SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Rheological Behavior of Modified Polypropylene (PP) with Nitrile Rubber (NBR)
M. Hernández, J. González, C. Albano, M. Ichazo, D. Lovera, May 2001

The rheological behavior of polypropylene (PP) modified with nitrile rubber (NBR), within the composition range of 10-30 wt% NBR content, was studied based on the blend ratio, dynamic vulcanization and additives blending effects. Results indicate all systems show a pseudoplastic behavior with an increasing melt viscosity on NBR content. Dynamically vulcanized blends present similar melt viscosity and lower die swell values than corresponding unvulcanized blends. The rheological behavior was correlated with blend morphology.

Interaction between PVA and Starch System Plasticized with Different Moisture Content
Yi-Fan Wu, Mei-Jan Chu, Chi-Hwa Chen, Ming-Shien Shung, Wen-Chi Hsie, Hsiao-Fu Shen, May 2001

We investigated the interaction between PVA and starch blended series plasticized with different moisture content. Brabender plasticoder was applied to research the effect of gelatinization of water plasticized starch on the processability of this series. The moisture content of this series was furthermore found increasing with the increase of relative humility in different ambient condition.

Morphology Distribution of Injection Molded Polypropylene
Peng Wei Zhu, Graham Edward, May 2001

The morphology distribution of injection-molded polypropylene (PP) was quantitatively studied using synchrotron radiation. Samples were taken from a PP plate at different positions from the gate. X-ray measurements were performed with the beam normal to the flow direction. The evaluation of x-ray data allows determination of distributions of the crystallinity, the imperfection factor, the á-phase orientation, and the â-phase concentration. Different distributions are observed at different distances from the gate.

Documenting Flow Segregation in Geometrically Balanced Runners
Louis G. Reifschneider, May 2001

The flow distribution through a geometrically balanced runner is not evenly balanced due to the melt temperature segregation that occurs at each branch point in the runner. A test mold is built and molding trials are conducted to document the flow segregation in a four cavity mold containing a geometrically balanced runner. The extent of the flow segregation is seen to be a function of the resin type, the flow rate, and the extent of the filling.

The Effect of Blending on the Viscosity Reduction of Recycled Milk Bottle Grade HDPE
Natalia Kukaleva, George Simon, Edward Kosior, May 2001

Post-consumer plastic waste in Australia contains over 50,000 tonnes p.a. of HDPE blow moulded bottles, with half still ending up in landfill. Recycled milk-bottle grade HDPE is known to be too high in molecular weight for processing by injection molding. In this study, the target was to make injection-molded compositions with a content of the recycled material of 75% or higher by blending with commodity plastics. The results of rheological, thermal and mechanical studies of the blends are presented.

Rheology and Processing of TPV's
Wim Zoetelief, May 2001

The rheological behavior of TPV in shear and extensional is studied to help understanding the flow behavior in various processing operations. The TPV's, which are dynamically vulcanized PP/EPDM blends show in shear flow a typical rheological behavior with an apparent yield stress at low shear rates and a shear-thinning viscosity at high(er) shear rates. In extension the TPV melts appeared not to show strain-hardening. This study discusses the observed behavior in terms of composition.

Impact Modification of Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate)
N. Chapleau, M.A. Huneault, May 2001

Many polar thermoplastics, such as poly(ethylene terephthalate), tend to be notch sensitive and can exhibit a sharp ductile-to-brittle transition. Many studies focusing on the improvement of toughness using elastomeric particles have demonstrated that the increase in toughness is related to the ability of the rubber particles to cavitate and to morphological parameters. In this work, the mechanical properties of a poly(ethylene terephthalate) matrix containing several impact modifiers are investigated.

Processing-Structure-Properties Relationships in Multilayer Films
Xiaomin Zhang, Verilhac Jean-Marie, Abdellah Ajji, May 2001

LDPE/PET multilayer films with and without a reactive tie layer were prepared by extrusion blowing process. PET layer showed a negligible orientation and an almost zero crystallinity. For PE layer, the crystalline a-axis was oriented along machine direction and the b-axis mainly tended to the transverse-normal plane, no orientation for amorphous phases was found. A morphological model for the different processing conditions was proposed. The shrinkage and tear strength correlated well with the orientation structure of the LDPE layer in the films.

Blends of ABS and i-PP
Eliud Arroyo, Carlos Guerrero, Virgilio González, May 2001

Blends of Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene, ABS, and isotactic Polypropylene, i-PP, have been made using a block copolymer of Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene, SBS, as compatibilizing agent. The constituents were melt mixed, one step, in a Haake chamber. The compatibility of the blends was analyzed using different techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and scanning electron microscopy, SEM. The mechanical properties of the blends were also evaluated. The results have been shown an improvement in mechanical properties when SBS is used in the blends.

Estimation of Elongational Viscosity of Polymers for Accurate Prediction of Juncture Losses in Injection Molding
Mahesh Gupta, May 2001

A new elongational viscosity model along with the Carreau model for shear viscosity is used for a finite element simulation of the flow in a capillary rheometer. The entrance pressure loss predicted by the finite element flow simulation is matched with the corresponding experimental data to predict the parameters in the new elongational viscosity model.

Measurement of Strain Rate-Dependent Material Properties for Polymers
M. Keuerleber, P. Eyerer, J. Bühring, May 2001

Present market forces dictates that the automotive industry must increase passengers safety. Currently, CAE-Methods such as crash-simulations are used, but due to the absence of material data of polymers at high strain rates, the results of these simulations are in general inaccurate. This study is concerned with material testing on airbag cover materials with a high speed tensile testing machine to provide material data and information on material behaviour at different strain rates and temperatures.

Large Part Injection Molding Product Optimization
T.J. Schwab, D.L. Wise, J.D. Goudelock, B.J. Hughes, May 2001

High-density polyethylene (HDPE) is widely used in large-part injection molding applications, such as five-gallon pails, agricultural bins, and refuse carts. Certain physical properties are critical in helping to ensure a long useful life for parts in these demanding applications. This paper presents a predictive model that was developed from molded part testing and HDPE resin physical properties. By implementing this information effectively, the resin producer and the injection molder can work together to improve molded part performance.

Blow Molding Virgin and Regrind Polymers with Titanates and Zirconates - 2001
Salvatore J. Monte, May 2001

In addition to filler/pigment to polymer coupling, two parts of neoalkoxy titanates and zirconates per thousand parts of polymer provide for in situ metallocene-like Repolymerization" catalysis of the filled or unfilled polymer during the plastication phase resulting in: faster blow molding production cycles at lower temperatures; maintenance or increase in mechanical properties; the in situ regeneration of regrind polymer properties; the lowering of polymer recrystallization time; and the copolymerization of dissimilar polymers."

Morphology of PCL/EVA/PET Ternary System
Luis C. Mendes, Beatriz S. Chagas, Anderson R. dos Santos, May 2001

The morphology of ternary blends of polycaprolactone (PCL) / ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) / poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) was investigated using optical microscopy. The sample appears as an aggregate mass. After controlled heating (30 to 280°C) it was noticed that the system forms an immiscilble blend where each component had its own melting temperarture. It was observed that the PCL was the major component and EVA was the minor one. The EVA domain did not present birefrigence. The PET domain was hidden by PCL and EVA.

Novel Nanoporous Polymers for Low-k Dielectrics
S.L. Simon, J. Sun, P. Doshi, B. Lahlouh, X. Chen, S. Gangopadhyay, May 2001

We are investigating new routes to making low-k dielectric films for use in next generation interconnects. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of conventional and novel monomeric precursors is used to deposit the films. Supercritical carbon dioxide processing is used to produce nanopores. The physical and electrical properties of the films are characterized.

Optimization of Process Parameters in Curing of Epoxy Resin Using Argon-Ion Laser
K.A. Jagadeesh, M. Sivakumar, Yamanoor Srihari, May 2001

Stereolithography, is used for prototyping and regular production for critical applications. It is necessary to optimize the process to ensure highest quality of products. Surface finish is the quality characteristic chosen and four the process parameters, namely, scanning velocity, laser power, hatch spacing, and layer thickness. Taguchi's method has been employed to find out the relative contribution of the factors to the surface finish and based on the experiments, the optimal values have been established.

Die Swell Estimation for HDPE Blow Molding Grade Resins Using the Wagner Model Constitutive Equation
Jaime Bonilla Ríos, Juan José Aguirre, May 2001

A polymer flow analysis inside a concentric annular die of an extrusion blow-molding machine was conducted using momentum and continuity balances coupled with the Wagner rheological constitutive equation for six high density polyethylene (HDPE) resins and then used to determine the thickness swell. The rheological measurements included oscillatory behavior, relaxation modulus, steady state behavior, and capillary flow.

Polyethylene Powder Characteristics: Impact on Polymer Sintering and Rotational Molding
S.A. Guillén-Castellanos, C.T. Bellehumeur, M. Weber, May 2001

The effect of powder characteristics on the rotational molding and sintering performance was investigated. The six LLDPE resins showed comparable rheological and thermal properties. Resins with poor powder quality produced parts with lower density and impact strength. The irregularities in shape due to grinding influenced the sintering results. To eliminate this effect on the sintering experiments cylinders were used. Variations in the sintering results, however, were also observed when using cylinders.

CD Case Design Using a Simulation Software for Injection Molding Processing
R.A. Morales, A.M. Marin, J.L. Carao, A.M. Alvizu, May 2001

The objective of this work was to design an injection mold for a CD case. A commercial case design has been analyzed and led to the proposal of a new one. The study was made using the mold filling/cooling simulation program for the injection process, and a three-dimension solid modeler program for planes accomplishment. The results showed that the actual design presented stress concentration in specific areas of the part. A new case design was proposed with optimized performance and with enhanced final part quality.

Non-Isothermal Melt Densification in Rotational Molding
J.S. Tiang, C.T. Bellehumeur, May 2001

The numerical simulation of the non-isothermal melt densification in the rotational molding process is presented. The simulation combines heat transfer, polymer sintering and bubble dissolution models, and is based on an idealized packing arrangement of powder particles. The predictions are in agreement with experimental observations presented in the literature. The simulation allows for systematic and quantitative studies on the effect of molding conditions and material properties on the molding cycle and molded part density.

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