The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Review of World Polyolefin Markets
The world markets for the polyolefins, polyethylene and polypropylene are reviewed. The relative economics of these polymers in the US market are then reviewed to provide a background to assist the reader in forecasting possible future economic trends.
Foaming PMMA with an Equilibrium Mixture of Carbon Dioxide and Isopropanol
In this study we examine the use of a combination of CO2 and 2-propanol (PrOH), as blowing agents for PMMA foam. Gaseous CO2 was dissolved in liquid PrOH, allowing for injection of a homogenous liquid mixture into the extruder. The advantage of such a system is that the CO2/PrOH ratio remains constant, and the mixture can easily be metered with a suitable pump. The PMMA foamed with this equilibrium mixture was similar to foams prepared with separately injected CO2 and PrOH.
Rational Integration of Magnetizable Polymers for Sensor Applications
Besides improvements in the optical and mechanical properties as well as carrier-functions for conductive metal layers, the functionality of polymers in electronic applications can be extended through addition of specific fillers. Thereby, the properties of the filled polymer can approach those of the filler, Table 1. Compounding magnetizable fillers into a polymer matrix allows for the rational manufacture of more complex permanent magnets with improved material characteristics by the injection molding process.
On-Line Morphology Control and Novel Extruded Blends Produced by Continuous Flow Chaotic Mixing
Present-day blending technology was developed primarily to forcibly melt and mix polymers and additives. Desired morphologies are often pursued by time consuming iteration. In this study, a new continuous flow blending process is described where morphology develops progressively and more controllably by chaotic mixing. A variety of commercially important blend morphologies, including very highly multilayered blends, are described that have been extruded. The process may serve as a basis for new blending and multilayer film technologies.
Non-Newtonian Flow and Debris Deposition in an Extrusion Filter Medium
An engineering model was developed to predict the debris particle deposition of a non-Newtonian melt in an extrusion filter medium. The model is based on mass conservation in a three-dimensional finite volume space in conjunction with a power law modified Darcy's equation for porous media flows. Validation was performed by comparison to start-up pressure drops across filter media employed in fiber spinning. Parametric studies revealed the influence on debris deposition of various filter housing contours and power law indices.
Use of the Compact Tension Specimen to Study ESCR in Polyethylene
A technique is described that enhances the ASTM D5397 Constant Tensile Load (CTL) test by replacing the standard type L" dogbone specimen with a Compact-Tension (CT) specimen. By measuring the center-line crack opening displacement (COD) of the CT specimen while stressed under a test solution one can describe crack growth properties in terms of a stress intensity factor (K) and estimate a corresponding crack growth rate."
Cooling of Coated Cable
For the task of designing cooling parts of a cable coating line, it is very helpful to use modeling of the temperature behavior of the product in cooling line. This presentation shows two models, which can be used for numerical simulations. Authors also deal with the question, if the heat flux in direction of the movement is negligible. The comparison of results of simulated cases and measurement on real coated cables is shown.
Visualization of Polymer Blends Processing
The blending process of two blend systems, polystyrene/polypropylene (PS/PP) and poly(ether imide)/polycarbonate (PEI/PC), are studied by visualization of blending in an internal mixer. The study shows that higher RPM and higher barrel temperature accelerated the melting and blending process. For PEI/PC blends, the composition of PEI has no effect on the time for melting of PEI pellets. Times for softening PEI to a dough-like material at 340°C and 50rpm is 30s and to completely melt it is 40s. SEM photos and DSC data verify the visualization result that PEI/PC blends are partially miscible at higher PEI compositions.
Impact Modification of Nylon 6,6-An Experimental Study
The effect of operating and feeding conditions on the impact modification of Nylon 6,6 with Poly-Olefin Rubber Impact Modifier (POIM) were studied. The results indicated that the notched izod values are uniformly higher for the samples with POIM fed separately downstream than those of the preblended samples. The notched izod values also show a slight correlation to the throughput, Q. The existence of a critical interparticle distance was verified by image analysis.
Extensional Flow Properties from Entrance Pressure Measurements Using Zero Length Die Versus Bagley Correction
As melt flows from the barrel of a capillary rheometer into a die the streamlines converge, producing a strong extensional flow. The entrance pressure loss is determined with orifice die and Bagley correction. The failure of the measurement with orifice die like outlet angle and length of the die is evaluated and extensional viscosity is calculated using the theory of Cogswell. The results of extensional viscosity will be compared with Rheotens elongation data.
New Technique to Reduce Wall Thickness Tolerances in Pipes
Conventional pipe dies normally have no means to get rid of unsymmetrical differences of the local melt stream around the circumference of the die. Solutions to locally change the die temperature in order to influence the flow distribution are limited to dies with great diameters. But this creates undesirable differences in the temperature of the melt and causes trouble concerning straightness of the pipes. Integrating an elastic outer tubing into the die allows to locally alter the gap of the flow channel at the die exit. The theory of the technique and first practical results attained on a production line are described.
Dynamic Cooling Design for Injection Molding
The current system of injecting hot polymer into a comparatively cold mold results in the development of a solidified layer and reduction in part quality. As a consequence of this process limitation, molding systems continue to produce inferior components during production. This paper develops an innovative mold design and preheating process to dynamically control the temperature at the mold-polymer interface during the molding cycle. Simulation indicates that a preheat system can significantly reduce residual stress compared to conventional molding given equivalent cycle times.
Acoustic Telemetry in Injection Molding
The characterization of acoustic noise present in an injection mold during operation is presented for a remote in-cavity pressure sensor. This analysis is necessary to evaluate the use of ultrasound to carry process information out of the mold cavity. Experimental results are presented consisting of amplitude and frequency analysis of acoustic noise present in an injection mold as well as first attempts at transmission and demodulation of acoustic data.
Model Predictive Control of Injection Molding
A predictive model based controller is used for dynamically controlling the mold wall temperature in injection molding. The reference model is a physics based model developed using one-dimensional heat transfer analysis. The process involves preheating the inner mold surface and then rapidly cooling it to achieve faster cycle times and better part quality. The controller attempts to track a desired reference surface temperature profile by regulating the preheat time, preheat temperature, and coolant temperature. The state variables are monitored online and control set points are generated using the model as reference.
Experimental Validation of a Simulation Software for a Flat Specimen Injection Mold
The objective of this work was to compare simulation and experimental results for a flat specimen injection mold. The study was made using standard and film" gates. The results were obtained through a simulation program for the injection process C-MOLD for theoretical data and for the experimental data results were obtained in an injection molding machine. In both cases the injection molding conditions were the same. Differences between the gates and also between experimental and theoretical results mainly in the injection pressure and pattern flow were found."
Injection Nozzle Ultrasound Measurements
Ultrasonic measurements are a rich source of information during polymer processing. Difficulties in applying sensors to injection moulding nozzles have been overcome, and ultrasonic velocity measurements are being used to indicate process dynamics in terms of temperature and pressure change during injection. This work describes employment of a novel nozzle in which an ultrasonic signal is propagated along a path angled to the direction of melt flow, such that flow rate effects contribute to the received signal.
Creep Crack Growth in Oriented Polypropylene
Creep (slow) crack growth resistance in oriented polypropylene (PP) is investigated using a fracture mechanics approach. The equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) process is used to induce structural anisotropy. A constant load single edge notched bend (SENB) test is performed at an elevated temperature on isotropic (unprocessed) and anisotropic (processed) PP. This test generates stress intensity (K) vs. crack growth rate (da/dt) relationships. The da/dt = Kn relationship reveals that the creep crack growth resistance and mechanical properties of PP can be greatly improved by ECAE.
Plastics Education in the Delft University Industrial Design Engineering Curriculm
Industrial Design Engineering graduates from Delft University have a background in a wide range of subjects, including plastics. They have been prepared for industrial product development practice by design exercises throughout the curriculum. In these exercises the students apply various subjects, including design of plastics components. The students' general technical and plastics background is expected to improve by curriculum adjustments currently being prepared. Product Design graduates have received additional training in designing with plastics.
Measurement of Entrance Pressure Drop of Polystyrene/Supercritical CO2 Solutions
Two slit dies with sudden contraction ratios of 4:1 and 18:1 were designed to investigate the effects of pressure and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) content on the entrance pressure drop and rheological properties of PS/CO2 solutions. scCO2 was found to decrease the entrance pressure drop as well as the shear and extensional viscosities of PS.
Compatibilizing EPDM and Degraded PP through Hydrosilylation Reaction
A hydride-terminated PDMS was used as a coupling agent for EPDM and degraded PP (previously generated all the way in melt phase by peroxide initiated degradation) through a hydrosilylation reaction in the melt-phase. Different concentrations of PP with different degrees of degradation were used, and different amounts of catalysts were employed. Melt viscosity, blend morphology and gel were evaluated. The reaction was found to increase viscosity and to improve blend morphology.
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