are presented.

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"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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