SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Study of PVC Stabilization Using Capillary Rheometry
Radu Bacaloglu, Michael H. Fisch, Ulrich Stewen, Ilze Bacaloglu, Edward Krainer, May 2002
Capillary rheometry allows monitoring PVC thermal and shear stress degradations separately. Based on testing of PVC compounds with a capillary rheometer, stabilizers can be efficiently optimized to reduce both degradation processes. Capillary rheometry is an important tool to improve productivity of PVC processing further at high shear rates.
Study of the Effect of Velocity-to-Pressure Transfer Method on Process Robustness in the Injection Molding Process
Tiffany A. Beers, Nicholas Decker, May 2002
This study will compare the use of several different transfer modes during the filling phase of the injection molding process. These modes include screw position, hydraulic pressure, and melt pressures within the cavity and nozzle. The modes will be investigated by using cavity pressure consistency when regrind and check ring wear are introduced. There are 4 transducers located in different areas within the cavity that will measure the peak pressures.
Styrene Block Copolymer Modified Food Wrap Film
Catherine Maris, Michael Modic, May 2002
Stretch wrapping film has been used for over 30 years to protect and preserve food from moisture, dirt and abrasion. These films allow increased food shelf lives and give the package an appealing smooth and shiny appearance.Styrenic block copolymers can be blended with polypropylene and co-extruded with ethylene vinyl acetate to form multi-layer structures suitable for food wrap applications. These films offer an excellent balance of properties combined with a low density.
Synthesis and Characterization of Liquid Crystalline Polyamides
Matthew J. Heidecker, May 2002
By creating a dynamic interaction between aromatic and aliphatic compounds, a novel liquid crystalline polyamide was produced. By mixing various ratios of the aromatic 4,4-dimethyl bibenzoate and the flexible aliphatic 18-carbon diacid, with a stoichiometric equivalent of a single diamine, a variety of properties were developed. The homopolymer for the m-xylylene diamine produced a liquid crystalline regime of nematic and thermotropic behavior, which was the goal. Each species of diamine used; hexamethylene diamine, m-xylylene diamine, and p-xylylene diamine produced unique and distinct novel polymers.
Taguchi Based Design of Experiments of HDPE and Granite Fines
Greg Kopple, Joseph Greene, May 2002
Granite-filled HDPE had lower tensile strength, modulus and elongation than unfilled HDPE. The reduction in properties is attributed to large particles that serves as stress concentrators. The mechanical properties of HDPE are improved with the use of adhesion promoters and use of metallic granite. A Taguchi design of experiment determined that the metallic component of the granite fines had higher tensile strength, modulus, hardness, and elongation at yield than the bulk granite fines.
Temperature Sensitivity of the Linear Viscoelastic Properties of Long Chain Branched Metallocene Polyethylene
Paula Wood-Adams, Stephane Costeux, May 2002
The effects of long and short chain branching on the thermorheological behaviour of polyethylene are described. Long chain branched homo -polyethylene is thermorheologically complex and is most sensitive to temperature at low frequency. A technique for determining the activation energy spectra of thermorheologically complex materials is proposed. Short and long branches in the same system synergistically increase the zero-shear rate activation energy.
Tensile Properties of PE Clay Nanocomposites via Taguchi Based Design of Experiments
Joshua Miller, Joseph Greene, May 2002
LDPE and HDPE clay nanocomposites prepared with melt mixing demonstrate increased stiffness and strength with increasing concentrations of clay nanocomposites and adhesion promoters. Taguchi design of experiment (DOE) methodology determined the optimum material conditions to achieve maximum strength and stiffness. The nanocomposites increased tensile modulus and tensile strength, but reduced elongation of LDPE and HDPE. Maleic anhydride and acrylic acid improved the tangent modulus and ultimate tensile strength of polyethylene/clay nanocomposites.
Terpolymer Sequences and Geometric Distribution
Kal. Renganathan Sharma, May 2002
Chain sequence distribution calculations for terpolymers using probability model and Monte Carlo simulation methods are discussed. The SSS, AAA, SAS, SSA, ASA, AAS trial concentration are obtained. Molecular weight and ceiling temperature effects are studied using the Monte Carlo method.
Three-Dimensional Filling and Post-Filling Simulation of Metal Injection Molding
Florin Ilinca, Jean-François Hétu, Abdessalem Derdouri, James Stevenson, May 2002
A 3D finite element code including free-surface flow is used to simulate metal injection molding (MIM) of a stainless steel compound with an aqueous gel binder. The thermal analysis couples the highly conductive MIM compound with the mold wall. Predictions are compared with pressure and melt temperature data for filling and packing a long thin plate over a wide range of operating conditions. The purpose of this work is to advance MIM technology, as has been done in the plastics industry, by interactive use of experiment and simulation.
Three-Dimensional Simulation of Thermoset Molding Applied to Semiconductor-Chip Encapsulation
Sejin Han, Franco Costa, Peter Cook, Shishir Ray, May 2002
In this paper, numerical methods to analyze the flow of thermoset materials during the molding process have been developed. A finite-element method is used for the three-dimensional flow analysis. The numerical analysis results have been verified by comparing with experiments. In the experiment, a semiconductor chip encapsulation process using a thermoset-molding compound has been used to observe the melt-front advancement shapes. The calculated and experimental results show good agreement.
Time-Resolved SAXS Studies on the Crystallization Behaviors of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) and its Copolymers
Byeongdu Lee, Tae Joo Shin, Seung Woo Lee, Moonhor Ree, May 2002
Using synchrotron radiation sources of Pohang Light Source, Pohang University of Science & Technology, Korea, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements have been carried out for poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(ethylene isophthalate-co-terephthalate) s which undergo isothermal crystallization and during subsequent re-melting. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) measurements were additionally conducted.
Transient Behavior of Extruders: Input Disturbances
Rajath Mudalamane, David Bigio, May 2002
A model of the transient response of an extruder to varying input feed rates and screw speed was developed and used to study the effect of input disturbances on the extrusion process. Simulated tests reveal that given a screw design, there is a critical frequency below which disturbances will not be damped significantly by the extruder. The relationship between screw geometry and this critical frequency is presented. The effect of specific throughput (Q/N) on damping ability of a screw geometry is also presented in this paper.
Transient Simulation of Film Blowing Process
Ravi Mayavaram, J.N. Reddy, May 2002
Analysis of film blowing process using a transient, axisymmetric, non-isothermal, viscoelastic model is presented in this paper. The model developed is solved using the finite element method. Constitutive behavior of the polymer is described using a combination of modified Phan-Thien-Tanner model and anisotropic Kelvin-Voight model. A simple crystallinity model is used to describe the phase change and crystallization kinetics. Steady state solutions predicted by the model are compared with experimental results, these results along with transient results are presented in this paper.
Troubleshooting Dehumidifying Dryers
Pete Stoughton, May 2002
Engineering materials - such as nylon polycarbonate and the like - have a molecular attraction for moisture and are hygroscopic polymers. When exposed to a humid atmosphere these materials take up and retain water. However this process can be reversed if the pellets are exposed to an artificial environment where the air temperature and dewpoint is precisely controlled for a pre-determined length of time. A good understanding of four fundamental drying parameters along with the basic principles of operation of a dehumidifying dryer are essential to troubleshooting a drying system."
Ultrasonic Application Solutions Using the Latest Advances in Equipment Technology
Jeffrey L. Frantz, May 2002
Ultrasonic welding is used in many applications. The benefits of the welding process include: elimination of consumables, fast cycle times, compact machine footprint, and relatively low cost capital investment. New advances in ultrasonic products and technology make this method possible for applications not previously suitable for ultrasonics. Today’s equipment can program and profile weld and hold force as well as amplitude during the weld cycle. Also, new frequencies have been introduced which expand the capabilities of horns and energy transmission.
Understanding and Developing Human Capital
R.L. Braido, J.R. Szymankiewicz, May 2002
The focus of this paper is to probe the aspect of Human Capital in today's growing companies. Human Capital is the sum of the intangible pieces of a company outside of its physical assets. Human Capital is more than human resources, more than training. Human Capital and the way it's used defines the success of a company. This paper will uncover how to understand and how to develop it in our companies. Case studies will give the benefits of developing the greatest asset we have in Human Capital.
The Use of a Design of Experiments (DOE) to Optimize Processing Conditions of an Injection Molded Gear
Brian P. Johnson, May 2002
A Design of Experiments (DOE) was performed to optimize processing conditions of an acetal copolymer injection molded gear. Nineteen experiments were performed using five independent variables. The independent variables were melt and mold temperature, injection speed, hold pressure, and hold time. Dependent variables (outputs) included weight, dimensions, total composite error (TCE), tooth-to-tooth error (TTE), and tooth break strength. The results of the DOE indicate there are molding parameters that will meet the dimensional and functional requirements.
The Use of Color Tolerancing Schemes to Accurately Analyze and Control Color in the Plastics Industry
Bob Binder, May 2002
The consumer judges the quality of all products, including plastics, in part by the color and appearance of those products. One issue involved is the determination of the target color for a product. This is essentially an issue of agreement between customer and vendor. Possibly more important, is the determination of an acceptable tolerance. What is deemed acceptable color, and what is unacceptable. What tolerance scheme should we use, and how do we determine what is an acceptable limit? This paper has been written to explore these important issues.
The Use of Nanometer Sized Glass as a Filler for Polyvinylidene Floride (PVDF)
Matthew W. Baker, Scott J. Moravek, May 2002
This project is structured around the idea that Polyvinylidene Floride (PVDF) is an expensive engineering grade resin. This research will attempt to use nanometer sized glass filler with the virgin material at the correct loading to attain the desired properties and become more cost effective. The glass filler will compliment the chemical resistance of the PVDF which is one of its most desired properties, as well as, increase the flame retardance of the manufactured product.
Usefulness of Numerical Injection Molding Simulation Results for Prediction of Mechanical Behavior of Plastics Components
Rolf Koster, May 2002
Several companies and institutions contributed to a project for which thick-walled gas tube connectors were injection molded of high-density polyethylenes applying different molding parameter combinations. Connectors were mechanically tested, and numerical simulations of injection molding were carried out. With a simple ranking method it was possible to show correlations between performance under internal pressurization and predictions of shear rates, shear stresses, and thermal shrinkage differences between different locations.


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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
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