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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
A Novel Three-Dimensional Analysis of Polymer Injection Molding
Rong-Yeu Chang, Wen-Hsien Yang, May 2001
The advantages of three-dimensional (3D) mold-filling analysis over the 2.5D model are twofold: improving the prediction accuracy and avoiding the mid-plane construction. Moreover, 3D analysis is essential in the simulations of GAIM or IC packaging. This paper presents a highly efficient 3D approach to simulate the non-isothermal non-Newtonian melt flow in injection molding. The proposed approach shows good agreement in comparison with 2.5D model for molding of thin parts. Some industrial examples with complex geometries are analyzed to illustrate the capabilities of the presented approach.
Morphology of PCL/EVA/PET Ternary System
Luis C. Mendes, Beatriz S. Chagas, Anderson R. dos Santos, May 2001
The morphology of ternary blends of polycaprolactone (PCL) / ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) / poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) was investigated using optical microscopy. The sample appears as an aggregate mass. After controlled heating (30 to 280°C) it was noticed that the system forms an immiscilble blend where each component had its own melting temperarture. It was observed that the PCL was the major component and EVA was the minor one. The EVA domain did not present birefrigence. The PET domain was hidden by PCL and EVA.
Cure of an Epoxy Thermoset System Modified with Engineering Thermoplastics
M.J. Amaral, A. Espejo, M. Arellano, May 2001
During the cure of a thermoset-thermoplastic blend two-phase morphologies may be formed. The phase separation process may be controlled by manipulation of the rate of polymerization of the thermoset system. In this work, the effect of the addition of different thermoplastics on the rheokinetics of an epoxy thermoset system is presented. The reactive system used was diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A cured with 4-4' diaminodiphenyl sulfone. The kinetics was followed by differential scanning calorimetry and the change in the rheological properties during the curing by dynamic rheometry.
Energy Dissipation from a Perfectly Elastic Material
Arun Raman, Richard J. Farris, May 2001
Energy dissipation is possible even from a perfectly elastic material, preferably an elastomer, when it is subjected to a shock" stretch or a "shock" contraction. This dissipation is not the usual viscoelastic or plastic losses associated with internal friction in solids. The energy values associated in this "shock" process are independent of the path of the stress-strain curve and depend only on the initial and final states for the elastic material. The sudden "shock" stretch of the elastic material is equivalent to thermodynamic free compression of a gas. Heat dissipation from an elastic rubber belt is examined."
A New Non-Reactive Polymer Processing Additive (PPA) for Use with HALS and Other Chemically Interacting Additives
Steve E. Amos, Maria P. Dillon, Susan S. Woods, William Coggio, Joyce Kunde, May 2001
Polymer processing additives are used to reduce melt fracture, increase the processing window and eliminate die lip build-up and gels in polyolefins. There are additives that can interfere with the performance of the PPA by four main mechanisms - adsorption, abrasion, site competition and chemical reaction. Strong bases such as hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS) can cause the PPA to lose effectiveness due to both site competition and chemical reaction. Introduced is a next generation, non-reactive PPA that has improved performance compared to conventional materials.
Failure Analysis of Hinges: Case Studies, Part One
Rabeh H. Elleithy, May 2001
Plastic hinges are subjected to different types of stresses during service. Some case studies are presented in this paper to show the effect of service history, processing conditions, and part design on hinge failure. Microscopic analysis was used in these investigations to identify the fracture features. Additionally, Finite Element Analysis was used to estimate the stresses on the hinges during service. The first case shows mainly the effect of adverse service history on the hinge performance. The second case illustrates primarily the importance of appropriate processing conditions in preventing hinge failure. The third case describes essentially the combined contribution of end-use and part design on limiting the hinge lifetime.
Combining Boron Nitride with a Fluoroelastomer: An Enhanced Polymer Processing Additive
Manish Seth, Franky Yip, Savvas G. Hatzikiriakos, May 2001
The effect of a new processing additive (boron nitride powder in combination with a fluoroelastomer) on the rheology and processability of molten polymers is studied. The equipment used include an Instron capillary rheometer equipped with a special annular die (Nokia Maillefer wire coating cross-head), a twin screw extruder equipped with a blow moulding unit, and a parallel-plate rheometer. Metallocene polyethylenes with and without boron nitride (BN) and fluoroelastomer are tested in extrusion and conventional high density polyethylenes with and without BN with fluoroelastomer are tested in Blow moulding operations. First, it is demonstrated that BN is a superior processing aid compared to conventional fluoropolymer ones. Secondly, it is found that the combination of BN powders with a small amount of a fluoropolymer improves even further the processability of molten polymers (melt fracture performance).
Valve Screw Design - A New Concept on Screw Design Optimization
Peter N. Wang, May 2001
Adding valve" means to a screw is a concept of screw design optimization in a way of matching four normally concerned processing functions. The four processing functions are conveying melting mixing and pressurizing. This paper discusses the relationships between these four functions and promotes design ideas as to how to change them individually. A design called "valve screw" which contains a screw body groups of shear rings and a tube shaped tip are proposed. The shear rings and tube tip serve as valve means controlling / enhancing mass flow rate melting rate and mixing rate. Pressurizing is also indirectly controlled. A high efficiency overall optimized operation is therefore achieved."
Shear Ring Screw Design - A Design against Barrier Screw Design's Philosophy
Peter N. Wang, May 2001
Barrier screw design follows a design philosophy as to keeping melt separate from solid. This leads to ununiform shearing, i.e. all shearing takes within the place of the thin film between the solid bed and the barrel inner surface while the main body of the solid bed has been left no shear at all. The present shear ring screw" breaks the solid bed into small pieces (or individual pellets) at early stage of melting. This would be achieved by using shear rings with series of angled flow through ports which makes the ring self-driven by fed material. "Drag induced melt removal melting mechanism" [12] or "laminar segregated melting mechanism" [3] converts to "pulse dissipative mix-melting mechanism". It is proved theoretically as well as experimentally by Chung and Wang [6] that the heating time required for melting decreases exponentially with decreasing the pellet size and the heat transfer coefficient h (cal/cm2-s-°C) increases substantially due to convections around pellets. These are roots of current design."
Novel Nanoporous Polymers for Low-k Dielectrics
S.L. Simon, J. Sun, P. Doshi, B. Lahlouh, X. Chen, S. Gangopadhyay, May 2001
We are investigating new routes to making low-k dielectric films for use in next generation interconnects. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of conventional and novel monomeric precursors is used to deposit the films. Supercritical carbon dioxide processing is used to produce nanopores. The physical and electrical properties of the films are characterized.
Optimization of Process Parameters in Curing of Epoxy Resin Using Argon-Ion Laser
K.A. Jagadeesh, M. Sivakumar, Yamanoor Srihari, May 2001
Stereolithography, is used for prototyping and regular production for critical applications. It is necessary to optimize the process to ensure highest quality of products. Surface finish is the quality characteristic chosen and four the process parameters, namely, scanning velocity, laser power, hatch spacing, and layer thickness. Taguchi's method has been employed to find out the relative contribution of the factors to the surface finish and based on the experiments, the optimal values have been established.
Die Swell Estimation for HDPE Blow Molding Grade Resins Using the Wagner Model Constitutive Equation
Jaime Bonilla Ríos, Juan José Aguirre, May 2001
A polymer flow analysis inside a concentric annular die of an extrusion blow-molding machine was conducted using momentum and continuity balances coupled with the Wagner rheological constitutive equation for six high density polyethylene (HDPE) resins and then used to determine the thickness swell. The rheological measurements included oscillatory behavior, relaxation modulus, steady state behavior, and capillary flow.
Polyethylene Powder Characteristics: Impact on Polymer Sintering and Rotational Molding
S.A. Guillén-Castellanos, C.T. Bellehumeur, M. Weber, May 2001
The effect of powder characteristics on the rotational molding and sintering performance was investigated. The six LLDPE resins showed comparable rheological and thermal properties. Resins with poor powder quality produced parts with lower density and impact strength. The irregularities in shape due to grinding influenced the sintering results. To eliminate this effect on the sintering experiments cylinders were used. Variations in the sintering results, however, were also observed when using cylinders.
Blends of Polypropylene (PP) and Polyamide 6,6 (Pa 6,6) with Functional Polyolefin Elastomer (FPOE) as a Compatibilizer
Hui Tang, Charles L. Beatty, May 2001
The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of functional polyolefin elastomer (FPOE) on the morphology, and mechanical properties of the blends of polypropylene (PP) and polyamide 6,6 (PA 6,6). PP was blended with different weight concentration of PA 6,6 and functional POE. All blends were carried out in a reactive twin-screw extruder. The mechanical properties of the blends, such as tensile strength at yield (?y), modulus of elasticity (E), and elongation, were examined. Moreover, their morphological behavior was investigated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is clearly indicated that the morphology structure can be controlled through functional POE. It was found that the morphology of the cryogenic fracture surface of the blends was dramatically changed, from micron fibers in the mechanical blending to sub-micron fibers in the reactive blending. The tensile strengths at yield (?y), and modulus of elasticity (E) of the blends with functional POE are increased relative to mechanical blends. However, the elongation of the reactive blends is decreased. These results illustrated that the functional POE can be employed as a effective compatibilizer in the blends of PP and PA 6,6. It stands to reason that functional POE can reduce interfacial tension preventing the blends from agglomerating as well as leading to smaller domain size and better dispersion of PA 6,6 phase in the PP matrix.
The Blends of Polypropylene (PP) with Functional Polyolefin Elastomer (FPOE) for Recycling of Xerographic Toners
Hui Tang, Charles L. Beatty, May 2001
This paper presents experimental results on the blends of polypropylene (PP) with functional polyolefin elastomer (FPOE) for recycling of xerographic toners. All experiments were carried out in a co-rotated reactive twin screw extruder. The investigation of the mechanical properties and morphology for different blends consist of PP, xerographic black toners and functional POE (FPOE) through reactive compounding. It is of interest to note that the notched Izod impact resistance of the blends with functional POE (FPOE) is significantly improved relative to physical blends. However, tensile strength at yield (?y) and modulus of elasticity (E) of the reactive blends are reduced. The reason why the impact properties should be so is clearly shown by the stress-strain behavior of the blends. Morphology of the cryogenic fracture surfaces of the blends was studied through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of morphological studies indicated that not only the domain size of the phase of black toners could be reduced but also the interfacial adhesion could be enhanced through proper functional POE (FPOE). The phase morphology of the blends also illustrated that better dispersion of black toners could be obtained through using FPOE whereas serious agglomeration of black toners was found in the physical blends. It is elucidated that the functional POE could be an excellent candidate of compatibilizer for recycling xerographic black toners.
Training of Operators in Extrusion and Stretch Blow Molding
Ottmar Brandau, May 2001
The current lack of qualified operators in the blow molding industry and its effects on blow molding operations is described. The need for the training of blow molding operators is illustrated. Different methods of training are described and evaluated with respect to their effectiveness. The reasons for the lack of trained operators are shown and from there new training methods are developed overcoming some of the shortcomings of other methods. It is shown that only training material closely resembling the actual plant conditions is well accepted by trainees. Engineering concepts need to be translated into understandable training materials. Retention levels are improved by giving short tests challenging the trainees into thinking about the material presented. Given the right methods, one can teach more complex relationships between material properties, machine functions, and settings.
Reciprocating-Screw Injection Molding Machine for Microcellular Foam
Jingyi Xu, David Pierick, May 2001
The reciprocating-screw (RS) injection molding machine for microcellular foam has been successfully developed. It creates the necessary conditions for a single-phase solution with a specially designed plasiticizing unit. An overall system is the key for successfully implementing a microcellular foam process. The important components for the microcellular foam molding machine system including a plasticizing unit, injection unit, hydraulic unit, clamp unit, gas unit, are discussed in this paper. The general guidelines to design an injection molding machine for microcellular foam are listed as the conclusions.
CD Case Design Using a Simulation Software for Injection Molding Processing
R.A. Morales, A.M. Marin, J.L. Carao, A.M. Alvizu, May 2001
The objective of this work was to design an injection mold for a CD case. A commercial case design has been analyzed and led to the proposal of a new one. The study was made using the mold filling/cooling simulation program for the injection process, and a three-dimension solid modeler program for planes accomplishment. The results showed that the actual design presented stress concentration in specific areas of the part. A new case design was proposed with optimized performance and with enhanced final part quality.
Non-Isothermal Melt Densification in Rotational Molding
J.S. Tiang, C.T. Bellehumeur, May 2001
The numerical simulation of the non-isothermal melt densification in the rotational molding process is presented. The simulation combines heat transfer, polymer sintering and bubble dissolution models, and is based on an idealized packing arrangement of powder particles. The predictions are in agreement with experimental observations presented in the literature. The simulation allows for systematic and quantitative studies on the effect of molding conditions and material properties on the molding cycle and molded part density.
Effect of Dynamic Cross-Linking on the Foaming of PP/EMA Thermoplastic Elastomers
Isabelle Pesneau, Michel Champagne, Richard Gendron, Michel Huneault, May 2001
The foaming of PP/EMA thermoplastic elastomers with CO2 during dynamic cross-linking has been investigated. The cross-linking of the EMA phase was obtained through an alcoholysis reaction with 1,5-pentanediol. The cross-linking extent was controled by changing processing parameters and chemical composition (diol content). PP/EMA foams were obtained in different conditions. Results on foam density, cell morphology and cross-linking extend are presented. The effect of cross-linking extend on foamability is discussed.


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