SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Processing of Fine-Dispersed ZnO/PET Compounds Using Twin Screw Extruder
Masayoshi Suzuta, May 2001
By using twin screw extruder, the compounding of PET, ZnO, and a modified polyolefin wax was carried out. As a result, the surface of ZnO was covered by a modified polyolefin wax, and, consequently, a fine-dispersed ZnO/PET compound was obtained without affecting the photocatalystic activity of ZnO. The plate, injection molded in 2mm thickness using this compound, had a good clarity and enabled to absorb the light of wavelength of under 360nm, completely.
Binary Blends of EVA and Metallocene-Catalyzed Ethylene-A-Olefin Copolymers for Film Applications
M. Kontopoulou, J.A. Lee, L.C. Huang, W.E. Baker, A.M. Henderson, May 2001
Blends of Ethylene-Vinyl-Acetate copolymers (EVA) with metallocene based ethylene-a-olefin copolymers have been studied, with the purpose of exploring their properties and potential in film packaging applications. The effect of blend composition on rheological properties, heat seal, optical and tensile properties has been examined. It is shown that depending on their composition, these blends can offer a good balance of properties and processability.
Modeling of Shrinkage and Densification of Powder Compacts
M. Kontopoulou, May 2001
A previously proposed model for the densification of powder compacts under isothermal conditions is extended to provide predictions of shrinkage and non-isothermal densification. This model, combined with predictions of bubble dissolution under non-isothermal conditions can provide a complete description of the shrinkage and densification of powder compacts. Model predictions compare favorably with experimental results.
Falling Weight Impact Testing Analysis of Rotationally Moulded Polyethylene
J. Kissick, X. Wang, E. Harkin-Jones, R.J. Crawford, May 2001
The falling weight impact test is a common method to evaluate mechanical properties of rotomoulded parts. This is because the resistance to impact of rotationally moulded articles is very sensitive to variations in resin, processing conditions, etc. More information could be obtained from an instrumented falling weight impact test, such as impact force/time and failure mode variation. In this work, these relationships are studied. Also, the effects of material properties, processing parameters, such as temperature and introducing pressure, are discussed.
Investigations for the Numerical Determination of the TTT-Diagram for Unsaturated Polyester Resin Systems
Marco Wacker, Gottfried W. Ehrenstein, May 2001
During cure of a thermoset resin, the material exhibits three distinct phases: liquid, gel, and solid. Each of these material states is marked by dramatic changes in the thermomechanical properties of the resin. The glass transition temperature and the elastic modulus of the thermoset materials are two examples of the material properties that are of great interest to processors in the thermoset resin industry. The ability to predict the progression can give insight into the performance and optimisation of processing methods for thermoset resins.
Case Studies of Failure of Polymeric Electrical Insulation
Myer Ezrin, Gary Lavigne, May 2001
Polymeric electrical insulation failures are due primarily to material composition, design, processing, service conditions or combinations thereof. Time to failure may be immediate, i.e., as manufactured, if specifications are not met. Others may not develop until after many years of service. Since life expectancy of electrical insulation is of the order of 40 years, failure in less time is considered unacceptable. Examples are given of many types of failure and their prevention for power distribution cable and for lower voltage applications.
Extrusion Visualization - From Blend Structure to Sharkskin
K.B. Migler, May 2001
Over the last five years, we have developed optical technologies for in-line monitoring of extrusion. We review two areas where we have succeeded in uncovering important concepts and phenomena by shedding light on processes that were previously unobservable. In the area of polymer blends, we have made real-time observations of blend microstructure during extrusion. we found conditions by which droplets could align in the vorticity axis. In the area of sharkskin and polyolefin extrusion, we have visualized how polymer process additives act and what causes sharkskin.
Value Added-Manufacturing: What It Is and Why You Should Be Doing It!
Margaret Baumann, Karen Koenig, May 2001
All OEMs will continue to outsource some manufacturing. Business machines, telecommunications, consumer and medical industries are following automotive's example. In 1998, companies farmed out 15% of all manufacturing. In 2000, they will outsource more than 40% (Hambrecht and Quist). This paper will describe in detail what is causing this trend and how it is influencing the plastics processing community. Trends will be discussed documented by survey results. Examples of value-added manufacturing companies are also provided.
Compositional Investigation of the Solid-State Rheological Behavior of Dynamically Vulcanized EPDM/I-PP Elastomers
Kathryn J. Wright, Alan J. Lesser, May 2001
This study investigates mechanical behavior and reversibility of dynamically vulcanized EPDM / i-PP blends. The composition of these elastomers dictates their morphology, which in turn controls their mechanical behavior. Six compositions are examined under dynamic loading. Dynamic mechanical responses are examined in terms of the Payne effect as a function of composition, cure state, and i-PP molecular weight. The Kraus model is applied and the resulting parameters are explained as a function of morphology.
Rotomolded Part Density and its Relationship to Physical Properties
Philip T. Dodge, Jeffrey L. Perry, May 2001
The density of a rotomolded part can be directly related to several physical properties such as impact, flexural modulus and tensile strength. Depending on the rotomolding conditions, the part will have a range of these physical properties. Part or as is" density can help predict the performance of the final product. This paper will provide the link between the aforementioned physical properties and the rotomolded part density."
Increase of Dimensional Stability of PET and its Processability
Rajesh Patel, Kyung-Ju Choi, May 2001
Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) is widely used as a molding material, but increase in its uses has been limited by a tendency of the parts to distort in shape over long periods of time. These changes appear to be due to slow crystallization rate. In order to improve dimensional stability, experiments on the optimum drying condition on the rate of crystallization by adding polypropylene (PP) and TiO2 as nucleating agents and on the melt processing conditions were performed. DSC, WAXD and the Cone and Plate Rheometer were used.
Turbo-Screw™, New Screw Design for Foam Extrusion
Jim Fogarty, Dave Fogarty, Chris Rauwendaal, Antoine Rios, May 2001
This paper introduces a new screw design concept for foam extrusion developed recently (1, 2). This patented screw design achieves more efficient mixing and heat transfer allowing significant improvements in output rate and product end quality. First the Turbo-Screw geometry will be explained. Second, results from actual foam production operations will be discussed. Third, a 3D numerical analysis of flow in the Turbo-Screw will be described.
Foam Extrusion of Syndiotactic Polypropylene-Polyethylene Blends
Chung P. Park, May 2001
A flexible foam material having a high service temperature has been extruded from a blend of a low-density polyethylene resin and a syndiotactic polypropylene resin. Owing to its slow rate of crystallization, a syndiotactic polypropylene resin does not interfere with foam expansion of the polyethylene resin but provides the foam the desired temperature resistance by in-situ crystallization.
Dynamic Torque of a Single Screw Extruder
Stephen J. Derezinski, May 2001
The dynamic torque for a 63.5-mm extruder was measured with a Wheatstone strain-gage bridge attached to its single-stage screw between the drive and flow channel. Measurements were made of torque for three resins: (1) LDPE pellets, (2) PET pellets, and (3) PET powder. The results show that the dynamic torque of each resin is unique, and that it depends upon screw speed and on solids' conveying barrel-metal temperature.
New Growth Engines in Leading Industry Companies by Creating an Environment for Innovation
Robert L. Braido, May 2001
The focus of this paper is how creativity and innovation spurred new growth as management learned to fit the organization to the task, mission and culture of the company. Exploring ways leading industry companies are forging into the future with amazing results. This paper will address first, the environment needed to build and sustain creativity and innovation. Second, the methods companies are utilizing to stimulate that creativity and innovation.
Dispersion of Nanoparticles in High Performance Polymers Using Thermosetting Resins
Sadhan C. Jana, Sachin Jain, May 2001
A low molecular weight epoxy was used as dispersant of fumed silica in polyether sulphone (PES), a high performance polymer with typical processing temperatures of ~340-380°C. Small amounts of low molecular weight epoxy reduced the processing temperatures of PES by as much as 100°C and, due to polar nature, helped disperse fumed silica particles, which contained active silanol groups. Epoxy molecules were later crosslinked using suitable curing agents. An order of magnitude reduction in the size of dispersed fumed silica particles and significant improvement in HDT were observed.
Shear and Elongational Rheology of Some Polyolefins of Different Molecular Parameters
John R. Collier, Simioan Petrovan, Bijan Seyfzadeh, Parag Patil, May 2001
Processing of polymer melts and solutions is strongly influenced by both shear and elongational rheology. Molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, degree of branching, branch length and their distribution on the host chain are influential on both. In this work the elongational viscosity and first normal stress coefficient are related to molecular parameters of some polyolefins.
Effects of Reprocessing on the Fiber Length and Mechanical Properties of Nylon-6/Glass Fiber Composites
Ulku Yilmazer, Murat Cansever, May 2001
Nylon-6 pellets were compounded with glass fibers in a twin-screw extruder and the resulting pellets were reprocessed for four times through twin-screw extrusion. Collected samples were injection molded and izod impact and tensile tests were performed. Also, fiber length distribution curves were obtained. Results showed that beyond a certain length, fiber attrition is almost stopped and the mechanical properties reach asymptotically low values.
Glass Fiber Reinforcement of Polybutylene Terephthalate
Rudolph D. Deanin, Navin N. Lalwani, May 2001
Polybutylene terephthalate was reinforced by 10-40% of short (0.5 mm) and long (10 mm) glass fibers, using a range of process conditions to prepare test samples. Harsher process conditions gave shorter final fiber lengths. Tensile modulus and notched Izod impact strength correlated with glass fiber length and concentration.
Stress-Relaxation of Oriented Polyolefin Films
Arthur Bobovitch, Emmanuel Gutman, May 2001
Stress-relaxation behavior of various polyolefin films has been studied. It has been proved that the stress-relaxation technique is a more sensitive tool than usual tensile tests when discussing anisotropy in machine and transverse directions. An influence of irradiation dose on the relaxation time spectrum has been demonstrated. The relaxation behavior of three layer composite film has been studied. It was shown that the relaxation behavior of composite film can be predicted if one knows the relaxation time spectrum of each layer.

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"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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