SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

The SPE Library is just one of the great benefits of being an SPE member! Are you taking advantage of all of your SPE Benefits?

Not an SPE member? Join today!

Use % to separate multiple keywords. 

Search SPE Library
After Date: (mm/dd/yy)  
Sort By:   Date Added  ▼  |  Publication Date  ▼  |  Title  ▼  |  Author  ▼
= Members Only
Conference Proceedings
Effect of Different Nucleating Agents on the Degassing Conditions as Measured by Ultrasonic Sensors
Jacques Tatibouët, Abdelhadi Sahnoune, André Hamel, Richard Gendron, May 2001
Ultra sonic sensors have proven to provide valuable information on the thermoplastic foaming process in polymers. Measurement of the attenuation of the ultrasonic signal can be easily related to the nucleation process, i.e. the onset of bubble formation in the foam matrix. The ultrasonic sensors can be installed in-line, on the extrusion line, and thus allow direct access to the prevailing processing conditions. In this work, the degassing conditions (pressure and temperature) of a mixture of polystyrene and a physical blowing agent, HCFC 142b, are determined for two different nucleating agents. The resulting cellular structure of the extruded foams is correlated to the degassing conditions determined by the ultrasounds. The results are discussed in light of other observations on the nucleation process.
The Use of EVOH in Automotive Applications
Scott Lambert, James Chan, Nahoto Hayashi, Shigeki Takada, Keizo Michihata, Yasuhiko Haneda, May 2001
Regulations for automobile emissions are stiffening in the U.S., requiring reductions by 75 percent or more. Polymers used in automotive fuel systems are a source of evaporative fuel emissions as they have poor barrier properties to fuels. New barrier polyolefins containing EVOH have been developed for injection molded automotive applications so that evaporative emissions can be reduced. A new EVOH has been developed to allow for down gauging and reduced cycle time of the current plastic fuel tank. This new EVOH will allow for cost savings in fuel tank production.
Plastic Material Modeling for Vehicle Crash Simulation Using LS-DYNA
Xinran (Sharon) Xiao, May 2001
In commercial codes, the modeling of plastic materials lags behind compared to that of many other materials. As a result, engineers have been using material models developed for metal to model plastic materials. This paper discusses the stress-strain behavior of thermoplastics relevant to crash simulation, examines the plastic material modeling capability of a commercial code LS-DYNA and presents needed model enhancements.
Controlling Balanced Molding through New Hot Runner Manifold Designs
John P. Beaumont, Kevin Boell, May 2001
Shear induced variations created during flow results in variations between parts produced in many of today's conventional geometrically balanced hot manifold designs. Understanding of these shear imbalances has led to new design strategies which address these variations and provide both uniform filling and uniform material conditions to each cavity.
Prediction of the Impact Behavior of Injection Molded Plates
J.C. Viana, A.M. Cunha, N. Billon, May 2001
The falling-weight impact test in injection-molded plates is simulated in a finite element based computer code (FORGE2®). The effect of processing is introduced on the material constitutive model through the dependence of its coefficients upon the thermomechanical indices computed from mold filling simulations. Two plate-like moldings (a box and lateral gated disk) were injected with arbitrary sets of processing conditions. In the impact simulations, two extreme conditions of contact between the impactor and the plates are considered: frictionless and adhesive contacts. The simulated force-deflection curves are compared with the experimental ones. Good agreements are obtained providing the different strain-rate sensitivities of the microstructural parameters are taken into account The results also evidence the role of the viscoelastic coefficient on the initial deformation stages. Moreover, the contact conditions have a strong effect on the mode of rupture of the plates and consequently on the maximum sustained strength levels.
Effect of Compounding Conditions on the Wood Flour/Polyethylene Composites in Twin-Screw Extruders
Yeh Wang, Hsun-C. Chan, Sun-M. Lai, Hsiao-F. Shen, Yao-K. Hsiao, May 2001
The compounding of wood flour filled polyethylene is discussed with reference to co-rotating twin-screw extruders from two manufacturers. An acrylic acid-grafted polyethylene copolymer was used as the compatibilizer in high-density polyethylene-wood flour composite system. Special consideration was given to the compounding of the heat- and shear-sensitive wood flour. The relevant screw configuration was found to consist of short mixing elements with low intensity of shearing. A suitable combination of processing variables, including screw rotation speed, throughput rate, and barrel temperatures, was necessary for limiting the thermal degradation and the darkening of the wood filler. However, tensile properties of the composites were not affected much.
Effectiveness of Functionalized Polyolefins as Compatibilizers for Polyethylene/Wood Flour Composites
Sun-M. Lai, Feng-C. Yeh, Yeh Wang, Hsun-C. Chan, Hsiao-F. Shen, Yao-K. Hsiao, May 2001
The effects of various types of compatibilizers on the mechanical properties of high-density polyethylene/wood flour (HDPE/WF) composite were investigated. Functionalized polyolefins such as maleated linear low-density polyethylene, polypropylene, and styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene copolymer were incorporated to reduce the interfacial tension between polyethylene matrix and wood filler. It was found that LLDPE-g-MA gave maximum tensile and impact strength of the composite presumably due to better compatibility. Similar but less enhanced improvements in the mechanical properties, depending on the compatibilizer loading, were seen for SEBS-g-MA system. Whereas, notched impact strength decreased with increasing loadings of PP-g-MA. A scanning electron microscopy study was employed to reveal the interfacial region and confirm these findings.
Separability Criteria for Entangled Polystyrene Solutions Using Flow Birefringence
M.T. Islam, L.A. Archer, May 2001
Step shear strain experiments were performed using several entangled polystyrene (PS) solutions to investigate factorability requirements of the non-linear relaxation modulus, G(t,?) [? ?12(t,?)/?]. A phase modulated flow birefringence apparatus was used to measure optical equivalents of shear stress (n12) and first normal stress difference (n11-n22) in a plane-Couette shear flow geometry. For all polymers studied, a separability time ?k was identified beyond which the optical equivalent of G(t,?) [B(t,?) ? n12/? ? G(t,?)×C] could be factorized into separate strain and time dependent functions. In every case, ?k exceeded longest Rouse relaxation time ?R and found to be of the order of terminal relaxation time ?d0. These findings could help explain previous experimental observations of delayed factorability and non-factorable relaxation moduli in well entangled polymer solutions and melts.
Simulating the Cohesive Properties of Ultem and Related Molecules
B.E. Eichinger, David Rigby, Judith Stein, May 2001
The cohesive properties of many engineering plastics are difficult to determine experimentally, as the polymers are frequently insoluble, have high Tg's, and are sometimes poorly characterized. Molecular modeling can provide useful information of higher quality than might be obtained by other methods for these difficult polymers. A series of simulations on Ultem® and related molecules have been performed to evaluate the cohesive energy density of the polymer and determine interfacial interactions with small molecules. These methods yield a value near 22.0(MPa)½ for the solubility parameter of the polymer, and it is shown that benzyl alcohol has the most favorable interactions.
Adhesion of Polyethylene to Polypropylene in Multi-Layer Films
B. Poon, A. Chang, S.P. Chum, L. Tau, W.R. Volkenburgh, A. Hiltner, E. Baer, May 2001
A distinct difference was found between metallocene and Ziegler-Natta catalyzed linear low density ethylene copolymers (LLDPE) in the coextrusion with polypropylene (PP). A layer of amorphous material was hypothesized to form between PP/Ziegler-Natta LLDPE interface and not in the PP/metallocene LLDPE system. The presence of a weak amorphous interfacial layer was supported by the results of the T-peel test where the metallocene LLDPE system showed significantly higher level of adhesion between PP and LLDPE than the Ziegler-Natta LLDPE systems.
Graphic Film Inserts for Molding
Jeff Applegate, May 2001
There are many methods to decorate plastic films. As an overview, I will highlight most of the methods used to decorate plastics in post mold operations and in mold operations.
Film Finishing Part II: Use of Multi-Layer Films in Finishing Technologies
Thomas M. Ellison, May 2001
Part I of this two part series addresses the background of film finishing, its status and the strategic potential for the technology. Part II is concerned with the materials and processes used in multilayer film production. Film application methods are reviewed from an overview perspective.
Micro-Photometric Inline Particle Monitoring in Flowing Melt (TSE)
M. Stephan, M. Stintz, A. Rudolph, U. Blankschein, May 2001
A unique particle sensing system will be presented based on a special micro-photometric principle. The final objective is to achieve inline / realtime informations about developing and final stage of particle dimensions in flowing polymer melts. The performance of the new sensor prototytype PMP 690 adapted to a twin screw extruder (TSE, ZSK40-type) will be demonstrated by extrusion mixing of different model glass bead types (particle diameters and volume concentrations) into polystyrene melt.
Modeling the Melting Process of Polymer Pellets Caused by Friction
K.L. Yung, Yan Xu, Francis Lau, May 2001
The melting of polymer caused by friction before the solid plug is formed is an important phenomenon in the plastic injection process. To analyze the melting process caused by solid particles sliding against the bellow, an analytical method that can simulate behavior of each particle during the calculation should be used. Particle element numerical method is hence adopted in the analysis for this research to take into consideration the behavior of each particle. In the review of literatures in this area, no publication has reported success in the analysis of the transient close-contact melting process caused by friction. In this paper an analytical expression for the transient melting process is derived by assuming friction against flight and screw as friction against adiabatic walls.
Modelling of the Effect of Slip in Plug-Assisted Thermoforming
D. Laroche, P. Collins, P. Martin, May 2001
In plug-assisted thermoforming, the interaction between the sheet and the plug strongly affects the final part thickness distribution due to sheet cooling and slippage on the plug surface. The type of plug material and surface finish has to be carefully selected. The amount of slip on the plug surface depends on the rheology of the polymer sheet and on the friction coefficient. Both properties are temperature dependent. In this work a non-isothermal friction coefficient model is evaluated for its potential in predicting the amount of slip in plug-assisted thermoforming. The model has been implemented in a finite element analysis software for predicting the consecutive steps of the thermoforming process. The model has been applied to simulate industrial scale plug-assisted thermoforming and the predictions are compared to experimental measurements.
Polyurethane Coatings Based on Soybean Oil Prepolymers and Crosslinkers
I. Javni, V. Karajkov, Z. Petrovic, May 2001
Four series of coatings were prepared by using a soybean oil based isocyanate prepolymer and two types of the soybean oil based polyols as the crosslinkers. Water (humidity from the air ) was also used as a co-crosslinker. The isocyanate prepolymer and the polyols were prepared according to the original, proprietary methods. Varying the hydroxyl number of the polyol and polyol/ water ratio in the crosslinker varied the structure and properties of the coatings. The coatings were tested for hardness, elasticity (bending test), scratch resistance and adhesion. DSC, TGA, TMA, tensile strength and swelling were used to assess the glass transition and crosslinking density of the films.
Generation of Thermotropic Liquid Crystalline Polymer/Thermoplastic Polymer Strands for Producing Wholly Thermoplastic Composite Materials
Jianhua Huang, Donald G. Baird, Wei Huang, May 2001
Thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer (TLCP) reinforced thermoplastic polymer (TP) strands were spun and used in injection molding to form wholly thermoplastic composite materials. While keeping the strand size suitable for injection molding, effort was made to increase the orientation and aspect ratio of the TLCP fibril that would remain in the final product as reinforcement. The pelletized strand can be injection molded without disturbing the TLCP reinforcing fibrils. The samples have similar mechanical properties, lower density and smoother surfaces compared with glass fiber reinforced samples.
Rheology beyond One Million Reciprocal Seconds
David W. Riley, May 2001
In the wire and cable industry the speed of the insulated copper wire through the die is very fast. In 1963 a 24 gage wire was coated with plastic with a clearance in the die of only 5 mils (1 mm = 40 mils, i.e., 5 mils = 0.125 mm) at a speed that exceeded 2500 feet/min (almost 1 kilometer/minute). The shear rate calculates to be in excess of one million reciprocal seconds (actually this is 4 x 106 sec-1). Drastic changes were discovered in the molecular structure of the plastic. Shearing the polymer chain causes changes in the molecular structure that can be advantageous or severely detrimental. These running conditions and the effect on the PVC is the concern of this paper.
Re-Inventing the Wheel: Breaking New Ground with Rotary Shuttle Technology
Brian L. Dowler, Rolf Weingardt, May 2001
Long-stroke shuttle machines have developed a well-defined role in the extrusion blow molding of calibrated neck bottles. However, these machines have limitations due to factors such as the long axial length of the stroke and the need for large multiples of tooling, knives, dies, punches and In-Mold Labeling (IML) tooling sets per the number of mold sets. Many of these limitations have been overcome through the incorporation of an indexing rotary motion. The end result is a technologically advanced, small footprint machine that can produce IML bottles with very little cycle time penalty. Further, the multi-layer containers are de-flashed before exiting the machine with positive bottle transfer between stations with a true single-point product discharge. All of this is accomplished using fewer die pins, bushing sets, cut-off knives, trim dies, punches, and IML deployment heads than typically required. This paper discusses the technical hurdles that were overcome to re-invent" the shuttle machine and open up new possibilities in extrusion blow molding."
Do You Want Some Salsa with Those Chips?
Bruce M. Mulholland, May 2001
In the world of coloring plastics, there has been an apparent decline in the understanding and application of color technology. This is particularly noticeable the farther down and away from the source of the colored product you go. Retirements, downsizing, consolidations and other factors have contributed this knowledge base loss. This paper looks at this issue and what we can do to build it back up.

This item is only available to members

Click here to log in

If you are not currently a member,
you can click here to fill out a member application.

We're sorry, but your current web site security status does not grant you access to the resource you are attempting to view.

  Welcome Page

How to reference articles from the SPE Library:

Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:

Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

Note: if there are more than three authors you may use the first author's name and et al. EG Brown, H. L. et al.

If you need help with citations, visit www.citationmachine.net