SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Developing a System to Activate a Post-Molding Blowing Agent in the Application Field
Alicyn M. Haney, Kate L. Miller, May 2001

This experiment creates a process which allows injection molded parts to be foamed during assembly applications, resulting in optimal airtight sealing properties at the plastic interface.

Modification of Epoxies for Low Friction
Witold Brostow, Patrick E. Cassidy, Haley E. Hagg, Magdalena Jacklewicz, Pablo E. Montemartini, May 2001

The morphology, elastic modulus, and friction properties of a commercial epoxy resin + fluorinated poly(aryl ether ketone) (12F-PEK) system have been studied. The system was cured at 24°C and 70°C. We achieved significant friction lowering, namely 30% less than the value for plain epoxy, at the 12F-PEK concentration of only 10% after curing at 24°C. By contrast, after curing at 70°C, an increase in both static and dynamic friction is observed.

Correlating Creep Data with High Temperature Tensile Testing
W. Scott Miller, May 2001

Obtaining accurate creep data can be time consuming when the material supplier does not publish it. A faster method of predicting creep behavior could be a benefit when designing plastic products that will encounter long term loading. This experimental study will examine the feasibility of using elevated temperature tensile testing data as a means for predicting the tensile creep behavior of general-purpose acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS). Injection molded specimens will undergo tensile testing at elevated temperatures for comparison to the respective tensile creep curves.

The Effects of Directional Molecular Orientation on Tensile Stress and Elongation of Polypropylene Film
Lucas Warren Mellinger, May 2001

Highly oriented polymer dogbone samples were tensile tested at different angles to the machine direction to determine how tensile stress at yield and the percent elongation at yield is affected by the alignment of molecules. Theoretically, as the angle from machine direction increases, the tensile strength at yield will decrease. It is also expected that as the angle from machine direction increases, the strain will decrease. These effects are important in determining how the same material can have different mechanical properties.

Optimization of the Pultrusion Process Using Thermodynamic Analysis
Matthew J. Heidecker, May 2001

In the pultrusion process, line speed is the primary measurement for process optimization. With the process being continuous, the fastest speed with no defects is seen as the production goal. Before optimal line speed can be determined, the amount of time required for commencement of the reaction must be obtained. Performing a thermodynamic analysis of the die is the first step in achieving this goal. Creating a computer simulation of this process using the results of the thermodynamic analysis is the objective of this research.

The Recycling of Thermoset Materials into Thermoplastic Composites
David D. Camlin, Matthew J. Heidecker, Sarah M. Reynolds, May 2001

Thermoset process scrap costs companies millions of dollars annually. Specific thermoplastics could benefit from the addition of recycled thermoset material. The incorporation of thermoset regrind into thermoplastic material would provide a viable alternative for the thermoset scrap that is currently sent to the landfills.

Developing Techniques for Fabricating Aluminum Molds with Cast-In Passages
Nathan Mitchell, Kate Milller, May 2001

This paper will explain the development of a new method for heating and cooling rotational molds with cast in passages. The goal is to develop a technique for manufacturing these molds that is cost competitive with conventional methods while maintaining the same ease of fabrication and common timeline. The mold will be used in conjunction with a hot oil rotational mold machine built at Penn State University-The Behrend College, Erie, PA.

Verification of Parison Sag and Swell with CAE Simulation Software
Michael D. McCullough, Charles A. Heid, May 2001

Parison sag and die swell are the most theoretical part of the extrusion blow molding industry. Both factors affect the wall thickness of the parison, and will add variation to the molded part. This study is part of ongoing research at Penn State Erie. After correlating data, a comparison will be drawn between CAE calculations and the actual extruded parison data. This research will quantify the parison sag and swell, and demonstrate the need to focus on parison geometry to yield accurate blow molding simulation results.

Comparison of Results from a Simulated and Actual Design of Experiments
Erik E. Gatewood, James A. McQuown, May 2001

This study includes a design of experiments using a blow molding simulation software. An eight-run, four factor D.O.E. format was chosen. The response variable of interest is the variable wall thickness throughout an extrusion blow molded part. The simulation will help pinpoint the factors that have the largest effect on wall thickness variation throughout the part. The results will be implemented into an actual D.O.E. that will be completed in the future.

Study of Cast in Passages for Rotational Molds
Kristopher J. Ivie, May 2001

This paper discusses the theoretical effect of cast in passages on the wall thickness of rotationally molded part. Finite element analysis was used to determine temperature differences for given passage geometry and dimensions. Testing was done to determine the relationship between surface temperatures and melt thickness versus time. This information provides a theoretical model for construction of rotational molds using cast in passages.

Predicting Shrinkage for Injection Molds
Ben Bogdanski, Michael McMeans, Patrick Bogdanski, May 2001

Shrinkage of plastics materials can be significantly affected by both process and flow induced orientation in a cavity. This paper presents a study of the factors that affect shrinkage in a variety of different types of thermoplastic materials. These include process, flow type (linear versus radial), material and material fillers. Sensitivity of shrinkage to these factors is established and can assist mold designers in more accurately sizing their cavities to account for in-mold shrinkage

Warpage Index for Mold Designers and CAE Analysis
Michael McMeans, Benjamin Bogdanski, Patrick Bogdanski, May 2001

This paper presents the results of study directed toward developing a simplified technique of classifying plastics materials relative to their sensitivity to warpage as caused by non-uniform cooling and flow induced stresses. The materials are then rated on a relative scale of 1 to 10. This information will allow mold designers and injection molding simulators analyst to realize the relative sensitivity of a material to warpage from these factors and therefore more strategically design their molds to address these issues.

Process Window as Effected by Shear Induced Flow Imbalance in Multicavity Molds
Heath E. Casaldi, Timothy Michel, May 2001

The paper presents a study on the sensitivity of shear induced mold filling imbalance, found in multi-cavity molds, to process variations. A variety of materials are molded in an eight-cavity test mold using a variety of different runner designs. The materials are molded at four different flow rates. Two different runner designs are used - a conventional geometrically balanced runner and a geometrical balanced runner including a melt rotation technology that eliminates shear induced mold-filling imbalances.

Effects of Aqueous Medium on Long Term Creep Properties
James Kopchick, Jacob A. Rowley, May 2001

The determination of the physical properties of a polymer over time has long been a topic of speculation. It is not clear the effect of moisture on this mechanism. This research will attempt determine the interaction between percent humidity and the final creep properties, while the samples are completely immersed in an aqueous medium. This paper will attempt to bring together molecular interaction, secondary forces, and hydrolyzed components of them and how they interact with the final tensile, ultimately creep properties.

An Investigation of Part Variation in Multi-Cavity Injection Molds when Using Cavity Pressure Control
Robert Cooney, David Neill, Larry Pomorski, May 2001

The use of cavity pressure to control velocity to pressure transfer during the injection phase of the molding process is generally considered to be the most repeatable method. However, for multi-cavity molds, it is believed that the part variation may actually be worse in non-controlling cavities than it would be if position transfer were used. This study will look at how the balance of conditions between cavities effects the part variation for both cavity pressure and position transfer methods.

Effects of Annealing on the Crystallization Behavior of Nylon 6,6 in the Presence of Nucleating Agents
Jamie Hummer, Ken Woodruff, May 2001

Nucleating agents such as paraffin wax and MoS2 are known to vary the morphology and quality of crystals. Samples of unfilled Nylon 6,6, wax filled, and MoS2 filled were subjected to structured annealing conditions. Samples were then analyzed using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Changes in tensile, flexural, and impact data were compared and correlated to the crystallinity data.

Orientation Effects on Thermoformed Parts at Different Temperatures
Scott D. Bemiss, J. Jacob Kennerknecht, May 2001

The orientation of a plastic part changes due to the processing temperature. The extent of these changes can be seen on thermoformed parts from the same mold, processed at different temperatures on a smooth surface.

Study of PVC Degradation Using a Fast Computer Scanning Procedure
Radu Bacaloglu, Ulrich Stewen, May 2001

A fast computer scanning procedure for the determination of total double bond concentration resulting from PVC thermal degradation is described. It allows the rapid estimation of rates of degradation and prediction of temperature and stabilizers effects on degradation.

Polylactide, A New Thermoplastic for Extrusion Coating
Mark Hartmann, Nicole Whiteman, May 2001

Polylactide (PLA), a new thermoplastic derived from corn, has been developed for extrusion coating applications. Polylactides can be rheology modified to run on high-speed commercial extrusion coating lines to produce packages with unique properties. New packaging systems will be described based on PLA's combination of adhesion, flavor/aroma barrier and heat seal/hot tack strength.

The Use of Encapsulation Dies for Processing Linear Polyolefin Resins in Extrusion Coating
Kelly R. Frey, Gary D. Jerdee, Clint D. Cleaver, May 2001

Traditionally highly branched autoclave low-density polyethylene resins have been ideal for extrusion coating due to their inherent melt strength characteristics. Encapsulation coating dies have been used with other polymers to overcome melt strength deficiencies and improve processing. This study evaluates the effectiveness of encapsulation with linear materials such as high-density polyethylene and linear low-density polyethylene.

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How to reference articles from the SPE Library:

Any article that is cited in another manuscript or other work is required to use the correct reference style. Below is an example of the reference style for SPE articles:

Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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