The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Prediction of Short-Term Behavior of Polyamide 6 by Using the Strain Energy Density Theory
The Strain Energy Density Theory represents a useful tool for the prediction of the short term viscoelastic behavior of materials. The key in this m is the strain energy density ?SED? of the material. Indeed, by conducting two strain-ramped experiments with different strain rates, it can be established a law that links each point on one curve, to another point on the second curve, provided that the two linked points have the same SED. Once the law parameter is obtained, and by using of a known stress-strain curve, one can predict the stress-strain curve for any other strain rate. This work assesses this technique on a technical thermoplastic which is the polyamide 6. To ensure more accuracy, the test strain is recorded using a non-contacting video extensometer. The processing of the experimental data have allowed to identify; firstly a law that connects the strain to the SED, secondly, a law that links the parameter of the law to the SED.
Enhanced Graphene Exfoliation and Dispersion in Injection Molded Polypropylene Nanocomposites Processed with Supercritical Fluid
The effects of melt processing nanocomposites of graphene and polypropylene (PP) with supercritical fluid (SCF) were investigated. Blends of 0.5% graphene (by wt.) were mixed via traditional twin-screw extrusion and with supercritical-fluid gas-laden pellets injection molding-foaming technology (SIFT). Tensile bars were formed using traditional injection molding (IM) and microcellular injection molding (MIM). Samples with graphene had lower melt viscosity and higher thermal stability than their neat PP counter?parts. MIM and SIFT samples with graphene had increased tensile strength. Property enhancements were greater where SCF was used (MIM and SIFT). The ability of SCF to increase exfoliation and dispersion of graphene was determined by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Better exfoliation and dispersion of the nanofillers resulted in the observed property enhance?ments.
Functional Additives for Polymers -- Porcessing Aids, Light Weighting and Thermally Conductive Fillers
The Advanced Material Division of 3M Company provides several additive classes for polymers used in various applications. 3M? Glass Bubbles can provide light weighting for polymers with and without reinforcing and other fillers. Up to 10% weight reduction can be achieved while maintaining physical properties. Weight reduction potential can be maximized when combined with MuCell? technology. 3M? Cooling Fillers can be used to provide high through plane thermal conductivity with high electrical resitivity. Polymer Processing Additives can be used to speed extrusion and prevent die lip build-up during masterbatch compounding or profile extrusion such as door ding strips, mud flaps and door seals.
Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Nanofiber Reinforced Poly (Butylene Succinate) Nanocomposites
Biodegradable nanocomposites were prepared from poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and isora nanofiber (INF), a cellulosic nanofiber extracted from Helicteres isora. The nanocomposites were processed using a brabender twin-screw compounder and an injection-molding machine. The effects of INF on the mechanical (tensile and flexural), viscoelastic and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. The tensile and flexural moduli of PBS-INF nanocomposites increased with INF content, whereas the toughness and strain-at-break decreased. The tensile and flexural strengths increased up to 1.5phr INF loading beyond which they declined owing to agglomeration of INF. The storage modulus of the nanocomposites increased with the INF content. The addition of INF did not affect the Tg significantly. The area integration under tan ë curve decreased with INF loading indicating that PBS-INF nanocomposites exhibited more elastic behaviour with increasing INF. The addition of INF did not alter the thermal stability of PBS, significantly.
Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Microcellular Polypropylene Single-Polymer-Composites Prepared by Microcellular Injection Molding
Recyclable microcellular polypropylene (PP) single-polymer composites (SPCs) with uniaxial fibers were successfully produced by microcellular injection-molding process. Nitrogen in the supercritical state was used as the physical blowing agent in the microcellular injection molding experiments. The tensile properties of the microcellular PP SPCs with uniaxial fibers were determined. The microcellular PP SPC prepared with an injection pressure of 40 MPa, a nozzle temperature of 205 øC, a holding time of 5 sec and a cooling time of 20 sec has the tensile strength of 23.70 MPa, 24.34% higher than that of the microcellular non-reinforced PP, 7.93 % lower than that of the solid PP. The weight of the microcellular PP SPC is 1.024 g, 11.50% lower than that of the solid PP, 2.09% higher than that of the microcellular non-reinforced PP. The morphological properties were also observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM).
Modeling and Simulation of Internal Circulation Two-Platen Injection Molding Machine Based on AMESim
The internal circulation direct hydraulic two-platen clamping system opened a new era of the development of the injection molding machine. This paper established the hydraulic system models for the internal circulation clamping system by AMESim. Displacement of the moving platen, pressure in the mold-clamping cylinders and flow in the internal circulation valves were calculated. The simulation results showed that the system design was reasonable and reflected the real dynamic characteristics of hydraulic system. The modeling and simulation for the internal circulation two-platen injection molding machine laid the foundation for further studies.
A Study of Two Processing Induced Part Failures
Of the four pillars required for the successful development of a plastic part; material selection, part design, processing, and service environment, processing is often assumed to be the most controllable. Even when the service environment has been properly defined, the best design principles implemented, and the appropriate material selected, seemingly insignificant changes in processing can grossly and adversely affect an otherwise well developed product. This paper will explore two case studies where the failure of the parts can be traced directly back to changes in the processing parameters and how these changes ultimately predisposed them to premature failure.
Foamcore Blow Molded Structural Components for Transportation Applications
With emphasis on weight reduction throughout the transportation industry, there is a renewed effort to remove as much mass as possible to improve vehicle performance.
JSP has developed and optimized a blow molding process that combines traditional blow molding with an injection molded particle foam core. This process; called Foamcore, utilizes traditional blow molding equipment combined with a particle foam injection unit to produce a composite blow molded part with a solid foam core.
JSP?s Foamcore technology allows for simpler designs, higher strength to weight ratios, lower part weight, all while using exiting tooling (with minor modifications). Multiple polymers can also be used including Polypropylene, Polyethylene, Polystyrene, etc. for both skin and core materials.
This paper will describe recent advancements of this technology, and how they allow for improved mechanical properties to be realized in the area of transportation applications for structural and semi-structural components. Other features discussed include improvements in thermal insulation, sound abatement, as well as recyclability and End-Of-Life requirements.
Developments in the Production of High Surface Area Fibers and Nonwovens for Filtration
Sub-micron fibers are expected to bring value to applications where properties such as sound and temperature insulation, fluid holding capacity, softness, barrier property enhancement, high electrochemical activities (electrodes in fuel cells and Li-ion batteries) and filtration performance are needed. This presentation will focus on the various processes used for forming webs made up of sub-micron fibers and will review the latest technologies in Electrospinning, Meltblowing, Melt Fracture, Solution blowing, Bicomponent fiber formation, and Supersoninc nozzles.
Catalytic Technology and Controlled Chemical Release for Post-Harvest Preservation of Fruits and Vegetables
Roughly 1/3rd (1.3 billion tonnes) of the food produced in the world for human consumption gets wasted every year. Fruits and vegetables have highest wastage rates of almost 40-50%. This is partly due to ethylene action and improper storage and handling. Ethylene, a catalyst generated by climacteric fresh produce is responsible for their ripening. Ripened fruits have more risk of microbial spoilage due to increased sugar %. Improper handling, storage, lack of cold chain etc in post-harvest conditions further increases the loss. In the past, we have reported ?niche? technologies for fruit preservation, such as chemical agents responsible for adsorption and destruction of ethylene. In continuation, now we are introducing some more ?unique? technologies such as using a) Catalytic converters (of ethylene to ethylene oxide), b) Ethylene adsorbers and c) Halogen releasers. We believe that these simple and cost-effective techniques will be the trendsetters to reduce horticultural wastage considerably and in the end benefit the farmer, the retailer and also the consumer. Efficacy of these products was tested by using them as novel additives in flexible packaging, punnets etc. which are commercially used for storage and transport of various fruits and vegetables in which they were effective in reducing ethylene from the storage area. We also experimented use of these products by incorporating them in a plastic film and all through we could acquire considerable shelf life extension of both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits and vegetables. We firmly believe by using such value-added packaging post harvest horticultural losses will be considerably reduced and it can result in a service to mankind.
Extrusion Performance Fluids - Crucial in Maintaining Water-Cooled Extruder Efficiencies
Many manufacturers of water-cooled extrusion equipment typically recommend that either distilled water or properly-treated water [1,2] be used to control barrel zone heater/cooler temperatures. While many industrial water treatment professionals treat and maintain cooling towers, chill rolls and other Utility Water Systems in extrusion plants, few, if any, have attempted to solve the corrosion, fouling and mineral deposition issues typically experienced in extruder barrel cooling systems (Process Water Systems).
This paper summarizes our experiences over the past fourteen years developing and successfully applying Extrusion Performance Fluids (EPF) as safe and effective coolants in water-cooled extrusion applications. Key documented case studies and simple extrusion maintenance procedures will be discussed which form the basis for a pending US Patent  on EPF and its associated technologies.
Long Chain Branching of Polypropylene via UV Radiation: Effect of Coagent and Other Radiation Variables on Continuous Modification
Continuous photomodification of polypropylene (PP) has been conducted in order to scale up a previously developed batch process for commercialization purposes. Utilizing this process PP rheological properties were modified by incorporation of long chain branches (LCBs).
Trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) was employed as a coagent along with benzophenone (BPH), which was the photoinitiator. The effects of TMPTA presence, BPH concentration, and radiation duration on viscoelastic properties and gel content were studied. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) was used to confirm formation of LCBs in the photomodified PP.
A Study of Glass Spheres Incorporated into Extruded Polyethylene Films
Hollow glass microspheres were investigated as an additive in extruded low density polyethylene films. Advantages of this technology may include reductions in plastic material costs, thermal conductivity, packaging weight, density and processing costs. Monolayer films were processed on a blown film extrusion line and characterized for morphology, thermal and mechanical properties. Optical microscopy showed that the microspheres were intact and density was lower than the neat low density polyethylene films.
Marketing and Product Development Strategies in the Chemical Industry Using Dark Data & Data Sciences
The GDP contribution from the Industrial sectors is ~$25T, of which the Chemicals and Plastics Industry, is ~$4T in revenues. This traditionally product-centric industry is transforming into a market-facing growthmachine. While chemistry and product innovation will always be pillars of the industry's strength, prioritizationof the development efforts are shifting heavily towards marketing strategies and identification of attractive segments. However, Marketing and Segmentation strategies at chemical companies currently rely on the useof traditional methods such as expertise, relationships, customer feedback, sales calls, static market reports, strategy consultants and patent searches. On the other hand, the use of data, advanced data sciences andautomated intelligence is prevalent in the consumermarketingworld. This paper intends to open up and inspire possibilities in fully utilizing these advances in data sciences from the consumer space, and applying themto the industrial space, in tandem with the extraction of relevant dark data. Deep industry expertise can beaugmented by data sciences & big data analytics, mobile and social platforms and technology, to form a potent mix, which will catalyze this transformation.
The Effect of High Solvating Plasticizers on Fusion Behavior and Mechanical Properties of PVC-Based Luxury Floor Tiles
Growing year by year in use as a general purpose plasticizer phthalate replacement, 1,2 cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid diisononylphthalate (referred to generically as DIDC) has limitations in both processing and final product performance. A project was undertaken recently to demonstrate how DIDC’s performance can be improved through the utilization of propylene glycol dibenzoate (PG) in vinyl floor tiles. To demonstrate the effectiveness of adding PG to DIDC for increased compatibility, formulations were prepared containing diisononylphthalate (DINP), DIDC, PG, and blends containing DIDC and PG. The results indicate a marked improvement using DIDC/PG blends in fusion temperature and dry point over standalone DIDC formulations, as well as tensile strength and elongation properties that are comparable to DINP.
Fabrication of Hybrid Polymeric-Metallic Foams as Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering
Thermoplastic foams have been explored for their use as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Challenges exist in their applicability and strategies for enhancement in mechanical properties are needed. In this paper we report the fabrication of hybrid polymeric-metallic foams where magnesium was electrodeposited on polyurethane foams with the goal to enhance the mechanical properties of polyurethane foams. The foams were characterized using visual methods and optical microscopy techniques, which clearly showed the presence of magnesium fused foams.
Weld Lines in Injection Molded Parts: Strength, Morphology and Improvement
Weld lines are rather well known as optical and/or mechanical blemishes in plastics products that can be avoided barely by mold design or process control. Although many publications show single solutions to optimize weld line strength in injection molded parts, there is no complete comparison of thermoplastic polymer materials available. Therefore, an overview about formation, morphology and strength of weld lines for amorphous, semicrystalline and filled polymer materials is given.
How to Add Value to Capillary Rheometers
Capillary Rheology has been around for many years. As technology moves on, this has opened doors to use the capillary rheometer as a base on which to build a sophisticated R&D platform to perform a wide range of other tests, which help rheologists and their colleagues. We look at extensional rheology, elasticity, pressure- volume-temperature (PVT), thermal conductivity (TC), sharkskin analysis and the effects of counter pressure measurements. Those are but a few of available options to lab managers who try to squeeze out extra capabilities from their budgets.
Single Pellet Extrusion
Analysis and results are presented to model the melting of a single pellet in an extrusion screw. The analysis considers transient heat conduction with a convention boundary condition and three sources of internal generation. The results suggest that the theoretical melting time for a pellet is on the order of seconds and more optimal extrusion screw designs are possible.
A Protocol for Filament Production and Use in Fused Deposition Modeling
A protocol for filament production and use in fused deposition modeling (FDM) is proposed that includes four stages: 1) material characterization of the thermoplastic feedstock, 2) filament production, 3) test specimen production, and 4) protocol verification. Preliminary results indicate that the protocol is feasible and will assist in broadening the portfolio of materials for use in FDM, optimizing FDM process conditions, and developing a capable FDM process simulation.
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