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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Interface and Encapsulation in Simultaneous Co-Injection Molding of Disk: Two-Dimensional Simulation and Experiment
C.T. Li, D.J. Lee, A.I. Isayev, May 2002
A two-dimensional simulation and experimental study of the flow-rate controlled co-injection molding was carried out. A skin polymer was injected first and then both skin and core polymers were injected simultaneously into a center-gated disk cavity through a two-channel nozzle to obtain an encapsulated sandwich structure. The physical modelling and simulation were developed based on the Hele-Shaw approximation and kinematics of interface to describe the two-phase flow and the interface development. The effects of rheological properties and processing conditions on the material distribution, penetration behavior and breakthrough phenomena were investigated. The predicted and measured results were found to be in good agreement with each other.
Interfacial Tension and Coalescence Reduction in Compatibilized PP/HDPE Blends
Adriana Martinelli Catelli de Souza, Nicole Raymonde Demarquette, May 2002
In this paper the compatibilization of polypropylene (PP)/high-density polyethylene (HDPE) blend was studied through morphological and interfacial tension analysis. Three types of compatibilizers were tested: EPDM, EVA and SEBS. The morphology of the blends was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The interfacial tension between the components of the blends was evaluated using small amplitude oscillatory shear analysis. Emulsion curves relating the average radius of the dispersed phase and the interfacial tension to the compatibilizer concentration added to the blend were obtained. It was shown that EPDM was more efficient as an emulsifier for PP/HDPE blend than EVA and SEBS. The relative role of interfacial tension reduction and coalescence reduction to particle size reduction was also addressed. It was observed that the role of coalescence reduction is small, mainly for PP/HDPE (90/10) blends compatibilized by EPDM, EVA and SEBS. The results indicated that the role of coalescence reduction to particle size reduction is lower for blends for which interfacial tension between its components is low at interface saturation.
Internal Stress and Stretchability in Blown Oriented Polystyrene Films
C.C. Chau, J.C.M. Li, May 2002
Blown oriented polystyrene films was stretched along one direction and subsequently cross-deformed by stretching along the perpendicular direction, the cross-deformed film showed enhanced ductility with pronounced yield softening. Stress relaxation performed in both forward and cross directions showed power law relationship between the stress rate and relaxation time. The internal stress of cross deformation was significantly lower than that of the forward deformation at the same strain. The enhancement in ductility may be attributed to the lowering of internal stress during cross deformation. The stretchability upon film blowing is discussed in the light of the role of internal stress in biaxial deformation.
Introduction of a New Rheological Long Chain Branching Index for Isotactic Polypropylene Melts
Jacques C. Michel, May 2002
A new rheological index for long chain branching (LCB), grheo, is introduced. The method is implemented for isotactic polypropylene (iPP) melts.Using statistical analysis, the average molecular weight (MW) and molecular weight distribution (MWD) values of a large number of linear iPPs (including metallocene and iPP blends) as well as iPPs with LCB are correlated with the crossover point coordinates and the four parameters from the Carreau-Yasuda equation. This allows us to define (independently of MWD and MW) grheo, whose value is one for a linear iPP and decreases with increasing LCB content.
Investigation for Injection Molding of Long Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene
Jun Seok Lee, Francis Lai, May 2002
Four glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP) with various lengths of chopped glass fiber and pellet as well as one long-fiber compound PP pellet and short-fiber compound PP were injection molded to determine the fiber distribution and orientation of injection molded parts and the glass fiber length distribution.A custom-made screw was designed to minimize the damage of glass fiber after injection molding. The results were also compared with adhesive ability between compounded and uncompounded plastics. The molded parts were tested for their tensile strength, elongation, flexural strength, and impact strength. Other tests, including fiber length distributions and SEM, were also investigated.
Investigation of Applicability of Two Biodegradable Polymers for Mechanical Applications
May 2002
Three types of specimens of a polyester-amide and a poly-hydroxybutyrate have been tensile and tensile-impact tested. Important geometrical parameters for these specimens are wall thickness and gate dimensions, as well as a weld line in one specimen type. Explanation of the combined influence of geometry and injection molding settings on tensile behavior was in agreement with tensile-impact results. This influence was maintained after 20 months of storage in closed boxes but minor embrittlement was found for all specimen types and both materials. The beneficial effect of annealing on strain at break for all poly-hydroxybutyrate specimens was also shown.
Investigation of Microstructure Developed in Injection Molded Nylon 6 Nanocomposites
B. Yalcin, M. Cakmak, May 2002
The spatial variation of the microstructure developed along the thickness of injection-molded unfilled nylon 6 and nylon 6 nanocomposites are presented using small-angle laser light scattering (SALS) Hv-Vv patterns and micro beam wide angle X-Ray scattering (WAXS) patterns along with corresponding polarized optical microscopy pictures. The microstructure of unfilled nylon 6 changes from undeformed to deformed spherulitic case by the introduction of nanoparticles. The local spherulitic structure of the injection-molded samples from skin to core is addressed by their sizes and aspect ratios. These experiments indicate the development of significant chain orientation levels with the minor axis of the spherulites fluctuating in and out of the flow direction throughout the injection-molded part for the filled systems even at high temperatures.
Investigation of Optimum Conditions of Thin-Wall Injection Molding Process
S.J. Liao, D.Y. Chang, H.J. Chen, L.S. Tsou, J.R. Ho, H.T. Yau, W.H. Hsieh, James T. Wang, Y.C. Su, May 2002
Optimum conditions of thin-wall injection molding process of a cellular-phone cover are investigated via the use of computer-aided-engineering simulation and experimental measurements. CAE simulation using C-MOLD and a set of experimental tests based on design of experiments (Taguchi's method) scheduling are performed to determine optimum process conditions of an injection-molding machine by minimizing the shrinkage and warpage of the molded part. Effects of various process parameters of the injection-molding machine on the shrinkage and warpage of the molded part are also examined.
An Investigation of the Impact Behaviour of Rotomoulded Polyethylenes over a Wide Temperature Range
L.T. Pick, E. Harkin-Jones, May 2002
This paper examines the relationship between the impact strength of rotationally moulded polyethylene parts and the dynamic mechanical properties. A range of conventional linear low density polyethylene powders (LLDPE) and metallocene polyethylene powders (MPE) were rotationally moulded and tested. Falling weight impact tests were carried out over a temperature range from -60ºC to 20ºC. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) was carried out from -100 to 90ºC, at different frequencies. Transitions evident in DMTA results are used to explain sub-zero maxima in the impact strength of the polymers tested.
Investigation of the Local Residence Time Distribution in Special Mixing Elements for Co-Rotating Twin Screw Extruders
H. Potente, K. Kretschmer, Th. Preuß, J. Flecke, May 2002
Tightly intermeshing, co-rotating twin-screw extruders are commonly employed for tasks requiring good mixing. Mixing involves several mechanisms: longitudinal mixing laminar shear mixing and dispersive mixing. This work focuses on the longitudinal mixing behavior investigated for special twin screw mixing elements.We used a model extruder where two residence time probes were mounted to the barrel. For the experiments we varied throughput, screw speed and the material. By applying a deconvolution algorithm we were able to determine the local residence time distribution in the measuring section. The residence time distributions of the mixing elements were compared to those of standard elements (e.g. conveying elements).
Investigation of the Processing Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Metallocene Polyethylene Foams for Rotational Moulding
E. Archer, E. Harkin-Jones, M.P. Kearns, A-M Fatnes, May 2002
The object of this work is to investigate the foaming characteristics of Metallocene-catalysed polyethylenes for rotational moulding. This paper reports on the results of ongoing experimental investigations in which rheological and thermal parameters are related to the polymer structure and mechanical properties of metallocene polyethylene foams. Through adjustments to moulding conditions, the significant processing and physical material parameters, which optimise metallocene polyethylene foam structure, have been identified. The results obtained from equivalent conventional grades of polyethylene (PE) are used as a basis for comparison.
Isotropic Residual Stresses in Thermosetting Resins: A New Instrument for Direct Measurement
Mustapha Iza, Sindee L. Simon, Gregory B. McKenna, May 2002
The development of isotropic residual stresses is important in thermoset cure. These stresses are conventionally determined by curing the material in a cylindrical tube having a large length-to-diameter ratio. Despite its popularity, questions arise whether the stresses are isotropic or not in this method. To surmount this ambiguity, we propose a new method of measuring the build-up of isotropic residual stresses by confining the thermoset resin in a spherical geometry, thereby maintaining a truly hydrostatic deformation on the material. This paper describes the method and presents preliminary results on a model epoxy resin.
The Job Seeker Trilogy Preparation - Resume - Interview
Jim Karlin, May 2002
While this trilogy is of value to anyone seeking a career change, it will be especially helpful to those now re-entering the job market after 10, 15 and 20 plus years, long-term career employees who are discovering that the process of job searching has dramatically changed, both good and bad over that time. The computer and the internet have created new and better tools; resources with new protocols and methodology. Many initially are overwhelmed; and, most find themselves unprepared, adding more stress and frustration to the emotional impact of an unexpected termination. Worse, the search process has also become increasingly more impersonal, requiring a different mindset to be successful. I know firsthand, having ‘been theredone that’, from being in the same situation less than five years ago, after closing a product design & development group I founded and managed for 20-years. If I knew then what I know now, I would have proceeded differently – and that is what I wish to share with you, hopefully making your career move easier, more effective and more successful in a shorter time-line. There are three major components to any search, and while books have been written on each, this trilogy will present the essence of all three – Job Search Tools for the New Millennium, will cover mental preparation and becoming informed on the expanded resources and options now available; the second, Your 30-Second Window of Opportunity – the Power Resume, will help you prepare an effective and dynamic resume and cover letter; and the last, The Interview – It’s a Mating Game, So Know the Rules of Engagement, explores mastering the phone and onsite interview, with the appropriate follow up.
Joining Applications in Exterior Automotive Panels Made of TPO (Thermoplastic Olefin)
Thomas R. Kirkland, May 2002
Metallocene-catalyzed polyolefin thermoplastics became available to product designers when production was scaled up from pilot-plant levels to industrial-quantity production in the middle 1990s. The first large volume use of this material, referred to in industry as TPO, was exterior body parts for 2002 model year vehicles. As designers made decisions about where and how to use the material, it logically followed that an answer was needed to the question of how best to assemble these parts. This paper gives an overview of several new or improved applications of thermoplastic joining technologies to these parts, including ultrasonic spot welding, vibration welding, thermal staking, and ultrasonic inserting.
Key Elements in the Survival of Plastics Recycling Industries
Lee Hornberger, May 2002
The growth of the plastics recycling industry was spurred by increased resin prices and the landfill crisis of the 1980's. Many of the recycling companies that started in the 1980's and 1990's quickly learned that economic recycling of plastic waste was a difficult and challenging task. For many of these companies, the problems were overwhelming and they went out of business. Those that survived into the 21st century are a unique group of entrepreneurs. The bulk of the survivors are small companies with sales under $20 million.In this study, 36 plastic recycling companies in the U.S. and Europe were evaluated to determine the elements that aided their survival. Three elements that were present in the majority of these companies were: an ability to develop and maintain their own technology, financial or technical support from external sources, and strong leaders who were determined to make the business survive. These companies are the models for their industry. The stories of these companies could be of particular value to the emerging automotive and electronic post-consumer plastics recycling industry.
Keys to Customer Loyalty in the Engineering Plastics Industry
Louis N. Kattas, Abbe Scheiner, May 2002
Traditionally, many resources are dedicated to the acquisition of new customers in the engineering plastics industry. While constant replenishment/expansion of the customer base is important, it is critical not to lose sight of the growth potential of existing customers. The costs (and risks) involved in maintaining and growing these accounts are typically much lower than new account acquisition.As a result of over 1000 recent interviews, BRG Townsend has been able to identify, by segment, the attributes that are prerequisites for new account penetration and those which drive existing customer loyalty. By aligning resources with customer loyalty preferences, suppliers can more profitably manage their marketing resources.
Laser Assembly Technology for Planar Microfluidic Devices
Jie-Wei Chen, Jerry Zybko, May 2002
The assembly of plastic microfluidic devices, requiring high positioning and welding accuracy in the micrometer range, was successfully achieved using a new technology based on laser transmission welding combined with the mask technique. In this paper we present a high-end laser assembly system for the joining of microfluidic plastic parts with its main related process characteristics and its potential for low-cost and high volume manufacturing. The innovation is a special arrangement of diode laser with a mask to generate micro welding seams with freely definable geometry. A fully automated mask alignment system with a resolution of 2 ?m and a precise, non-contact energy input allows a fast welding of micro structured plastic parts with high reproducibility and excellent welding quality.
LFT-D-ILC - Innovative Process Technology Decreases the Costs of Large-Scale Production of Long-Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Components
Frank Henning, Wenzel Krause, Heinrich Ernst, Richard Brüssel, May 2002
In the European industry fiber reinforced thermoplastics have been firmly established for years for the purpose of large-scale production of structural automotive components. In particular, the newly developed LFT direct processing method has increasingly achieved its objectives due to its cost saving potential and excellent material characteristics.As a manufacturer of LFT processing plants Dieffenbacher GmbH & Co. meets the high requirements regarding material quality in order to guarantee a process for safe part production including an acquisition and evaluation system (SPC) of process data.The effect of material quality control will be demonstrated and the process technology will be introduced in this paper. Influences of the in-line compounding on mechanical properties will be discussed.
Load-Carrying Ability of Bolted Connections in Glass Mat Thermoplastics
Anton J. Heidweiller, J.C.M. de Bruijn, A.C. Riemslag, May 2002
Compression molded samples of GMT (Azdel R300B01N) were connected to metal steel plates with a bolt M8. No metal inserts were applied. Metal washers were placed between GMT plate and steel plates both at one side and at two sides of the GMT plate. Tests with and without a bold pre-stressing force were carried out. The load-carrying ability was tested with in-plane loading at rates of 1 m/s and 1 mm/s. A nominal bearing stress of 200 MPa seems to be a safe lower bound. Pre-stressing increased the maximum force sometimes with more than 75%. However, it was shown, that it pre-stressing can change the fracture mechanism from bearing fracture into the brittle tensile fracture. Cleavage fracture occurred when a washer with a diameter of 30 mm was used without pre-stressing and a loading rate of 1 m/s was applied.
Long Glass Fiber Composites: Rapid Growth and Change
Robert C. Constable, Louis N. Kattas, May 2002
Long fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (LFRT) are one of the fastest growing segments in the plastics markets in North America and Europe, experiencing 30% per year growth, over the last decade. Development of new large part applications in the automotive market will continue to drive the growth of these materials.This paper will review the history of the LFRT composite market and give an up-to-date overview. It will also cover the new emerging in-line compounding technologies and what role they will play in this market. An overview of the current technologies will also be covered. The information presented is a brief excerpt from a more detailed study conducted by BRG, at the end of 2001.


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