The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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The Science, Technology and Research Institute of Delaware (STRIDE) was formed in 2016 after business restructuring in the chemical industry created a significant pool of available talent in the Wilmington, Delaware area. Operations began in 2017 with the help of a Longwood Foundation Grant. STRIDE provides R&D Services, including consulting and laboratory-based R&D, and we provide advice to start-up companies. STRIDE is a member-led organization, currently with over 100 members and growing. Most of our members are experienced industrial scientists and engineers. One of our strongest areas of expertise is polymer science and engineering, including polymerization, polymer processing and polymer characterization. Most of our experts have worked in a central research organization that required application of their expertise across numerous different industries. For example, members have experience with fibers, films, nonwovens, membranes, 3D printing, coatings, medical devices, composites, batteries, fuel cells, sensors, packaging and many more applications.Today’s presentation will tell stories about the surprising translation of learnings between different industries, and show how that has led to growth. STRIDE experts can work collaboratively with your team, bringing a different perspective, to help you grow.
The World of PVDF Resin continues to evolve and change. PVDF is an excellent melt processible engineering resin with substantial chemical resistance, heat resistance, low permeation and many other wonderful properties. By using reinforcement additives in the neat resin, some basic properties can be enhanced such as heat deflection temperature, flame resistance properties, flexural strength amongst others while maintaining traditional PVDF properties such as UV resistance, chemical resistance and impact properties. This subject will be explored in detail to show advancements in PVDF technology along with some applications in the market. Also, PVDF is an excellent product for many stringent applications in wire and cable, aerospace and transportation due to the long lasting properties, however, some industries encourage weight reduction and cost savings. In an effort to deliver new technology to various market spaces, PVDF foaming technology is available to make very light weight articles in sensitive applications. Although past technology allowed for density reduction of around 20%, new technology has been developed allows PVDF to be continuously extrudable and obtain +60% weight reduction. Weight reduction can be obtain now that allows for PVDF to float! The advantages of this technology will be explored and described in order to not only show property enhancement but open new market space opportunities for PVDF. Both reinforced PVDF and low dentistry PVDF open up new opportunities that may allow cost savings to the end user.
Within SABIC we are further expanding our market facing approach in Petrochemicals business with new segments, and focus approach, in order to further intensify customer intimacy and to provide more focused solutions. Personal hygiene is one of the identified ‘segment’, which will enable SABIC to accelerate the pace of innovation, to respond to the personal hygiene industry challenges, and to follow the market trends by working in ever-closer collaboration with the customers. Increase in child population, growing female workforce, and rising per capita income are the key factors driving the demand for personal hygiene products across the globe. SABIC is focusing on delivering sustainable solutions that help to our customers to achieve their ambitions. SABIC® is already offering few commercial PP-fiber grades (MFR 10-35) for lightweight non-woven fabrics for personal hygiene applications. SABIC® PP grades in hygienic applications are1) utilized in existing extrusion equipment without significant modifications2) achieving excellent fiber thickness uniformity3) produced with phthalate free technology/catalysts, and such SABIC® PP fiber portfolio for hygienic non-woven products are available globally.SABIC technology team is further working on new developments to fulfill customer demands for advanced solutions in hygiene fabrics, and flexible packaging. Some of the developments and solutions offerings are to be elaborated during the conference, alike: soft-touch, melt-blown, breathable film solutions etc…SABIC is persistently pursuing innovative technologies to bring about broad-based improvements in the products offerings, while maintaining the momentum to meet changing market requirements.
The plastic industry and in particular the automotive sector is starting to embrace the use of new thermoplastic materials that present a challenge to conventional welding processes. This tendency combined with more rigorous requirements makes necessary the creation of new technologies that provide the quality and reliability expected from the end user. Hot gas welding is a process which combines two important elements: the non-contact aspect providing cleanliness in the weld and the ability to face tough-to-weld materials. With promising results on the initial stages and on going investigations to optimize the process, this technology opens the possibility to a new set of ideas to customers and adds a process to the wide range of plastic welding options that Bielomatik offers.
Thermal management of LED (Light Emitting Diode) luminaries is the key to success of LED lighting design. Managing the LED junction temperatures within the prescribed limits ensures the continued light output, improved life expectancy and lower power consumption per unit of light output. LED luminaires require certain performance criteria to be fulfilled while an all-plastic luminaire solution designed from an existing metal design. This includes thermal, mechanical, electrical, & optical aspects of its performance. A design methodology has been developed for the design plastic luminaires to meet thermal performance criteria. Computational methods are used to evaluate the thermal performance of heatsink designs and experimental methods to validate them.
With the advent of efficient and robust numerical analysis techniques such as finite element analysis (FEA) and the increased computing power of today’s hardware solutions, it has become practical to simulate thermo-mechanical behaviors of plastics and rubbers that can capture the physical reality of such materials with high fidelity. Replicating physical behavior of highly complex and non-linear materials such as plastics have positioned FEA tools to create life like models that will behave like the real part or product. Such simulation can compare very well with the physical test. Therefore, using FEA techniques one can perform virtual testing to design plastic products and also can use simulation techniques to optimize design based on a mathematically robust approach instead of heuristic, experience based approach only. Using FEA one can address the needs of the product development lifecycle from concept through detailed design capturing realistic simulation of underlying complex physics.Employing accurate and robust non-linear solver that can handle complex CAD models one can accurately solve mechanical behavior involving very large deformations, contact interactions, complex loads and boundary conditions and material non-linear response such as hyper- and visco-elasticity and material anisotropy.Current presentation discusses the state-of-the-art of numerical techniques and tools including an array of material models that are available to perform realistic simulations of plastics and rubbers. Few relevant examples are described where FEA techniques are used for design and analysis of components made of plastics and rubbers. They include plastic bottles for consumer product goods, medical devices, pump seals, and assemblies made of plastics and metal frames.
Eastman Chemical Company has developed a new copolyester that combines the best of Spectar™ and Tritan™. The material has high heat resistance, strength, and stiffness as well as a number of other desirable characteristics. These include a low coefficient of friction, excellent ultrasonic welding, and great chemical resistance. The material is also excellent for injection molding, reheat stretch blow molding, injection stretch blow molding, extrusion blow molding, and extrusion. In addition, bio-content or recycled content can easily be incorporated. The characteristics of this new polymer enable molding and design freedom in a number of applications with the clean chemistry of copolyesters.
The RingExtruder consists of twelve coaxial screws which are arranged in an annulus. All adjacent screws are closely intermeshing and rotate with identical speed around their own axis. The mechanical agitation is very similar to the co-rotating, closely intermeshing twin screw extruders if only two screws are observed separately. The arrangement of the screws in a circle creates twelve meltpools. This leads to optimal conditions for an intensive axial and crosswise intermixing by mass transfer between the screw channels.The RingExtruder offers outstanding dispersion capabilities together with minimal introduction of mechanical energy. The screws of the RingExtruder have 12 intermeshing zones, which produce a flow pattern with a very high degree of elongation, which can be utilized for highly efficient and energy-saving dispersion. In consequence, improved product quality can be achieved and considerably lower product temperatures are obtained.Furthermore, the geometry of the RingExtruder offers a very high surface-to-volume ratio. Thus, a large heat transfer surface area is available. Special designs of the extruder barrels and the centre core allow for an extremely efficient cooling of the processing unit. Therefore, the RingExtruder allows to control material temperatures within defined limits in order to avoid degradation or the unwanted onset of pre-vulcanisation.Due to the splitting of the product flow into the twelve screw channels an enormous surface of the plasticized material with very small volumes is available. Additionally, the twelve intermeshing areas of the screws ensure a frequent material deflection and thus a high rate of surface renewal. This gives the RingExtruder an outstanding performance in degassing processes.The RingExtruder is used for various tasks in the field of compounding, reactive extrusion and devolatilization. Typical applications include the large-scale recycling of postconsumer PET, the continuous production of rubber compounds, the processing of shear-sensitive and/or highly filled materials as well as the manufacture of adhesives.
Producing consistent, high quality regrind is a key factor in many molding processes. Wittmann-Battenfeld’s screenless granulator technology is designed to process reinforced plastics and enhance your molding process resulting in fewer rejected parts and reduced costs.The new S-Max series of screenless granulators produce uniform, high quality regrind with a minimum of fines and elimination of longs. These low speed, high torque granulators are low in energy consumption, provide durable cutting tools for a longer life and less sharpening maintenance and come in a compact design to accommodate tight spaces. The S-Max series upgraded technology delivers an innovative solution for grinding hard, brittle and fiber glass filled materials.Primary topics:• Screenless granulator technology• Design advantages and application• New product launch: S-Max Series • Upgraded features, options and benefits
Processing resin efficiently is a key factor to yielding a conforming product in any molding process. Energy savings is the focus of Wittmann-Battenfeld’s innovative solution to minimize energy costs while delivering the ideal amount of dried air for your process requirements. Wittmann Battenfeld’s Variable Frequency Drive drying systems with Process Flow Control Technology, has opened the doors to energy savings. Combining both Variable Frequency Drives and Flow Control Valves provides a complete, automatic central drying solution for efficient, redundant, and worry free resin processing. Primary topics (what the registrant will learn):The presentation/discussion will cover following topics:• Variable Frequency Driven Drying system design and benefits• Drying Hopper Flow control design and benefits• VFD and flow control as a redundant system• Dry air conveying system designs and benefits
A new product is patent pending which will allow Medium Area Additive Manufacturing users to be able to 3D print using industry standard pellets of any type. The new TWW Micro (TM) Extruder has be develope to overcome the problem of processing standard size pellets in small extruders that can plasticize throughput rates between 2 to 20 lb./hr. It also allows the user to extruder polymers such as carbon fiber-filled ABS, PP, PLA, PC and etc. This super small extruder which weighs less that 20 pounds will make it possible to extrude any type of resin that is available to the plastics industry at very low throughput rates needed for MAAM applications.
Polyolefin elastomers (POEs) are a class of thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) that can be easily processed. POEs have broad applications from the automobile industry to the footwear industry, but for highly customizable materials the POEs must be altered on the microstructural scale. In this work, a systematic study of how thermal processing affected the ability of ethylene-octene random copolymers to store and dissipate applied strain energy was undertaken. Ethylene-octene copolymers with different degrees of crystallinity were compression molded and slow cooled, quench cooled, or annealed. Copolymer blends were mixed, varying the ratio of high crystallinity copolymer to low crystallinity copolymer. Tensile testing of the cooled samples showed that the crystallinity correlated to the elastic modulus and hysteresis behavior. The higher crystallinity samples exhibited higher hysteresis and higher modulus than the lower crystallinity samples. The blends were immiscible but exhibited physical behavior between the two components. Actuators were built by molding POE bilayers where one layer had higher elastic recovery than the other layer. Stretching and releasing the bilayer resulted in different extents of bending and twisting depending on the applied strain. Microstructural control will allow for the optimal design of elastomeric materials and actuators with anticipated properties.
Micronized rubber powders (MRPs) have shown superior compatibility in TPOs and excellent elastomeric properties. However, it requires efforts to explore the use of MRPs in useful products and a few challenges need to be addressed. In this study, MRP-filled TPEs were compounded at various loading ratios and the effect of sizes of MRPs was investigated. In addition, the surface details of injection molded parts were studied and induction-heated molding were implemented to improve the surface finish for various applications. Finally, multiple conventional plastic processes were explored and injection-molded parts made out of MRP-filled compounds were demonstrated to discover more potential applications.
Cast polyamide 6 is anionically polymerized from ε-caprolactam. Its good properties are mainly caused by the higher molecular weights, compared to standard polyamide 6. Because of sprues and post-processing, a larger amount of scrap is produced. This scrap is typically incinerated without sufficient use of its high quality properties.However, cast polyamide 6 also offers great potential for material recycling, particularly if its high molecular weight can be retained. As cast polyamide decomposes during processing as well, it is necessary to add some additives during compounding. It is the aim of the presented work, to recycle cast polyamide to highly viscous materials. This is done by adding a polyester-modified wax and a carboxylic acid. It can be shown that it is possible to get materials having viscosities of up to two magnitudes higher compared to a typical extrusion polyamide.The high molecular weight of cast polyamide can be maintained or even outperformed. While Young’s modu-lus and tensile strength remain unchanged, the used wax causes some crosslinking of the polyamide and thus also leading to higher impact strength.
Elastomeric polyisoprene rubber nanocomposite foams were prepared via compression molding at different relative foam density 0.4, 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7. Effect of relative foam density on foam morphology and mechanical properties were studied. The results showed that degradation of chemical blowing agent Azodicarbonamide (ADC) and curing of IR compound occurred simultaneously. Light microscopy results showed that increasing foam density from 0.4 to 0.7 gave rise to a decrease in the average cell size from 530µm to 230µm while it led to an increase of cell density from 25 cell/mm3 to 195 cell/mm3. The compression behavior of foams was studied so as to calculate the normalized elastic modulus as a function of the relative density. Several models of cellular materials and polymer composites were used to understand and predict foams’ compression behavior. Results showed that Gibson Ashby model, having pressure parameters, had the best accordance with the experimental data.
Ideal graphene has excellent mechanical, electrical and thermal properties and is therefore potentially suitable as a functional filler in thermoplastics. Laboratory tests have already shown that very low filler contents are sufficient to achieve a significant improvement of the material properties. However, the investigations carried out so far have been based on experiments on the laboratory scale. These results cannot be transferred to an industrial scale. This is mainly due to the changed geometric conditions as well as the different shear energy inputs and residence times. Therefore, the focus of this work is on the influence of manufacturing conditions on the dispersion and the resulting material properties of graphene-based composites, which are produced by the use of a co-rotating twin screw extruder under near-industrial conditions.The results show that the processing of graphene-based composites in industrial scale is possible. Nevertheless, the effect of graphene on the mechanical properties is less pronounced compared to the properties of graphene-based composites that are produced in laboratory scale, due to a low degree of dispersion. The investigations concerning the influence of the machine parameters throughput, speed, screw configuration and the addition position of the graphene on the properties of graphene-based PP composites demonstrate that the mentioned machine parameters have a significant influence on the process parameters specific mechanical energy input (SME), melt temperature and the residence time of the melt in the twin screw extruder. The quality of the graphene dispersion is generally improved by long residence times and high shear energy inputs, which are achieved by low throughputs and high screw rotation speeds or by the use of a screw configuration with a high energy input. However, the differences in the degree of dispersion shown do not lead to significant differences in the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. It can be concluded that the residence times and SME are not sufficient to achieve an adequate dispersing quality in the melt mixing process using a twin-screw extruder under near-industrial conditions to achieve significant property improvements.
It is known that the properties of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) are related to its constituents. Different soft segments, hard segments and chain extenders offer different physical properties. However, very few studies have investigated the effect of the constituents on the properties of TPU foam. In this study, thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPUs) containing different soft segments were synthesized using a pre-polymer method. The samples were foamed, using CO2 as the blowing agent, by one-step batch foaming. The expansion ratio was controlled by varying the foaming temperature (Tf). The role of nucleation agents was also investigated. The shrinkage of the TPU foam was observed by monitoring the foam density. Due to the high diffusivity nature of CO2, significant shrinkage was observed within several hours. In our case, a stable expansion ratio of 4 times was observed.
In the study, PP/PTFE composites with different degree of fibrillation are prepared. Crystallization and rheology behavior are investigated. PTFE is easily deformed into fiber during compounding. The presence of PTFE fiber enhances the kinetics of isothermal crystallization of PP. The second modulus plateau at the low ω and a tan δ peak indicate the existence of a three dimensional networks. Extrusion foaming results show a 2 orders increase in cell density and 10-fold decrease in expansion ratio due to addition of PTFE compared to that of PP. With PTFE nanofiber, open-cell content of the composites is increased.
This study investigated an application of making thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) foam using Expancel® microspheres  as blowing agent in handrail production at EHC Canada, Inc. The optimized Expancel® content was found and all properties (especially the mechanical properties) of the foamed handrail were tested. The results reveal that the current extrusion processing parameters do not need to be changed for producing the new foamed handrails with Expancel® microspheres. All foamed handrails passed mechanical tests. This foaming of handrail material resulted in 14% reduction in use of that TPU material and a 10% saving in its cost.
In this work, in-situ nanofibrillated PET is used to reinforcing a PP matrix to enhance the final mechanical properties and foam structure quality of an injection molded sample. Although there have been many approaches to reinforce a polymer matrix to increase the melt strength of PP. Long-chain branching, micro- and nano-scale additives and crosslinking approaches each have their own separate drawbacks. However, the use of nanofibrillated composites is a highly efficient and effective method for foam processing. By fibrillating the PET nanofibers (NF) within the PP matrix, fiber breakage from compounding processes can be avoided. To create the PET-NF, PET and PP were first mixed in a twin-screw extruder to disperse the PET as small spherical domains. Afterwards, this blend of spherical PET in PP is melt drawn through a fiber spinning machine to stretch the PET into fibrils with nanoscale diameters and high aspect ratios. As the PET and PP are melt spun together, the nanofibers are well dispersed in the matrix material and ready to be used as a masterbatch. The PET-NF masterbatch is then diluted from 5% to 0.5 and 0.5%, and used in an injection molding (IM) machine. Using foam injection molding (FIM) with mold-opening (MO), foams of various thicknesses and expansion ratios were created with and without the PET. When high-pressure FIM was compared, the foam quality with the PET-NF was higher than the neat PP matrix. The presence of the PET-NF acted as cell nucleating agents which lowered the energy barrier to nucleation by affecting the interfacial energies and inducing local pressure variations. In addition, the PET-NF likely acted as crystal nucleating agents. With use of MO-FIM, the PET-NF showed a three to four magnitude improvement in the cell density. When the flexural properties of the solid and foamed, with and without PET-NF, samples were compared, the PET-NF samples demonstrated higher flexural strength and toughness. Using PET-NF to reinforce the PP matrix increased the both the solid flexural strength and the flexural modulus of the samples by 5 to 10%. However, when HP-FIM is included, the stiffness decreased as toughness increased, which is typical for most foamed samples. Between the foamed PET-NF samples and neat PP, the foamed samples exhibited an increase of up to 40% for both the flexural modulus and strength. When MO-FIM was used, the results showed that the PET-NF increased the flexural modulus between 23 to 46% and the flexural strength between 15 and 25%. This work demonstrated that PET can effectively be fibrillated in a PP matrix. Using injection molding, the PET nanofibers were effective in increasing both the cell density of the final composites. In addition, the PET nanofibers reinforced the PP matrix to increase the flexural strength and modulus.
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