The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Sustainability of PVC (Vinyl) Pipe: A Comprehensive Environmental Review
• Thorough review of LCA data • Transparently report the findings to the water, sanitary sewer, and storm drainage industries • Support the goals and vision of the 2010 USEPA Clean Water and Safe Drinking Water Infrastructure Sustainability Policy and the 2015 USEPA National Water Program on Climate Change • Ensures the long-term sustainability of water and sewer infrastructure • Comparative review of competing pipe products
Comparing Plastic Staking Technologies
Several thermoplastic staking technologies are available in the manufacturing industry. With many options to choose from, it is necessary to understand which processes are capable of achieving desired results. Hot air, ultrasonic, and InfraStake® were evaluated on cycle time, joint strength, strength repeatability, equipment cost, and operation cost to discern process capability. Each process has strengths and weaknesses, and recognizing each helps to determine which technology will produce the desired result in a specific application.
Food Contact and How We Got There for SPE
• Brief introduction to Envision Plastics • Getting to an LNO • Food Grade for HDPE: EcoPrime™ • Markets served using recycled HDPE • Our Newest LNO and Patent • LCA and Conclusions
Evaluation of Resin-Coated Proppant through Tri-Axial Compression Test and Numerical Simulation
This study explored the performance evaluation for resin-coated proppants through a customized tri-axial test. By validating the accuracy of the test setup and simulating the test condition with numerical modeling, the protecting effect of the resin coating on the proppant was verified through this compression test under a tri-axial stress state as well as microscopic analysis by SEM.
A New Styrenic Block Copolymer for Polyolefin Modification, Coatings and Adhesives
Hydrogenated styrenic block copolymers (HSBCs) are ubiquitous due to their unique balance of strength, elastic recovery, and processability. With modern applications with stringent design requirements becoming popular, a low viscosity HSBC polymer, without compromising strength and elastic recovery, was needed. The authors will introduce a new low molecular weight HSBC polymer, present product and processing properties, and discuss possible application areas
The Cyclic Cracked round Bar Test as a New Standard for Accelerated Material Ranking of Polyethylene Pipe Grades
The Cyclic Cracked Round Bar (CRB) Test has recently been standardized by ISO 18489 as a new alternative test method for an accelerated ranking of the slow crack growth performance of polyethylene pipe grades. The current paper summarizes results of this test method for several different materials. For some materials the results were compared to PENT test failure times to demonstrate the correlation between these two test methods and to emphasize the advantages of the Cyclic CRB Test.
Liquid Interface Diffusion Bonding Applications for Joining Plastic Injection Die Molds with Conformal Cooling, Hot Runners, and other Venting Attributes
The following paper discusses using liquid interface diffusion bonding, as conducted within a vacuum hot press furnace, as the preferred method of joining layered die mold blanks that may contain conformal cooling, venting, and other “hot runner” passages. Discussions about process methods and distinctions when using a vacuum hot press furnace, particularly compared to conventional vacuum furnace brazing, during the mold joining operations are made.
Elastomer Profile Coextrusion Simulation for Automotive Sealing System
The flow in a bi-layer coextrusion die for automotive sealing system is simulated. Two different techniques for coextrusion simulation are used to predict the flow behavior in a complex profile die. The predicted extrudate shape and the interface (knit lines) between different elastomer components of the seal predicted using the two simulation methods are in good agreement with the measured results from the corresponding physical part.
Capillary Rheometers with Contifeed
A typical laboratory capillary rheometer is piston fed. Which means a piston pushes material down a barrel and extrudes it through a die. It is normally cold fed from the top manually. Here, we have installed a small-scale screw extruder to push material into the barrel, before the measurement begins.
Investigation of Chemical Foaming Agents Application for Thermoset Injection Molding
While foam injection molding processes are state-of-the-art in modern industrial plastics processing facilities, the transfer of these technologies to the field of thermoset injection molding has not been investigated. The results presented in this paper outline the potential as well as the challenges of this new technology. While significant weight reductions of up to 20 % have been achieved, surface quality and mechanical properties demand further investigation and optimization of the process.
Scratch Behavior of Multilayered Coatings
Extensive study on multilayered coating systems has been carried out to understand the scratch-induced damage mechanisms. The experimental results show that increase in soft base layer thickness improves the scratch resistance. The numerical analysis of the stress and strain field explains the mechanics behind the improvement in scratch resistance in the multilayered coating systems. Usefulness of the present findings for designing scratch resistant multilayered coating systems is discussed.
The Evaluation of Degradation Mechanism of Polyolefins, and Development of Non-Destructive Evaluating Method
A comprehensive investigation of the degradation mechanism of polyolefin products and evaluation of their deterioration state using non-destructive methods are essential. The photodegradation of low-density polyethylene was investigated with various methods in a wide range of scales from macroscopic to microscopic. The ability to characterize the initial stage of degradation of these materials using non-destructive Raman spectroscopic measurements is also demonstrated.
Interfacial Crystallization Affects Adhesion of Coextruded Polyolefins
While chemically similar, it has long been known that polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) are immiscible and suffer poor interfacial adhesion when processed as layered films or blends. In this paper we present an examination of the effect that processing conditions, such as extrusion residence time and post-extrusion take-up, have on the interfacial adhesion between PE and PP.
Agility™ Performance LDPE in Blends Elevates Film Mechanicals and Extrusion Output to the Next Level
Blends of LLDPE (linear low density polyethylene) and LDPE (low density polyethylene) are used in many film applications. This paper shows how several high performance LDPE resins can be used as a blending component to increase output or throughput on blown film lines as well as to optimize film mechanical properties. In addition, some of these LDPE resins are utilized in shrink films, providing a good combination of shrink and optics, and are also used in foams and extrusion coating among other applications.
DOWLEX™ GM LLDPE and AGILITY™ Performance LDPE for Greater Means in Industrial and Consumer Packaging Applications
Powered by a new leading-edge catalyst technology, DOWLEX™ GM Linear Low Density Polyethylene Resins (LLDPE) offer Greater Means for customers to achieve differentiated performance and new growth opportunities for a range of demanding film applications. Applications discussed are those primarily in the industrial and consumer packaging applications of consumer liners, collation shrink film, heavy duty shipping sacks, and cast and blown stretch film.
Scaling Laws and Fractal Screw Designs towards Single Pellet Extrusion
Analyses and screw design concepts are presented to control the plastication path of materials in single screw extrusion. The methodology uses analytical solutions for transient heat conduction with shear heating. The design concept uses multiple channels in the transition and feed sections to provide improved control of extrusion scale-up. Two screw fractal designs are presented for comparison with general purpose and barrier screw designs.
Design for in-Flow to Strengthen Weld Lines in Injection Molded Polypropylene Parts
Weld lines in multi-gated and windowed products can act as flaws to weaken the mechanical strength of the part. A design of experiments with neat and 40% talc-filled polypropylene indicated that asymmetric melt in-flows during molding could be used to significantly strengthen weld lines in injection molded parts. Product design recommendations are provided.
Polypropylene Morphology in Micro-Injection Molding of Rectangular Groove
In micro-injection molding process, the dimension of the characteristic geometry can be similar to morphological feature size inside the polymer. This work investigates the crystalline morphology in the injection-molded polypropylene parts. It has been found that development of crystalline structure affects the filling flow. The molded micro-structure shows the crystalline growth on the surface. The crystalline structure inside micro-groove can be stretched crystal or spherulite.
Shrinkage, Warpage and Residual Stresses of Injection Molded Parts
The shrinkage and warpage behavior of injection molded parts is very complex. By using a new measuring method it was shown for the first time that the warpage can be classified as warping and distortion. In general, warpage can only be reduced substantially by a sufficiently high volumetric compensation in the holding pressure phase. Residual stress measurements show, deviating from the literature, that flow induced residual stresses can also induce compressive stresses in the part core due to pressure holding effects.
Characterization of Scratch Properties of Talc-Filled Polypropylene with Various Melt Indices
Scratch properties of talc-filled polypropylene was quantitatively evaluated by critical loads. Scratch test was conducted following ASTM D7027 standard. Melt index (MI) and talc content were varied to investigate wide range of composition. Tensile test was conducted according to ISO 527 and scratch properties are analyzed in terms of tensile properties.
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