The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Direct Extrusion of PVC on the Planetary Roller Extruder
When processing PVC via the direct extrusion method, the polymer is fed continuously into a compounder without prior stabilization. Additives like stabilizers, plasticizers, lubricants, fillers and others are added simultaneously, but separately, thus stabilization and mixing takes place in the compounder. This approach requires a carefully balanced setup of the first section of the extruder, which differs considerably to conventional PVC dry-blend processing.
Understanding Dimensional Variation in Common Mechanical Processes, How It Differs in Plastic Parts, and Minimizing It
This paper breaks down the causes of variation in mechanical parts into its constituents. It then distinguishes the variation in other processes from plastic parts where the material selection, design rules, tooling and processing have a much greater effect on variation. Once these differences are understood, two very powerful CAD based tools are introduced to be used to minimize the tolerance build up.
Influence of Rheology on Part Dimensions and Production in Injection Molding
The present work was conducted to assess the influence of polymer viscosity variation from batch to batch on the part dimensions and production interruptions. The results show however that parameters such as mold temperature, barrel temperature profile and holding pressure have much more influence on these two production quality indicators than the polymer viscosity.
Cellular Polymers for Oil/Water Mixtures Separation – Evaluation of Process Conditions
This study investigates the usage of cellular polymers for large scale oil/water separation. The model polyester polyurethane foam was characterized for sustainability and oil adsorption efficacy in a batch system. The temporal mass uptake and its efficacy were experimentally optimized at various temperatures and stirring speeds. With favorable surface, morphology, and bulk properties in conjunction with process conditions, and a mass uptake of 21 g/g of foam, this polymer lends itself as a very promising material for oil adsorption.
Self-Assembled Protein-Rubber Nanocomposites
Gliadin from wheat was compounded in synthetic isoprene rubber (IR) to form a reinforcing nanophase in situ. The compounded protein aggregated into ß-sheets, which varied in quantity based on compounding conditions and protein preparation. At all conditions studied, the protein-filled IR exhibited higher modulus compared to unfilled IR. XRD revealed the crystal structure of ß-sheets.
Compression Molded Protein-PVA Nanocomposite Films
Wheat gluten protein was incubated in an aqueous solution of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to form a reinforcing nanophase in situ. Protein reinforcement of PVA up to 340% was observed during mechanical testing. Spectroscopic examination revealed an anisotropic fiber nanostructure high in ß-sheet content. Nanofibers persisted after moderate compression molding, but degraded with severe processing. Processing conditions also affected the thermal properties of PVA.
PEBA: TPE Materials for High Performance Applications
TPE-A, or PEBA, chemistry is considered to be the most high-performing TPE in the market. PEBA (PolyEtherBlockAmide) is a block copolymer based on polyamide and polyether segments. Subtle differences between the grades are based upon the chemistry of the polyamide and polyether as well as the ratios of each in the block copolymer. This session will describe technically describe the chemistry and properties of the polymer, both mechanical and analytical. It will also describe key applications where PEBA chemistry is currently or could be used.
Sustainability of PVC (Vinyl) Pipe: A Comprehensive Environmental Review
• Thorough review of LCA data • Transparently report the findings to the water, sanitary sewer, and storm drainage industries • Support the goals and vision of the 2010 USEPA Clean Water and Safe Drinking Water Infrastructure Sustainability Policy and the 2015 USEPA National Water Program on Climate Change • Ensures the long-term sustainability of water and sewer infrastructure • Comparative review of competing pipe products
Comparing Plastic Staking Technologies
Several thermoplastic staking technologies are available in the manufacturing industry. With many options to choose from, it is necessary to understand which processes are capable of achieving desired results. Hot air, ultrasonic, and InfraStake® were evaluated on cycle time, joint strength, strength repeatability, equipment cost, and operation cost to discern process capability. Each process has strengths and weaknesses, and recognizing each helps to determine which technology will produce the desired result in a specific application.
Food Contact and How We Got There for SPE
• Brief introduction to Envision Plastics • Getting to an LNO • Food Grade for HDPE: EcoPrime™ • Markets served using recycled HDPE • Our Newest LNO and Patent • LCA and Conclusions
Evaluation of Resin-Coated Proppant through Tri-Axial Compression Test and Numerical Simulation
This study explored the performance evaluation for resin-coated proppants through a customized tri-axial test. By validating the accuracy of the test setup and simulating the test condition with numerical modeling, the protecting effect of the resin coating on the proppant was verified through this compression test under a tri-axial stress state as well as microscopic analysis by SEM.
A New Styrenic Block Copolymer for Polyolefin Modification, Coatings and Adhesives
Hydrogenated styrenic block copolymers (HSBCs) are ubiquitous due to their unique balance of strength, elastic recovery, and processability. With modern applications with stringent design requirements becoming popular, a low viscosity HSBC polymer, without compromising strength and elastic recovery, was needed. The authors will introduce a new low molecular weight HSBC polymer, present product and processing properties, and discuss possible application areas
The Cyclic Cracked round Bar Test as a New Standard for Accelerated Material Ranking of Polyethylene Pipe Grades
The Cyclic Cracked Round Bar (CRB) Test has recently been standardized by ISO 18489 as a new alternative test method for an accelerated ranking of the slow crack growth performance of polyethylene pipe grades. The current paper summarizes results of this test method for several different materials. For some materials the results were compared to PENT test failure times to demonstrate the correlation between these two test methods and to emphasize the advantages of the Cyclic CRB Test.
Liquid Interface Diffusion Bonding Applications for Joining Plastic Injection Die Molds with Conformal Cooling, Hot Runners, and other Venting Attributes
The following paper discusses using liquid interface diffusion bonding, as conducted within a vacuum hot press furnace, as the preferred method of joining layered die mold blanks that may contain conformal cooling, venting, and other “hot runner” passages. Discussions about process methods and distinctions when using a vacuum hot press furnace, particularly compared to conventional vacuum furnace brazing, during the mold joining operations are made.
Elastomer Profile Coextrusion Simulation for Automotive Sealing System
The flow in a bi-layer coextrusion die for automotive sealing system is simulated. Two different techniques for coextrusion simulation are used to predict the flow behavior in a complex profile die. The predicted extrudate shape and the interface (knit lines) between different elastomer components of the seal predicted using the two simulation methods are in good agreement with the measured results from the corresponding physical part.
Capillary Rheometers with Contifeed
A typical laboratory capillary rheometer is piston fed. Which means a piston pushes material down a barrel and extrudes it through a die. It is normally cold fed from the top manually. Here, we have installed a small-scale screw extruder to push material into the barrel, before the measurement begins.
Investigation of Chemical Foaming Agents Application for Thermoset Injection Molding
While foam injection molding processes are state-of-the-art in modern industrial plastics processing facilities, the transfer of these technologies to the field of thermoset injection molding has not been investigated. The results presented in this paper outline the potential as well as the challenges of this new technology. While significant weight reductions of up to 20 % have been achieved, surface quality and mechanical properties demand further investigation and optimization of the process.
Scratch Behavior of Multilayered Coatings
Extensive study on multilayered coating systems has been carried out to understand the scratch-induced damage mechanisms. The experimental results show that increase in soft base layer thickness improves the scratch resistance. The numerical analysis of the stress and strain field explains the mechanics behind the improvement in scratch resistance in the multilayered coating systems. Usefulness of the present findings for designing scratch resistant multilayered coating systems is discussed.
The Evaluation of Degradation Mechanism of Polyolefins, and Development of Non-Destructive Evaluating Method
A comprehensive investigation of the degradation mechanism of polyolefin products and evaluation of their deterioration state using non-destructive methods are essential. The photodegradation of low-density polyethylene was investigated with various methods in a wide range of scales from macroscopic to microscopic. The ability to characterize the initial stage of degradation of these materials using non-destructive Raman spectroscopic measurements is also demonstrated.
Interfacial Crystallization Affects Adhesion of Coextruded Polyolefins
While chemically similar, it has long been known that polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) are immiscible and suffer poor interfacial adhesion when processed as layered films or blends. In this paper we present an examination of the effect that processing conditions, such as extrusion residence time and post-extrusion take-up, have on the interfacial adhesion between PE and PP.
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