SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Self-Assembled Protein-Rubber Nanocomposites
Barbara DeButts, Laura E. Hanzly, Justin R. Barone, May 2017
Gliadin from wheat was compounded in synthetic isoprene rubber (IR) to form a reinforcing nanophase in situ. The compounded protein aggregated into ß-sheets, which varied in quantity based on compounding conditions and protein preparation. At all conditions studied, the protein-filled IR exhibited higher modulus compared to unfilled IR. XRD revealed the crystal structure of ß-sheets.
Compression Molded Protein-PVA Nanocomposite Films
Barbara DeButts, Cara R. Spivey, Justin R. Barone, May 2017
Wheat gluten protein was incubated in an aqueous solution of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to form a reinforcing nanophase in situ. Protein reinforcement of PVA up to 340% was observed during mechanical testing. Spectroscopic examination revealed an anisotropic fiber nanostructure high in ß-sheet content. Nanofibers persisted after moderate compression molding, but degraded with severe processing. Processing conditions also affected the thermal properties of PVA.
PEBA: TPE Materials for High Performance Applications
Nicholas DeLuca, May 2017
TPE-A, or PEBA, chemistry is considered to be the most high-performing TPE in the market. PEBA (PolyEtherBlockAmide) is a block copolymer based on polyamide and polyether segments. Subtle differences between the grades are based upon the chemistry of the polyamide and polyether as well as the ratios of each in the block copolymer. This session will describe technically describe the chemistry and properties of the polymer, both mechanical and analytical. It will also describe key applications where PEBA chemistry is currently or could be used.
Sustainability of PVC (Vinyl) Pipe: A Comprehensive Environmental Review
Randel Dobbs, May 2017
• Thorough review of LCA data • Transparently report the findings to the water, sanitary sewer, and storm drainage industries • Support the goals and vision of the 2010 USEPA Clean Water and Safe Drinking Water Infrastructure Sustainability Policy and the 2015 USEPA National Water Program on Climate Change • Ensures the long-term sustainability of water and sewer infrastructure • Comparative review of competing pipe products
Comparing Plastic Staking Technologies
Jason Dornbos, May 2017
Several thermoplastic staking technologies are available in the manufacturing industry. With many options to choose from, it is necessary to understand which processes are capable of achieving desired results. Hot air, ultrasonic, and InfraStake® were evaluated on cycle time, joint strength, strength repeatability, equipment cost, and operation cost to discern process capability. Each process has strengths and weaknesses, and recognizing each helps to determine which technology will produce the desired result in a specific application.
Food Contact and How We Got There for SPE
Tamsin Ettefagh, May 2017
• Brief introduction to Envision Plastics • Getting to an LNO • Food Grade for HDPE: EcoPrime™ • Markets served using recycled HDPE • Our Newest LNO and Patent • LCA and Conclusions
Evaluation of Resin-Coated Proppant through Tri-Axial Compression Test and Numerical Simulation
Jie Feng, Kaoru Aou, Mark Mirgon, Ashish Lokhande, Deese Diana, May 2017
This study explored the performance evaluation for resin-coated proppants through a customized tri-axial test. By validating the accuracy of the test setup and simulating the test condition with numerical modeling, the protecting effect of the resin coating on the proppant was verified through this compression test under a tri-axial stress state as well as microscopic analysis by SEM.
A New Styrenic Block Copolymer for Polyolefin Modification, Coatings and Adhesives
John Flood, Bing Yang, May 2017
Hydrogenated styrenic block copolymers (HSBCs) are ubiquitous due to their unique balance of strength, elastic recovery, and processability. With modern applications with stringent design requirements becoming popular, a low viscosity HSBC polymer, without compromising strength and elastic recovery, was needed. The authors will introduce a new low molecular weight HSBC polymer, present product and processing properties, and discuss possible application areas
The Cyclic Cracked round Bar Test as a New Standard for Accelerated Material Ranking of Polyethylene Pipe Grades
Andreas Frank, Isabelle J. Berger, Florian Arbeiter, Gerald Pinter, May 2017
The Cyclic Cracked Round Bar (CRB) Test has recently been standardized by ISO 18489 as a new alternative test method for an accelerated ranking of the slow crack growth performance of polyethylene pipe grades. The current paper summarizes results of this test method for several different materials. For some materials the results were compared to PENT test failure times to demonstrate the correlation between these two test methods and to emphasize the advantages of the Cyclic CRB Test.
Liquid Interface Diffusion Bonding Applications for Joining Plastic Injection Die Molds with Conformal Cooling, Hot Runners, and other Venting Attributes
Clare Goldsberry, Norman Hubele, May 2017
The following paper discusses using liquid interface diffusion bonding, as conducted within a vacuum hot press furnace, as the preferred method of joining layered die mold blanks that may contain conformal cooling, venting, and other “hot runner” passages. Discussions about process methods and distinctions when using a vacuum hot press furnace, particularly compared to conventional vacuum furnace brazing, during the mold joining operations are made.
Elastomer Profile Coextrusion Simulation for Automotive Sealing System
Mahesh Gupta, Linhuo Shi, Shihamul Islam, May 2017
The flow in a bi-layer coextrusion die for automotive sealing system is simulated. Two different techniques for coextrusion simulation are used to predict the flow behavior in a complex profile die. The predicted extrudate shape and the interface (knit lines) between different elastomer components of the seal predicted using the two simulation methods are in good agreement with the measured results from the corresponding physical part.
Capillary Rheometers with Contifeed
Tim Haake, May 2017
A typical laboratory capillary rheometer is piston fed. Which means a piston pushes material down a barrel and extrudes it through a die. It is normally cold fed from the top manually. Here, we have installed a small-scale screw extruder to push material into the barrel, before the measurement begins.
Investigation of Chemical Foaming Agents Application for Thermoset Injection Molding
Stefan Haase, Christian Hopmann, May 2017
While foam injection molding processes are state-of-the-art in modern industrial plastics processing facilities, the transfer of these technologies to the field of thermoset injection molding has not been investigated. The results presented in this paper outline the potential as well as the challenges of this new technology. While significant weight reductions of up to 20 % have been achieved, surface quality and mechanical properties demand further investigation and optimization of the process.
Scratch Behavior of Multilayered Coatings
Mohammad Hossain, Shuang Xiao, Hung-Jue Sue, Masaya Kotaki, May 2017
Extensive study on multilayered coating systems has been carried out to understand the scratch-induced damage mechanisms. The experimental results show that increase in soft base layer thickness improves the scratch resistance. The numerical analysis of the stress and strain field explains the mechanics behind the improvement in scratch resistance in the multilayered coating systems. Usefulness of the present findings for designing scratch resistant multilayered coating systems is discussed.
The Evaluation of Degradation Mechanism of Polyolefins, and Development of Non-Destructive Evaluating Method
Toshio Igarashi, Yusuke Hiejima, Takumitsu Kida, Koh-hei Nitta, Yutaka Yonezawa, May 2017
A comprehensive investigation of the degradation mechanism of polyolefin products and evaluation of their deterioration state using non-destructive methods are essential. The photodegradation of low-density polyethylene was investigated with various methods in a wide range of scales from macroscopic to microscopic. The ability to characterize the initial stage of degradation of these materials using non-destructive Raman spectroscopic measurements is also demonstrated.
Interfacial Crystallization Affects Adhesion of Coextruded Polyolefins
Alex Jordan, Kyungtae Kim, Frank S. Bates, Christopher W. Macosko, Shaffiq Jaffer, Olivier Lhost, May 2017
While chemically similar, it has long been known that polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) are immiscible and suffer poor interfacial adhesion when processed as layered films or blends. In this paper we present an examination of the effect that processing conditions, such as extrusion residence time and post-extrusion take-up, have on the interfacial adhesion between PE and PP.
Agility™ Performance LDPE in Blends Elevates Film Mechanicals and Extrusion Output to the Next Level
Teresa Karjala, Lori Kardos, Yijian Lin, May 2017
Blends of LLDPE (linear low density polyethylene) and LDPE (low density polyethylene) are used in many film applications. This paper shows how several high performance LDPE resins can be used as a blending component to increase output or throughput on blown film lines as well as to optimize film mechanical properties. In addition, some of these LDPE resins are utilized in shrink films, providing a good combination of shrink and optics, and are also used in foams and extrusion coating among other applications.
DOWLEX™ GM LLDPE and AGILITY™ Performance LDPE for Greater Means in Industrial and Consumer Packaging Applications
Teresa Karjala, Mustafa Bilgen, Eduardo Ruiz, Nermeen Aboelella, Lori Kardos, Steve Ma, Wes Hobson, Carlos Ruiz, Mehmet Demirors, May 2017
Powered by a new leading-edge catalyst technology, DOWLEX™ GM Linear Low Density Polyethylene Resins (LLDPE) offer Greater Means for customers to achieve differentiated performance and new growth opportunities for a range of demanding film applications. Applications discussed are those primarily in the industrial and consumer packaging applications of consumer liners, collation shrink film, heavy duty shipping sacks, and cast and blown stretch film.
Scaling Laws and Fractal Screw Designs towards Single Pellet Extrusion
David Kazmer, May 2017
Analyses and screw design concepts are presented to control the plastication path of materials in single screw extrusion. The methodology uses analytical solutions for transient heat conduction with shear heating. The design concept uses multiple channels in the transition and feed sections to provide improved control of extrusion scale-up. Two screw fractal designs are presented for comparison with general purpose and barrier screw designs.
Design for in-Flow to Strengthen Weld Lines in Injection Molded Polypropylene Parts
David Kazmer, Adam DiTocco, Colby Fleckner, Christian Stochaj, Stephanie Ternullo, May 2017
Weld lines in multi-gated and windowed products can act as flaws to weaken the mechanical strength of the part. A design of experiments with neat and 40% talc-filled polypropylene indicated that asymmetric melt in-flows during molding could be used to significantly strengthen weld lines in injection molded parts. Product design recommendations are provided.

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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