SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Chemical Imaging with near Filled Scanning Optical Microscopy
Stephan J. Stranick, D. Bruce Chase, Chris A. Michaels, May 2001
The ability to measure chemical bond changes on the nanometer scale is of critical importance for the characterization of catalytic processes, catalytic materials, and surfaces relevant to materials and biological problems. Our goal has been to develop a technique for in-situ, non-destructive measurements of site-specific chemistry on the nanometer scale. The strategy for realizing this goal involves coupling the high spatial resolution of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) with the chemical specificity of vibrational spectroscopy.
In-Mold Decorating of Plastic Parts
Jordan I. Rotheiser, May 2001
In-mold decorating is a technique with a long history. However, recent developments have created new opportunities for designers. This paper discusses these techniques and how they are applied to plastics.
Epoxy Adhesives: Effect of Plasma Treatment and Surface Roughness on Epoxy to Polyethylene Bond Strength
Stephen P. Petrie, Earl F. Bardsley, May 2001
This study investigated the effect of plasma treatment and surface roughening on the bond strength of polyethylene to polyethylene bonded with an epoxy adhesive. Strengths were determined both before and after accelerated aging in a physiological solution. The strongest bond achieved resulted from samples exposed to surface roughening and plasma treatment. Although the bond strength degraded when aged, plasma treatment was found to positively impact the bond strength. In addition, surface roughening was also found to positively impact the bond strength.
On-Line Ultrasonic Flaw Detection of Gas Pipe
Andreas Haus, Andrew H. Schall, May 2001
Flaws in polyethylene gas pipe have historically gone unobserved excluding those detected by a random sampling inspection system. Conventional ultrasonic measuring methods are not suited for the 100% inspection required for flaw detection. A new ultrasonic measuring technique, called ERS (electronically rotating scanning) has been developed for on-line detection, measuring and recording of flaws. This technique identifies flaws on the surface and within the wall, providing the information necessary to optimize the production process. Technology developed for automatic calibration of the ultrasonic gauge is also discussed.
Robotic Extrusion, A Novel Technology for Complex Sealing Profiles Using Santoprene® Thermoplastic Rubber
Duane E. Peterson, Ton van Meesche, May 2001
The robotic extrusion technology was developed by GEPOC Verfahrenstechnik GmbH in Germany (a subsidiary of Sekurit-Saint Gobain ) and Advanced Elastomer Systems NV/SA (AES) in Belguim. This technology has proven ideal for producing multi-functional rigid/soft part combinations, using a special grade of Santoprene® thermoplastic rubber (TPV) developed by AES as the soft sealing component. This new technology will open up a wide range of engineered applications for hard/soft parts in the automotive, construction, appliance and other industry segments.
Comparison of Conventional High-Flow HDPE and Single-Site High-Flow HDPE Blends
T.J. Schwab, W.G. Todd, May 2001
Polyethylene (PE) injection molded rigid containers are widely used for food packaging, especially for frozen and refrigerated food applications. Due to the cold end-use environment, molders of these containers are constantly looking to improve impact performance while maintaining other physical properties. This work compares molded part physical properties of conventional high-flow HDPE products to those obtained with single-site HDPE products and blends of conventional high-flow HDPE with single-site HDPE or metallocene PE.
COF of LLDPE Film at Low Loadings of Erucamide
María X. Ramírez, Douglas E. Hirt, Nate Miranda, May 2001
The relationship between surface concentration and COF of LLDPE films has been studied for the slip agent erucamide [1]. This research continues this study, relating the film's additive surface concentration to its bulk loading. Low bulk loadings ranging from 100 ppm to 1000 ppm were investigated. The surface concentration was measured using surface washing and the bulk loading was quantified using microwave extraction. Results indicate the COF at a given surface concentration to be path-independent, as was hypothesized in our previous study [1].
Migration of Fluorinated Additives to HDPE Film Surfaces
Keisha B. Walters, Douglas E. Hirt, May 2001
The surface concentration of fluorinated additives has been investigated in high density polyethylene (HDPE) films. These additives have been used as processing aids and are presently being studied as surface-property modifiers to lower the surface energy for applications where hydrophobicity is important. We have used ATR-FTIR and ESCA to characterize the composition of these modified film surfaces. Results indicate the extent of surface segregation as a function of additive molecular weight and bulk loading.
Measurement of Microstructural Variation in Blown Films
S. Cherukupalli, R. Jelen, A.A. Ogale, May 2001
A real-time study on the evolution of molecular structure in an isotactic polypropylene blown film (i-PP) is reported. The structural variation along the machine direction of the film has been observed with online Raman spectroscopy. Preliminary measurements indicate a variation in the intensity of 809 cm-1 peak relative to the 841 cm-1 peak as the state of the polymer changes from a melt to solid at the freeze line. This change is related to the development of crystallinity along the film line.
New Manufacturing Method for Light Guide of PMMA
S.J. Park, K.H. Yoon, C. Park, May 2001
The market share of LCD in display devices is now growing rapidly. Especially many LCD makers have had their efforts to develop the LCD module not only with thinner and wider panel but also with cost competitiveness. In this study, we propose a low-cost alternative manufacturing method for the light guide of PMMA, which is one of important components in the backlight system of the LCD module. This manufacturing method is called the direct surface forming (DSF), which may be also called the well-known hot embossing. We present the results of this manufacturing method in terms of dimensional accuracy, productivity, etc.
On the Use of Rotational Rheometry for Quality Control
Nafaa Mekhilef, David S.C. Lee, Florence Dion, May 2001
The aim of this work is to evaluate if rotational rheometry provides a more useful measurement of viscosity than capillary rheometry and melt flow index measurements in production environments. To achieve this, we compared the sensitivity of these methods for quality control in the batch production of a commercial fluorinated polymer by using statistical analysis and the ease-of-implementation criterion of each method. The utility of rotational rheometry to develop flow curves to assist blending in a batch process was also investigated.
Status of Research on Design for Mechanical Reliability of Injection Molded Plastics Products
Rolf Koster, May 2001
Various injection molded specimens and specimens from injection molded products have been tensile and tensile-impact tested to develop manufacturing-related design guidelines. Tensile strength of PS perpendicular to flow was affected by both filling-induced and packing-induced phenomena. For a nylon block copolymer the influence of test speed was shown. Cold weld line strength in PS was reduced by increased temperatures in the skins during molding. For polyester-amide and PHB the amorphous structure fraction contributed to reduced weld line strength.
Process Dynamics in Sequential Valve Gate Injection Molding - Processing Strategy and Process Control
Suk-young Shin, Nick Schott, Stephen McCarthy, May 2001
The process dynamics of sequential valve gate injection molding were investigated using multiple pressure transducers in a single cavity. System response is analyzed based on the servo valve signals and the cavity pressure profiles. The optimum process control and part quality control settings of the Sequential Valve Gate system were determined. Also, the experimental results were compared with the predicted results obtained from a simulation program.
PMMA Thermal Degradation and Modeling of Weight Loss Experiments
Alia M. Rdissi, Sindee L. Simon, May 2001
Residual polymerization catalyst can be detrimental to the thermal stability of polymers. We used thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to demonstrate that the thermal stability of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) decreases upon doping with a transition metal catalyst. This effect could be reversed by adding a chelating agent to the doped PMMA. In addition, we modeled the TGA weight loss experiment. The modeling verified that weight loss for the experiments was not diffusion controlled and that weight loss linear with the square root of time does not necessarily indicate diffusion control.
Fracture Toughness of Co-Continuous Polycarbonate/ABS Blends
J.P.F. Inberg, L.C.E. Struik, R.J. Gaymans, May 2001
Polycarbonate/ABS blends are industrially important however very little reported on in literature. Co-continuous PC/ABS (50/50) blends were made on a twin-screw extruder and tested in notched Izod at different temperatures and different rubber content in the ABS. Ductility improved strongly with increasing rubber content in the ABS (Tbd lowered to about -40°C) with little decrease in modulus.
Numerical Simulation of Injection Molding of Semicrystalline Thermoplasti
Jianxin Guo, Kwabena A. Narh, May 2001
Injection molding process of semicrystalline plastics was simulated with a stress-induced crystallization model. Pseudo-concentration method was used to track the melt front advancement. The stress relaxation was incorporated into the model using the WFL model. Simulations were carried out under different processing condition to investigate the effect of processing parameters on the crystallinity of the final part. The simulation results reproduced most of the features reported in the literature.
Process Fingerprints for Compounding of Polymer Blends – An Industrial Prospective
Chi-Kai Shih, May 2001
A process fingerprint measurable by on-line monitoring of common process variables could aid immensely the ability of a process engineer to control the process output. The torque curve of a Brabender batch internal mixer offered many fingerprints related to the fundamental behavior the raw ingredients experienced during the mixing process. Suggestions were made how to derive fingerprints from the fundamental functions of twin screw extrusion processes.
Model Based Prediction of Permeability in Preform Materials
Frederick R. Phelan Jr., May 2001
Knowledge of the permeability tensor in liquid composite molding is important for process modeling and optimization. However, experimental determination of the permeability is difficult and time consuming. In this work, a lattice Boltzmann simulation which has been modified for flow in porous media is used to predict permeability as a function of yarn location, orientation, and fiber fraction. Calculated permeabilities are compared with experimental measurements for a variety of systems. Good agreement is achieved as long as the mesh size is greater than the size of the smallest throats in the porous medium.
Rheological Behavior of Modified Polypropylene (PP) with Nitrile Rubber (NBR)
M. Hernández, J. González, C. Albano, M. Ichazo, D. Lovera, May 2001
The rheological behavior of polypropylene (PP) modified with nitrile rubber (NBR), within the composition range of 10-30 wt% NBR content, was studied based on the blend ratio, dynamic vulcanization and additives blending effects. Results indicate all systems show a pseudoplastic behavior with an increasing melt viscosity on NBR content. Dynamically vulcanized blends present similar melt viscosity and lower die swell values than corresponding unvulcanized blends. The rheological behavior was correlated with blend morphology.
Interaction between PVA and Starch System Plasticized with Different Moisture Content
Yi-Fan Wu, Mei-Jan Chu, Chi-Hwa Chen, Ming-Shien Shung, Wen-Chi Hsie, Hsiao-Fu Shen, May 2001
We investigated the interaction between PVA and starch blended series plasticized with different moisture content. Brabender plasticoder was applied to research the effect of gelatinization of water plasticized starch on the processability of this series. The moisture content of this series was furthermore found increasing with the increase of relative humility in different ambient condition.


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"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
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