The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
Plastic parts are a lot less forgiving than their metal counterparts on the strict adherence to established design rules for meeting short and long-term performance requirements.These requirements can broadly be broken into:CosmeticsImpact strengthToughnessChemical resistanceTolerance precisionHigh and low-temperature use and cyclingOutdoor exposureCostThus, a much more rigorous adherence to the rules may be required for a high-end handheld, mission-critical computing and communicating device in a hospital that needs to be cosmetically appealing, have very high impact strength, good chemical resistance and high and low-temperature resistance. A failure due to design errors in a simple drop on a device like this in the hand of a medical technician may cause death!On the other hand, a minor blemish or crack in a lightweight remote control for a low-end TV may not nearly be as catastrophic.The base cover of an inexpensive, lightweight inkjet printer may be even more forgiving.To be realistic, design rules may have to be broken based on the end use and other conflicting product requirements.This paper will provide a logical guide on making exceptions to the design rules based on multiple case studies.It will also introduce a design checking software, DFMPro where the rigorousness of the design rules can be “dialed” in based on the specific product requirements
The process of large-format 3D printing is gaining popularity because larger pieces can be obtained in comparison to the conventional 3D printing process, being a promising alternative for products design and development due to the incorporation of innovative raw materials as biocomposites for large scale manufacturing. In this work, tensile test specimens were 3D-printed by large-format process and different commercial material used in conventional 3D printing. As-printed specimens and annealed specimens were subjected to tensile testing. DSC and TGA were used to optimize the printing process and annealing conditions of the samples. It was observed that the annealing process had a different effects on the properties depending on the materials studied.
3D-CAD systems show limitations with regard to the design process of helical milled parts. This paper introduces a surface based design methodology, which enables the designer to bypass these restrictions. Additionally, an approach to facilitate an early knowledge transfer between production planning and design department is shown and implemented through the use of knowledge based engineering methods. Thereby a virtual product model is generated that represents the exact work piece geometry and contains specific manufacturing information while meeting the functional requirements of spiral mandrel dies and thus impacting the whole process chain positively. Furthermore, a method to optimize certain sections of the flow channel which show subpar flow properties is introduced.
A unique co-extrusion and multiplication technique combined with a water jet fiber separation process was utilized to manufacture nano/micro-fibrous filters for applications in fuel/water separation. Hydrophobic polypropylene/polyvinylidene fluoride (PP/PVDF) dual-component fibrous filters were produced having different fiber size. The filter pore size was found to decrease with decreasing fiber size and the surface area was found to increase with increasing fiber size. The filter having the smallest pore size exhibits the highest filtration efficiency as 93.5%. Corona treatment was conducted on the PP/PVDF fibrous filter to evaluate hydrophilicity influence on water separation. It is found that moderate hydrophilicity improves the water separation efficiency.
The gap of skilled workers in manufacturing is expected to grow to two million workers by 2025 and millennials will make up 75% of the current workforce. Without focusing on the shortage the industry as a whole will face, there is a looming challenge many of us are already facing today, how do we attract and retain the millennial talent we already have?Forbes has noted that the number one reason millennials leave their current role is lacking a sense of purpose in their work. Deloitte has gone so far as to coin the term “purpose gap.” Millennials are not satisfied with the excuse of “that’s how it’s always been done” and have begun pushing back on inefficiencies within the workplace and asking for transparency. In this session, you will learn how the implementation of aPriori’s should costing tool can bring purpose back to your design engineers, cost estimators, and procurement teams. This tool provides real-time feedback and provides transparency surrounding part costs that allows millennials to make data driven decisions surrounding cost throughout the product life cycle and translate the impact of their contributions to the overarching company initiatives. aPriori’s Cost Insight Business analytics tool also allows for the slicing and dicing of should cost data to support business decisions and provides an overarching product cost management solution that will re-engage your millennials so you can focus on pipeline talent for 2025, not immediate back fills.
Today, manufacturers are being pressured at every angle regarding cost. Customers are asking to pay less for a product, supply chains are asking to be paid more, and stakeholders are asking for a higher margin leading some manufacturers to scratch their heads and say, where do I start?Many of the challenges today stem from lack of visibility surrounding cost drivers when designing a product leading engineers to have little or no insight on the impact design changes have on overall product cost. This lack of visibility often causes late stage engineering churn as completed products exceed target costs and manufacturers are faced with a difficult decision, miss a product launch date or release a product with minimal (or no) margin.aPriori’s Design to Cost solution helps design teams identify and eliminate cost drivers early in the design process, preventing a cycle of churn throughout the organization, causing lost revenue and lost productivity.In this session, you will learn how early visibility to cost drivers will reduce churn and rework throughout your organization and how aPriori uses specific software features to provide design guidance based on cost, encouraging engineers to make cost effective decisions and removing cost related surprises at the conclusion of any project.
Loctite® HY 4060GY™ is a 1:1 two component cyanoacrylate – epoxy hybrid adhesive which makes up part of the new range of Loctite® universal structural bonders launched in March 2017. These innovative products are powered by a patented hybrid technology that combines the most critical attributes of cyanoacrylate and structural adhesives. Loctite® HY 4060GY™ offers durable properties with fast time to develop handling strength in a 25 ml ‘ready to use’ pack with integrated plunger making it an ideal replacement for traditional 2K 5-minute epoxies. This paper presents the performance of Loctite® HY 4060GY™ against a number of Henkel and competitor 2K epoxy adhesives.
Packaging design must be a forethought when producing ecofriendly packaging in the water bottling industry. Bottle design research is often restricted by mold production delays and long lead time on physical prototyping. A simulation based approach, or virtual prototyping can create an effective bridge between concept and production phases of the process with a relatively short lead time. This study explores a Quasi-Static Finite Element Approach with non-linear approximations to model water packaging. The study also shows how top-load is used as a metric of structural performance for small PET bottles. The material parameters are based on Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), the material of choice in the bottling industry.
Achieving optimal quality for rotational molded parts requires a determination of specific conditions for oven temperature and heat/cool time. Traditional tests used to assess the quality of these samples rely on destructive methods, such as impact testing. This paper presents an innovative approach using ultrasonic testing associated with multivariate statistical modeling to evaluate the quality of molded polyethylene (PE) parts from several different batches. Results showed a good correlation of predicted quality using non-destructive data with both impact energy failure and melt flow index, indicating the potential of this technique to be applied on the quality monitoring of this process.
In this work, ground tire rubber (GTR) and maple wood fibers (MWF) were dry-blended with linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) to produce hybrid composites by rotational molding. In particular, the effect of a coupling agent (maleated polyethylene, MAPE) was studied to modify the mechanical properties of these hybrid composites. Each compound was characterized in terms of morphology, density and mechanical properties (tensile, flexural and impact). The results showed that the addition of GTR leads to limited impact strength improvement of the wood fiber composites (WFC), while MAPE addition improved the interfacial adhesion between the fibers and the matrix.
Nanocomposites of linear medium density polyethylene (LMDPE) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) treated with oxygen cold plasma were prepared by rotational molding, mixing 0.01, 0.1 and 1% wt. of CNFs by dry-blending. The objective of this work is to study the influence, the change in surface chemistry and morphology in the carbon nanofibers. And thus, the effect on morphology and mechanical properties of this nanocomposites. The results indicated that the plasma technique increases the oxygen functional groups in CNFs. For the nanocomposites, the addition of CNFs modifies the mechanical properties, and major changes occur when were added CNFs treated with cold oxygen plasma.
Blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and linear medium density polyethylene (LMDPE) at different weight ratios were prepared by rotational molding using a laboratory scale biaxial machine. The blends were previously produced by two different methods: i) dry blending using a high shear mixer and ii) melt blending with a twin-screw extruder. The prepared blends were characterized in terms of morphology, mechanical (tensile, flexion and impact) and thermal (DSC) properties. The morphological results showed a clear incompatibility between the two polymers in which the domains of the minor phase have well defined spherical shapes and a broad size distribution. On the other hand, the results of the mechanical properties depend of the blend preparation method. In general, blends prepared with melt blending presented a slight increase in flexural and tensile properties compared with those blends prepared via dry blending. For impact (charpy) mechanical properties, it was seen an increase until a maximum value was attained, after which the value decreased.
In this work, agave fiber (20% wt) / LMDPE composites were processed by rotational molding with a commercial antioxidant type and UV stabilizer polyolefin additive in order to determine its influence on the process cycle. The aim was to reduce the processing temperature to ensure non-degradation of the agave fiber. The samples were mechanically characterized by impact, bending and traction tests. The results show that a biocomposite piece without imperfections can be obtained at a Peak Internal Air Temperature (PIAT) of 210ºC, which represents a reduction of the process cycle to obtain a piece with the same characteristics without additive, besides, the mechanical properties were not significantly affected
Rapid Rotational Foam Molding (RRFM) was used to manufacture integral-skin composites consisting of various combinations of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) skins that are completely surrounding respective foamed cores made of PE and PP by implementing a suitable chemical blowing agent (CBA) in extrusion. This paper presents the results of implementing a comprehensive 3-dimensional (3-D) characterization technique for evaluating the quality of the obtained foam-to-skin inter-facial bond of such RRFM composites. As the internal cellular structure and bonding depends on different polymer material properties and processing conditions, a 3-D model was developed to map the region of bubble-into-skin penetration, using a micro CT scanner. The experimental results revealed that the reconstructed 3-D model of LLDPE skin has the best bond quality and cell penetration into the skin with porosity of 74.6%.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of surface treating agave fibers on the compatibility of PLA-agave biocomposites produced by rotational molding. The agave fibers were treated by immersion in a solution of maleic anhydride grafted PLA (MAPLA). The treatment effect on the physical and mechanical properties was investigated at different fiber loads (10, 20, 30 wt.%). The improved compatibility due to the grafting of PLA chains onto the fiber led to enhanced mechanical properties in comparison with untreated fiber biocomposites as a result of an effective stress transfer. In particular, tensile strength increased from 25 to 41 MPa and modulus from 1.30 to 1.74 GPa at 20 wt.%. It was possible to observe lower water diffusion coefficients indicating that grafting MAPLA decreases the fiber hydrophilicity and promotes better fiber wetting.
Ionic liquids — salts in a liquid state at ambient conditions — make up a fascinating family of materials whose unique physical properties have made them highly sought after for many challenging applications. Inovia Materials LLC is the first company in the world to patent and commercialize ionic liquids for polymer additive applications. Inovia Materials LLC is positioned to replace and expand the applications of traditional flame retardants with high “green chemistry” qualities, superior performance and enhanced properties. Some advantageous features include:• Negligible volatility and a benign environmental presence;• Better flame retarding performance and longer period of effectiveness;• Milder effects on thermal, mechanical, optical properties of polymers treated;• Significant reduction of polymer melt viscosity, allowing polymers to be processed or recycled at a lower temperature and in a more efficient manner.Inovia flame retardants can find applications in plastics, textiles, and elastomers in the building & construction, electronics & appliances, automotive & transportation, wires & cables, textiles, and other end-use industries.Inovia flame retardants can be applied using different methods:• Mixing with monomers or oligomers before polymerization• Compounding with plastics• Surface modification and coating application
Polypropylene can exist in three different crystal forms known as the alpha, beta, and gamma forms, and the alpha form is the most common. The beta crystalline form can be produced in molded and extruded PP parts via the addition of certain nucleating agents. The beta crystal phase can be used to produce some very unique PP products, as well as improve the properties and lower the cost in a wide range of applications. Mayzo has developed a very high activity beta nucleant that is offered in the form of a masterbatch. The converter can add this masterbatch at the extruder hopper in order to create products that exploit these benefits. In this presentation we will examine the ways in which beta nucleation is used today to produce microporous breathable films used in electronics, protective apparel, and construction applications. We will also discuss some new novel applications of breathable PP films. The use of beta nucleation to improve the thermoformability of PP leading to lighter weight and less expensive containers will also be discussed. Finally we will examine how beta nucleation is used to improve the toughness of molded PP parts, and also see how the heat seal strength of PP can be improved without the use of low-melting random copolymers.
Micro- and nanolayer processing, is a technique which combines conventional cast film coextrusion equipment with a multi-layered feedblock, or a series of layer multiplier dies, to enable continuous polymer film fabrication on industrially relevant processing scales. Films processed in this manner can readily be created with hundreds or thousands of layers resulting in individual alternating layered polymer domains with thicknesses ranging from several microns down to less than ten nanometers. Though initially patented in the 1960s, fabrication of micro- and nanolayered polymer films via coextrusion has only recently gained broader acceptance in the commercial products arena.1 Building on the strong fifty year academic and commercial layer multiplication technology advances in processing have enabled modern day production of highly uniform intra-film layers, graded thickness film layers, and construction of 2D ordered structures. Nanolayered films are of interest both as both a developmental research area and as a scalable, cost effective commercial production technique toward high value added materials systems from conventional polymer materials. A review highlighting historical nanolayered coextrusion energy storage film development toward commercial film production and low rate device manufacturing is presented. Technical and commercial product development activities, target markets, and layering enabled enhanced electrical material storage properties will be discussed for nanolayered film capacitor devices. The nanolayering development case study will address layered film scale-up requirements and challenges, uniformity, and additional manufacturing challenges presented when integrating the micro- or nanolayered film into product supply chains with a special focus on quality assurance challenges and procedures. Ref:1. D. Langhe and M. Ponting, Manufacturing and Novel Applications of Multilayer Polymer Films. Elsevier, New York, 2016. ISBN: 978-0-323-37125-4.
Fiber Lasers integrated into a fully enclosed workstation provide industry ready and easy to operate laser plastic welding systems. MECCO, a leader in laser marking, has worked with a customer to successfully convert marking workstations into laser welding systems. The systems have been designed for traditional transmissive plastic welding and also direct butt joint welding through laser heating of the seam and pressing together of the parts. The customer has found the laser welding process to be cleaner and stronger than friction welding or spin welding and can be accomplished in a comparable processing time. MECCO has now delivered over a dozen systems to this customer and they have been used to successfully laser weld over one million plastic parts for the automotive industry, proving that the technology is viable for manufacturing applications.
Polyamide6,6 (PA66) is a semi-crystalline thermoplastic that has many useful functions such as high temperature resistance (melting point = 260 C), strength, toughness, barrier, and chemical resistance. Further, its fast rate of crystallization is often beneficial for fast cycle times of injection molded parts, yet it can be a limitation in many cases. For one, highly filled systems that may include glass fiber or other additives usually have fair to poor surface aesthetics. In the case of film extrusion, PA66 has many limitations such as but not limited to blown film processability, aesthetics (poor haze and gloss), and post orienting and thermo-forming. Through incorporation of additional monomers that do not co-crystallize with PA66 to produce PA66 rich co or terpolyamides, one can reduce crystallization rate up to 100 fold while maintaining semi-crystallinity and a high melting point (> 215 C). Through reducing the rate of crystallization, enhanced properties can be achieved that augments the high melting point enabled by a PA66-rich backbone; these enhanced properties include (1) improved aesthetics (i.e., higher gloss and clarity), (2) larger processing windows for extrusion or blow molding, and (3) toughness (i.e., puncture resistance). These functional benefits enable PA66-rich copolymers to bring value into a variety of film application spaces from monolayer cooking bags to multilayer films for industrial and food packaging. In a converse strategy, this disclosure will touch briefly on increasing melting and crystallization temperature, driven by incorporation of co-crystallizing monomers; this strategy empowers other functional improvements such as improved wear resistance and thermal aging performance that can bring value in a number of industrial and automotive applications.
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