SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
A Review of Some Important Mixing Processes for Single-Screw Extruders
Gregory A. Campbell, Mark A. Spalding, May 2015
The melting process in single-screw extruders produces the first level of mixing and is referred here as primary mixing. Secondary levels of mixing are then provided by common mixing devices. These mixing processes will be reviewed in this paper.
Study of the Curing Kinetics of Biobased Epoxy Resin in the Presence of a Biobased Hardener
Ghodsieh M. Roudsari, Amar Mohanty, Manjusri Misra, May 2015
Investigation of curing kinetics of a biobased thermoset resin was the aim of this study. The curing reaction involved a combination of a petroleum based epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) and a biobased epoxy resin (epoxidized soybean oil) with a biobased curing agent (sebacic acid) and was evaluated using a differential scanning calorimeter. It was found that the addition of ESO increased the enthalpy of reaction as well as activation energy. Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Starink methods have been used to analyze the results.
Split Peel Seal System for Flexible Medical Device Packaging
Patrick Thomas, May 2015
Flexible medical device packaging systems typically include heat sealing a forming web to a breathable lidding substrate material in order to allow for ethylene oxide sterilization. Design for Six Sigma methodology and Stage-Gate Project Management were used in an effort to efficiently and effectively demonstrate the feasibility of developing a multilayer film structure and formulation that provides a ?split? peal seal bond to uncoated nylon reinforced medical grade paper. This peel seal system offers a cost/performance alternative between costly spunbonded polyolefin and paper lidding materials.
Improving the Physical Properties and Versatility of PLA with PHA Copolymer Blends
Michael Andrews, Allen Padwa, Zhiguan Yang, May 2015
Blends of 100% biobased, fully biodegradable amorphous polyhydroxyalkanoate (a-PHA) copolymers and polylactic acid (PLA) exhibit good toughness and clarity in injection molding, extruded sheet and blown film. It will be shown that the level of toughness increase and modulus reduction can be tuned by blend composition. Results will also be presented that show that the addition of only 5% a-PHA significantly modifies the behavior of PLA in cutting and trimming typical of thermoforming operations.
Light Weighting in Blow Molding using New Mucell Technology
Simon Dominey, May 2015
By working together with Unilever, Mucell has developed the cutting-edge technology of light-weighting of blow molded bottles by 15%
Plastics Recovered from Shredded Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment
Brian L. Riise, Ron Rau, May 2015
Our industry leading separation technology enables us to recover styrenic and polyolefin plastics from complex mixed streams such as shredded waste electrical end electronic equipment. Plastic flakes recovered using our process are compounded and sold as pellets suitable for use in injection molding applications. This paper looks at the challenges and benefits of recovering plastics and modifying their properties for use in various applications such as home appliances, office products and electronics.
Microstructural Analysis of Multi-Scale Polymer Composites using Opitcal Microscopy and Entropic Measures
Jason R. Nixon, Hyunjo Choi, David I. Bigio, May 2015
Entropic measures for the characterization of mixing have been used to quantify the concentration and dispersion of additives in a polymer matrix, but have not yet been applied to the dispersion and breakup of ideally discrete structures. This paper introduces measures and considerations to analyze optical micrographs with entropic and statistical measures to quantify the quality mixing and attempt to quantify fiber attrition in polymer composites that contain both micro- and nano-scale additives.
Development of a New Type of Melt Pump
Johann Ertl, May 2015
The development of a new type of melt pump for the plastics and chemical industry will be described, including a comparison between theoretical and practical results. The device is based on a twin-screw system rather than intermeshing gears.
FEM Modeling of Rate-Dependent Scratch Behavior of Polymers
Mohammad M. Hossain, Hung-Jue Sue, May 2015
Quantitative finite element methods (FEM) modeling has been carried out to describe the scratch-induced deformation in amorphous polymers at various scratching speeds. The FEM model takes into account rate and pressure dependent mechanical and frictional behavior of polymers in modeling the scratch behavior. The result shows the applicability and universality of the proposed numerical framework in describing the scratch behavior of ductile amorphous polymers. Usefulness of the present numerical modeling for designing scratch resistant polymers is discussed.
Corn Protein Composites for Agricultural Products
Jake Behrens, Jay-Lin Jane, David Grewell, James Schrader, Ines Khnert, May 2015
Corn protein based polymer composites were developed for use in different agricultural consumer products. Addition of corn protein to polymer matrices increased thermal degradation, water absorption, and generally showed a slight decrease in mechanical properties. Thus, these composites are well suited for short-lived or controlled-degradation applications. For example, used as crop containers, the composites outperformed their petroleum-based counterparts in terms of enhancing plant growth.
TPU Foam Injection Molding with Gas-Assisted Processing
Lun Howe Mark, Guilong Wang, Chul. B. Park, Ungyeong Peter Jung, May 2015
Using gas-assist in conjunction with foam injection molding has the potential of creating a highly synergistic production technique. By combining two supplementary processing strategies, weight savings with higher quality cell morphologies can be achieved. In this study, the effects of gas-assist processing parameters were systematically examined on the cell morphology of TPU. These gas-assist parameters include the holding time, holding pressure and start delay. The cavity pressure for different gas-assist pressure profiles was also examined.
Microstructure and Properties of Polyamide 12 Processed by Selective Laser Sintering
Binay Patel, Ray Pearson, May 2015

Selective laser sintering (SLS) of polymer powder is readily used for the additive manufacturing of plastic parts. During SLS processing a laser is used to fuse powders together to form whole parts. The build direction, which corresponds to the axis on which the longest dimension of the part is oriented, can greatly influence the morphology and material performance of the final product. In this study we evaluate the microstructure and mechanical behavior of SLS processed polyamide 12 (PA-12) as a function of build direction.
Benefits of Surface Treatments & Mixed Filler Formulations for Thermally Conductive Plastics
Chandra Raman, Bei Xiang, Anand Murugaiah, May 2015
Thermally conductive plastics are gaining attention as an alternate material solution to metals to solve thermal management problems in a wide range of applications and industries. BN materials are known to enable high Thermal Conductivity(TC) in thermoplastic formulations. However, balancing this requirement for high conductivity with the need for acceptable physical properties can be challenging. This paper explores the use of BN-based mixed filler formulations to address these challenges.
Sustainability and Corporate Best Practices: Second Triennial Survey of Plastics Industry
Margaret H. Baumann, Bonnie J. Bachman, Shristy Bashyal, May 2015
The 2014 Sustainability Survey was the second survey that SPE Marketing and Management Special Interest Group conducted on sustainability in the plastics industry. The first survey was conducted in 2011. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the 2014 survey, and establish some baseline case studies of best sustainability practices in the industry.
Fabrication of Interconnected Porous PLA by Mixing with NaCl and PEO in Two-Rotor Continuous Mixer
Xin Chen, Zeyu Lin, Jin Sha, Tong Wu, Tao Chen, Yulu Ma, Lih-Sheng Turng, Linsheng Xie, May 2015
Interconnected porous PLA materials were prepared by mixing PLA with Sodium Chloride (NaCl) and polyoxyethylene (PEO) in a two-rotor continuous mixer. SEM, DSC and XRD were used to study the effect of PEO contents and mixing parameters on interconnected porous structure, porosity and crystallization properties. The results showed that increasing PEO content and rotor speed improved pore connectivity. Rotor speed also enhanced PLA crystallization.
Fabrication of Biocompatible Poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) PBAT Coating for Biomedical Applications
Syed Hussain R. Rizvi, Alicia D?Souza, Mickey Richardson, Tre Welch, Nandika D?Souza, May 2015
The objective of the present study is to investigate the mechanical strength and thermal properties (melting, crystallization and glass transition) of petroleum based biocompatible poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) as well as its synergistic blend with a nanofiller LDH (Layered double hydroxide). In the present study a bionanocomposite with a higher percentage of nanofillers was prepared and deformation response examined.
Laser Imageable Polymeric Film
Patrick Thomas, May 2015
It has been found that polymeric film formulated with a photochromatic pigment offers a substantial advantage over prior art methods of laser imaging film. Polymeric film formulated with a photochromatic pigment which undergoes a white to black color change upon exposed to laser irradiation are durable and abrasion-resistant since the photochromatic pigment is within the body of the plastic film.
Toughening Hollow Glass Microsphere Filled Low Density Nylon Compounds
Baris Yalcin, Mark Williams, May 2015
No Abstract Available.
Formulation Strategy to Achieve Highly Colorable and Weatherable ASA
Steve Blazey, May 2015
ASA polymers (Acrylonitrile-Styrene-Acrylate) represent one family of weatherable polymers often used in outdoor applications requiring long term color and physical properties retention. However, highly chromatic colors are difficult to achieve in opaque weatherable polymers such as ASA. This paper will identify and discuss several factors that influence polymer opacity and discuss examples where highly chromatic weatherable colors are achieved through the manipulation of polymer refractive index, material and color formulation strategy.
Undergraduate Modules for Biobased Plastics
Carol Barry, Bridgette Budhlall, Ramaswamy Nagarajan, May 2015
Educational modules focused on bio-based polymers were successfully developed and implemented for undergraduate curricula. These modules included experiments for (1) synthesis of a biodegradable polymer, (2) characterizing the properties of this polymer and comparing these properties with those of a commonly-used petroleum-based polymer, and (3) melt processing a bio-based, biodegradable polymer. All modules were well-received by and produced significant learning by the undergraduate students.

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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