The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Determination of the Zero Shear Viscosity of Polyethylene
The zero shear viscosity (ZSV) of 10 commercial polyethylene resins has been determined with a creep test and the traditional oscillatory frequency sweep test. Identical results were obtained from the two different test methods. The obtained ZSV by either method can be used to evaluate the long chain branching content of polyethylene resins.
Fast Thermal Tomography for Non-Destructive Testing of Plastic Components
In the field of non-destructive testing (NDT) active
thermography is state of the art. However, in recent years
further developments have been limited to the system
miniaturization, cost reduction and increase of the thermal
and geometric resolution. The detection of defects in
deeper layers results in an enormous amount of data and
long test durations. Here, thermal tomography offers a
promising approach as circumvent these obstacles.
Composites for Shielding Electromagnetic Radiation
More and more electronic housings are made of polymers instead of metals. Ensuring failure-free operation of electronic equipment and preventing a negative influence on electronic components in the environment shielding actions have to be implemented. The objective of this paper is to present an approach, which allows producing large and highly stressable electronic enclosures such as battery boxes for electric vehicles and to examine systematically weak points in future junctions of components.
Surface Modification of Nano Silca for Organic/Inorganic Hybrid UV Curable Acrylate Hard Coating
The effect of acrylate surface modified nano silica on ultraviolet (UV) curing characteristics of acrylate hard coating material was studied. Our photo DSC results show that acrylate surface modification on nano silica improved the UV curing of acrylate. It was found that acrylate modified nano silica caused the enhancement of hardness of acrylate hard coating with maintaining of reasonably good optical properties for the hard coated optical film application.
Molding Strategies for Bridging Production Volumes
Fixed and marginal costs are analyzed for plastic part production with class 101 injection molds, aluminum tooling, prototype molds made by additive manufacturing with photopolymers, and products directly manufactured by 3D printing via fused deposition modeling of thermoplastics. The analysis indicates that the production costs can vary by orders of magnitude, and that different processes are preferred with varying production quantities.
Combined X-Ray and Optical Pellet Inspection for Smallest Impurity Detection during Plastic Pellet Production and Processing
Impurities in plastic pellets have to be detected and sorted out effectively, even when they are melted down into the pellet. This is achieved by a purity inspection system, which includes a combination of X-ray technology and an optical system. The X-ray technology looks inside the pellets, independent of non- transparency and color. With this new technical approach, even 50æm contamination can be detected and therefore a 100% inspection for smallest contamination is possible.
Discussing the Feasibility of Implementing Rotational Foam Molding Operations Based on Physical Blowing Agents
This paper focuses on evaluating the suitability of technologically-distinctive novel processing concepts for successfully transforming engineering resins into rotationally molded cellular polymeric composite articles of controllable densities in terms of using physical blowing agents while achieving simultaneous retention of fine-celled foam morphologies while maintaining a uniform thickness of the solid skin and while reducing the processing cycle times and energy consumption.
Validation of a New Material Model for Thermoforming and Blow Molding Simulation
A new material model is proposed for the simulation of thermoforming and blow molding processes. The material model is based on simple traction experiemnets where the elongation viscosity is given as a funtion of strain. To validate the material models, thermoforming experiments are carried out on typical punnet geometrey. Experimental measurements of thickness distribution at the end of the formoing process are compared to the numerical data obtained using the new material model. Material distribution comaprison show excellent agreement.
Characterization of Carbonized Electrospun Lignin Fibers
Non-woven carbon fiber mat was produced by thermal treatment of the electrospun lignin fibers. Aqueous solution blends of organosolv hardwood lignin and 5 percentage of high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) were electrospun. Average diameter of lignin fibres had a 25% reduction after carbonization. Results of Raman spectroscopy, surface area analysis, and thermal conductivity are comparable to carbonized fibers obtained from electrospun PAN.
Impact Puncture Resistance of Multilayer Flexible Food Packages
The development of a laboratory test method to rank the relative impact puncture resistance of flexible packages is presented. Details about the laboratory test, and the method used to rank the structures are given. Test results for selected multilayer structures are shown, and a ranking based on the test results is presented. In turn, this ranking is compared against results obtained using a drop test developed for the purpose of simulating the food filling portion of the packaging process.
Bioadhesive from Lignin and Dried Distillers? Grains with Solubles (DDGS)
Lignin and dried distillers? grains with solubles (DDGS) were utilized to prepare biobased adhesives at different DDGS-to-lignin ratios. The adhesion properties of the bioadhesives for bonding plywood were then evaluated. The adhesives prepared from the mixture of DDGS and lignin showed higher bonding strength than the adhesives prepared from DDGS and lignin alone. Analysis of the hot pressed adhesives showed that the DDGS extract and lignin had favorable interaction, which contributed to better performance of the hybrid adhesives.
High Accuracy Methods for Foam Injection-Expansion Simulation
In this paper, we propose a set of advanced numerical methods in order to simulate foam injection-expansion processes in a single step. Our approach is based on a set of stabilized solvers for each governing equation. These solvers are coupled with an advanced global stabilization algorithm and a multi-criteria adaptive meshing technology. These new technologies provide realistic results. We present several analytical and technical examples to demonstrate the overall robustness.
Microwave Synthesis of Poly (Glycerol Sebacate)
In the present work, poly (glycerol sebacate) elastomer was obtained by microwaving glycerol with sebacic acid during 128 minutes at 180øC. The power and the temperature were recorded through the reaction. They were unstable (oscillating) during the initial period of reaction (one hour), and become stable after. The step in which the power was unstable could correspond to the pre polymerization and the second step to the polymerization. Thermogravimetric analysis, attenuated total reflectance, and mass loss measurement during the process support this hypothesis.
Capillary Rheometry Transient Data Analysis
A transient rheological analysis method is presented with investigation of three modeling effects: shear rate dependence, relaxation spectrum, and melt compressibility. Results are presented for Cross-WLF shear-viscosity model, two relaxation spectrum models and two compressibility conditions. The Cross-WLF viscosity model together with a power-law relaxation spectrum and melt compressible conditions yield the highest correlation between the modeled and observed viscosity.
The Effect of Fluorinated Hyperbranched Polymer on the Morphology of PS and PMMA Foams
We studied the influence of fluorinated hyperbranched polymer on the foam morphologies of PS and PMMA foams created via the batch foaming process using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as a physical foaming agent. A small percentage of the fluorinated hyperbranched polymer brought a significant increase of cell number density and a marked decrease of the cell size of PS and PMMA. This is due to the enhanced nucleation brought by the well-dispersed fluorinated hyper branched polymer in the matrix, which has good affinity to CO2.
Peelable Seal Films With Enhanced Moisture Barrier Properties For Flexible Packaging Applications
Most cereal and cracker packages are designed to have the seal layer peel apart while being opened. Unfortunately, opening these packages often results in catastrophic failure of the film and spillage of the contents. In this study, various types of peelable seal layers were investigated. In addition, a new high moisture barrier sHDPE was evaluated.
New Peel Seal System for Flexible Medical Device Packaging Applications
Peelable flexible medical device packaging films are typically heat sealed to a breathable spunbonded polyolefin substrate or medical grade paper used in order to allow for ETO sterilization. A newly developed uncoated nylon reinforced paper provides an alternative to materials traditionally used for lidding. This paper serves to demonstrate the successful use of a mixture design of experiments in the development of a new peel/seal system.
Mechanical Behavior and Structure Variation of PCL/HA Composite under Different Strain and Strain Rates
The structure-mechanical property correlation of the injection molding PCL/HA composite was explored by studying their structural and morphological variations under different strain rates and tensile strain. It was showed that the strain-hardening behavior of PCL/HA composites were influenced by the tensile parameters. The crystallinity and orientation increased with the increased of strain rates.
Chemical Resistant TPE Material with Adhesion to Engineering Plastics
In an effort to address to the growing demand for soft, chemical resistant materials in over-molding applications, KRAIBURG TPE has developed a series of thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) materials, called COPEC?. The performance and properties of COPEC? combine the benefit of easy processing and chemical resistance compared to alternative materials. A comparative study has been conducted in the course of this paper.
A Review of Some Important Mixing Processes for Single-Screw Extruders
The melting process in single-screw extruders produces the first level of mixing and is referred here as primary mixing. Secondary levels of mixing are then provided by common mixing devices. These mixing processes will be reviewed in this paper.
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