SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

The SPE Library is just one of the great benefits of being an SPE member! Are you taking advantage of all of your SPE Benefits?

Not an SPE member? Join today!

Use % to separate multiple keywords. 

Search SPE Library

Sort By:  Date Added   Publication Date   Title   Author

Conference Proceedings

The Effects of Processing Variables on the Weld-Line Strength of Plastics in Aggressive Environments: Part I Materials and Solvent Selection
Stephen Petrie, Mark D. Charbonneau, May 2002

In a lengthy study, three commercial materials {high density polyethylene (HDPE), nylon 6,6 (PA) and polycarbonate (PC)} and three common liquids {a synthetic non-ionic surfactant (Igepal CO-630), an alcohol (ethanol) and an n-alkane (heptane)} were used to investigate the affects of processing variables on weld-line strength in an aggressive medium. An experimental design was used to evaluate each of the processing parameters.There were five mechanical properties studied at the onset of testing, with the intent to examine exclusively the most sensitive. The breaking strength was calculated to have the largest normalized sensitivity.The screening design showed which processing parameters were most important. These significant variables were then investigated further with a factorial design. Processing alone increased the breaking strength by 30 percent.Analysis of the results, from the factorial design, gave mathematical models, which described the effect of the processing parameters on the breaking strengths of the PC and PA. Also no interactions were observed between the significant parameters, however curvature effects were most prevalent.

Effects of Supercritical CO2 on the Dispersed Phase Size and Cocontinuity of PS/LDPE Blends
Anle Xue, Costas Tzoganakis, May 2002

PS/LDPE blends were prepared in a twin-screw extruder over a wide range of composition with the aid of supercritical CO2 (scCO2). The effects of scCO2 on the dispersed phase size and the phase cocontinuity of these blends were studied by scanning electron microscopy and gravimetry after selective extraction. Supercritical CO2 was found to reduce the dispersed phase size and shift the region of cocontinuity. The morphology development along the twin-screw extruder was also studied by taking samples from both the vent and the die. The effects of scCO2 on the morphology were observed at the vent. However, the morphology at the die after CO2 venting was similar to that without CO2. Within the cocontinuous region, very fine morphologies with a special pattern were found during the foaming process with CO2.

The Effects of Weld Geometry and Glass-Fiber Orientation on the Mechanical Performance of Joints Part I: Weld Design Issues
Val A. Kagan, Christopher Roth, May 2002

The mechanical performance of injection molded glass-fiber reinforced [thermo]plastic components is anisotropic and depends on the fiber orientation and distribution. The purpose of this comprehensive analysis is to show the relationship between short-fiber orientation at the pre-welded bead and wall areas, and the mechanical performance of welded butt-joints that have various geometry and thickness, namely straight" and "T-type" welds.Findings on the mechanical performance of these two different types of butt-joints by the design and geometry butt-joints will help designers and technologists with material selection welding processing and design optimization. In a subsequent paper (Part II)1 we related these findings to the kinetics of glass-fiber re-orientation and micro-structural changes and how they influence part and weld design."

Efficiency of Clear-Welding Technology for Polyamides
Val A. Kagan, Nicole M. Woosman, May 2002

Many industrial applications require optically transparent thermoplastic components, and structural joints almost invisible to the human vision. Traditional transmission laser welding of plastics joining is limited by the process conditions when one thermoplastic is optically transparent and the second absorbing laser energy. Advanced Clear-Weld™ (clear-welding)1 laser technology may satisfy these specific requirements in joining various similar and dissimilar optically transparent thermoplastics. These innovative design-joining technology considerations require the following conditions at the interface between the joined surfaces: 1) laser absorbing material; 2) optimized laser energy for heat generation between joined thermoplastics.The analysis of representative test results shows that clear-welding technology is highly efficient also for use with various transparent nylon grades. The tensile strength of the clear-weld butt joint is similar to the results achieved for nylon with other advanced plastics joining methods such as linear, orbital, hot plate and regular infrared (laser through-transmission) technologies. The developed comprehensive recommendations will help designers and technologists with welded parts design, material(s) and process selection and optimization for laser welding applications when the joined thermoplastic part requires optical transparency, as well as flash and particle free conditions.

Electrical Conductivity Changes of Silicone or Polyurethane Rubber/Carbon Black Composites during Cyclic Pressure Deformation
J. Vilcakova, A. Lengalova, P. Saha, O. Quadrat, T. Kitano, May 2002

Elastic composites consisting of a non-conductive matrix and conductive filler change their electrical properties under deformation, which enables them to be used as pressure sensors. For this purpose change in electrical conductivity of carbon black/silicone or polyurethane rubber composites during cyclic pressure deformation has been studied. The findings revealed that the character of conductivity changes depends on the filler concentration. While below the percolation threshold the conductivity decreases with the pressure deformation, above this critical filler content conductivity increases. This behaviour is explained as a result of the different space structure of conducting particles in the composite matrix. Cyclic pressure experiments showed that even a small deformation causes irreversible changes in the composite structure and, consequently, non-reproducibility of the repeated loadings.

Electrical Conductivity of a Graphite Based Composite as Affected by the Degree of Mixedness of Graphite in the Elastomeric Matrix
Dilhan M. Kalyon, Elvan Birinci, May 2002

The development of the electrical properties of composites as a function of the degree of mixedness of graphite distributed into a plasticized thermoplastic elastomer (Kraton with mineral oil plasticizer) is investigated. A wide-angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD) based quantitative phase analysis method was used to characterize the variations of the concentrations of the elastomer and the graphite particles around their mean values as a function of mixing time in an intensive batch mixer. Increasing the specific energy input during the mixing process results in a more homogeneous spatial distribution of graphite in the elastomer. The increasing specific energy input alters the rheology of the composite suggesting that significant structural changes do occur. Indeed the degree of mixedness of the graphite in the matrix is quantitatively determined to be improved, generally resulting in better coating of the individual graphite particles. This improved coating effectiveness in turn results in a decrease of the volume conductivity of the composite.

Energy Absorption and Damage Mechanisms in Rubber Modified Systems Tested in Multi-Axial Stress States
S. Ramaswamy, Alan J. Lesser, May 2002

The toughening mechanisms in three different systems namely, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), methacrylate-butadiene-styrene (MBS) modified poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) and styrene-butadiene-styrene (Kraton D) have been investigated. Samples were tested over a range of biaxial stress states followed by analysis of damage using confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In a certain range of biaxial stress states, the damage in these systems was in the form of cracks propagating perpendicular to the direction of the maximum applied tensile principal stress. The cracks appear to be arranged in more or less a periodic manner that would result in stress reduction at the crack tips. Similar patterns have also been found to occur in several other polymeric systems. Since materials themselves fashion these patterns, it is speculated that they are energetically favorable.

Engineering and Specialty Plastics in the World 2000-2010
Françoise Pardos, May 2002

Out of total world plastics consumption currently over 150 million tons, engineering plastics amount to 6 million tons, specialty plastics to 200 000 tons. Overall value figures are much higher compared to volume figures.Engineering and specialty plastics have common characteristics:Higher performance properties than commodity plastics, higher temperature performancesConcentration of few world suppliers.Main applications in the car and electrical industriesFaster growth than commodity plasticsCompetition between commodity and engineering plastics.Some engineering plastics might achieve commodity volumes by 2010

Enhancing Sales with Strategic Marketing Tools - Avoid Costly Errors and Sell More Products
Martin K. Pottle, May 2002

In today's lean corporate environment, businesses must focus each dollar spent on creating maximum impact and return in the marketplace. Effective allocation of funds, without costly marketing blunders, is essential to the growth of a company. This presentation will expose six of the most commonly held marketing misconceptions, and offer insight into effective marketing. Directed toward sales engineers, engineering managers, general managers and sales and marketing personnel, smart strategic marketing strategies and tactics will be discussed to give you and your company a competitive advantage.

Equations of the State of Polymer Solids and Melts
Agnieszka Habel, Gonzalo Martinez, Witold Brostow, May 2002

Pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) relationships in polymer solids are used in prediction of long-term performance from short-term tests. We use a technique such that the sample is under hydrostatic mercury pressure, so that solid and molten states are studied in one experiment (isothermal varying P stepwise or isobaric varying T stepwise). The results are represented by the Hartmann equation of state in terms of its characteristic parameters T*, P* and v*. The last one can be used to calculate the free volume by a simple subtraction. We shall try to connect the Hartmann parameters of selected polymers not only to mechanical but also to tribological properties.

Establishing a Foaming Agent Material to Aid in the Development in a New Expandable Cast
Amanda R. Lecker, John M. Avolio, May 2002

There is a need for a size compensating bone cast. When an injury occurs, and a bone is broken, the area around the injury swells. A cast is applied to the arm to prohibit movement. Over time, as swelling decreases, another cast must be sculpted to the reduced size of the arm. Through research of material properties and characteristics, a foaming material has been found that will aid in creating a one-time application cast. Some advantages of this material are: flexibility, expandability, and the ability to create pressure points, however, cost efficiency, safety, and ability to hold a constant pressure must be determined. This research charts the development of such a product.

Establishment of Valve Gate System for Sequential Injection Molding
Shia-Chung Chen, Ming-Shiu Chung, Hsin-Shu Peng, Lei-Ti Huang, May 2002

Sequential injection molding using valve-gate controlled hot runner system has attracted attentions for industrial applications in recent years. Due to the complication in operation mechanisms, commercial valve gate usually delays for about 0.3 to 0.5 seconds once the valve-opening command is given. This signal to operation delay is acceptable for conventional injection molding of large parts. However, it becomes critical for 3C thin-wall molding application where the required filling time is short. In this study, a gas-driven valve gate control system was established. Valve-gate opening monitoring system using both CCD camera and cavity pressure transducers was also constructed. All design parameters including gas-valve response characteristics, tolerance between inner piston and cylinder, gas pressure, melt temperature, etc., that would affect valve-gate opening were investigated. The delay time for vale-gate shaft movement in a non-melt environment can be reduced to about 50 mini-seconds whereas it increases to about 80 mini-seconds in a melt-filled environment.

Ethylene Polymerization with Cp2ZrCl2 Supported Catalyst
Rodrigo A. Silva, Carla C. Pombo, Anunciata Conte, Maria de Fátima V. Marques, May 2002

In this work metallocene polyethylene was obtained through catalysts comprising of Cp2ZrCl2 supported on silica/methylaluminoxane (MAO) prepared with different methods. The metallocene complex was directly immobilized on the support surface or on the support pretreated with MAO. The results showed that, at the supported catalyst preparation conditions employed in this work, the pretreatment with MAO did not enhance the activity for ethylene polymerization. Moreover the average molecular weight of the polyethylene obtained with the supported catalysts were higher than those obtained with the homogeneous precursor. Morphological control of polymer particle produced with the supported systems was also observed.

Ethylene-Propylene Copolymers Synthetized by Cp2ZrCl2/MAO Homogeneous Catalyst System
Anunciata Conte, Maria de Fátima V. Marques, May 2002

Biscyclopentadienyl zirconium dichloride and methylaluminoxane (MAO) complex catalytic solution was used in ethylene-propylene (E-P) copolymerization. Reaction temperature and time were varied in order to find the relationship among the polymerization activities, average molecular weight (Mw), polydispersity (MWD) and thermal behavior of the copolymers. The parameters evaluated influenced on the catalytic performance in such a way that E-P copolymers with different polydispersities are obtained just by changing the concentration of the comonomers dissolved in the reaction medium. Also, it was observed that, in the range studied, the increase of the reaction temperature contributed to the decrease in the catalytic activity.

An Evaluation of Heat Management in Injection Mould Tools
P.S. Allan, B.A. McCalla, Y. Mubarak, D. Mulligan, May 2002

The control and management of heat in the mould tool is vital for obtaining the optimum production processing conditions in injection moulding. Work at the Wolfson Centre, Brunel University is evaluating the conventional mould cooling methods and also a technique called Pulse Cooling Technology". A special instrumented mould tool was designed for the project and this will be described in the text. The tool has a number of features that represent some common moulding features and it also has pieces that can be subjected to standard mechanical testing procedures. Data from the moulding runs will be compared with high-pressure thermal conductivity and pVT measurements. Finally a comparison will be made between the two mould cooling methods."

Evaluation of Poly (ester-ether) Block Copolymers for Use in Automotive Fluid Handling Applications
F. Gribben, G.M. McNally, W.R. Murphy, T. McNally, May 2002

Block copolymers based on Poly (ester-ether) block structure were in part tested to SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) J2027 as to their suitability for use in automotive fluid handling applications. Six block copolymers of varying microstructure (that is hard-soft segment ratio) were injection moulded into ASTM test specimens and immersed in five standard automotive test fluids; Aggressive Water, Fuel C, Transmission Oil, Ethylene Glycol, and Zinc Chloride solution. Deterioration in tensile strength, tensile and flexural modulus of up to 15% for the block copolymers was observed after immersion in all test fluids except Fuel C where the reduction in mechanical properties was as high as 50% when compared to the neat dry polymers. Similar but less dramatic behaviour was also seen for the elongation at break measurements. The loss in impact strength on immersion in the test fluids was small, the greatest loss was seen for the softer grades of block copolymer. The degradation of mechanical properties is correlated with the ratios of hard to soft segments in the block copolymers studied.

Evaluation of Slip Coat Materials Co-Extruded on TPVs for Automotive Weatherseal
Reza Sadeghi, Hua Cai, Chris La Tulippe, Ryszard Brzoskowski, Edwin Currie, May 2002

The sliding friction of TPV strips co-extruded with a thin layer of slip coat material was measured at different temperatures. These strips were used to predict the performance of the slip coatings in automotive weatherstrip applications. The static and kinetic coefficients of frictions were the parameters of interest, and their variation with temperature and composition. Abrasion resistance and some other physical properties were also tested. Five slip coat materials available from different suppliers were evaluated. Slip coat materials from Tokiwa and DSM gave the best balance of coefficient of friction, abrasion resistance and stiffness.

Evaluation of the Impact and Tensile Properties of Virgin and Reground Delrin 500 Exposed to Nitric Acid
Rhonda M. Rush, May 2002

Izod and tensile testing has been used as a way to evaluate toughness in crystalline thermoplastics like Delrin®. As with many other ways to evaluate polymer properties, reproducibility is sensitive to sample handling, technique, and mechanical factors, as well as the variation in the polymer samples. The Delrin® 500 specimens were evaluated as-molded and then after various treatments. The treatments included exposure to varying nitric acid concentrations through smears on the samples or through complete sample submersion in acid. Reground sample blends were subjected to nitric acid smears while strained. These specimens were held under a 0.5% constant strain with nitric acid exposure for limited time. The Property Retention Index (PRI) format was used to compare the as-molded results to the after treatment results. The PRI was 0.70 for weight loss after submersion in 4.25% nitric acid after 312 hours of exposure. The PRI for the Izod impact was reduced to 0.21 in 4.25% nitric acid after 312 hours of exposure. The PRI never fell below 0.97 for the tensile specimens molded out of regrind. The observed trend in the tensile value is not a simple linear decrease with increasing regrind weight percent.

Evaluation of the Tensile Properties of PET before and after Chemical Exposure
Rhonda M. Rush, May 2002

The polyethylene terephthalate (PET) specimens were evaluated as molded and after various treatments. The PET polymers are known to undergo hydrolysis and thought to be sensitive to exposure to acid. The molded specimens were exposed to various chemicals including hydrocarbons, oils and greases and solutions of nitric acid. Chemicals were selected because of an opportunity for them to contact PET parts during assembly or as used in our applications. The molded samples were subjected to exposure for different periods. Exposure effects were monitored using the tensile strength at break data. The comparison of tensile strengths at break was done by using the Property Retention Index (PRI) per ASTM D 5870-95. Materials included: black DuPont™ Rynite® SST 35, black and grey DuPont™ Rynite® 545, and Ticona Celstran® PET GF20-02.

Evaluationof Melting Performance of a Co-Rotating Twin-Screw Extruder
P.H.M. Elemans, P. Bleiman, J. Blanchard, May 2002

A method is proposed to evaluate the melting performance of a corotating twin-screw extruder. The method involves model experiments whereby the polymer pellets (coated with blue pigment powder) are extruded using a screw configuration that only contains the functional zone (melting zone, kneading section) placed at the down-stream end of the screw. The polymer can flow out almost unrestricted through a large die opening. The extrudate contains a mixture of unmelted pellets in a colored melt: as soon as the polymer starts to melt, it turns blue; the polymer pellets that do not melt remain opaque. The extrudate is chopped off into samples that are cooled down and cut into thin slices, from which the unmelted fraction of polymer can be determined using image analysis. The data serve as a basis for the evaluation of the melting performance of a particular screw configuration.

SPE-Inspiring Plastics Professionals

© 2024 SPE-Inspiring Plastics Professionals.
All rights reserved.

84 countries and 60k+ stakeholders strong, SPE unites plastics professionals worldwide – helping them succeed and strengthening their skills through networking, events, training, and knowledge sharing.

No matter where you work in the plastics industry value chain-whether you're a scientist, engineer, technical personnel or a senior executive-nor what your background is, education, gender, culture or age-we are here to serve you.

Our members needs are our passion. We work hard so that we can ensure that everyone has the tools necessary to meet her or his personal & professional goals.

Contact Us | Sitemap | Data Privacy & Terms of Use



SPE US Office
83 Wooster Heights Road, Suite 125
Danbury, CT 06810
P +1 203.740.5400

SPE Australia/New Zealand
More Information

SPE Europe
Serskampsteenweg 135A
9230 Wetteren, Belgium
P +32 498 85 07 32

SPE India
More Information

SPE Middle East
More Information

3Dnatives Europe
157 Boulevard Macdonald
75017, Paris, France
More Information

Powered By SPE

SPE-Inspiring Plastics Professionals

SPE-Inspiring Plastics Professionals

SPE ImplementAM

SPE-Inspiring Plastics Professionals

SPE-Inspiring Plastics Professionals

SPE-Inspiring Plastics Professionals

  Welcome Page

How to reference articles from the SPE Library:

Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:

Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

Note: if there are more than three authors you may use the first author's name and et al. EG Brown, H. L. et al.

If you need help with citations, visit www.citationmachine.net