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The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Automotive Lightweighting With Reduced Density Polyamide Blends
Ying Shi, May 2018

Schulamid RD “reduced density” nylon is obtained through an immiscible polymer blend which requires the optimization of the compatabilization system, component viscosities, and, most of all, design of the compounding process. In addition to low density, low moisture absorption is achieved which provides part designers with more predictable physical properties and part dimensions when their application is exposed to real environmental conditions. For processors, lower moisture absorption means less moisture to remove. Cost savings can be realized by the reduced melt temperatures that can be used due to the improved flow characteristics of Schulamid RD. Less heat added means less heat to remove which reduces energy consumption for the entire process. A tailored heat stabilization technology has allowed use in under the hood applications like active grille shutters, fan shrouds, and other components requiring temperatures up to 150C.

Laboratory Weathering For Plastics
Andy Francis, May 2018

Weathering testing is a critical component of research, quality control, qualification, and new product development for plastics and polymeric materials used in a variety of industries. Weathering test methods help engineers improve their products, minimize failures, and reduce raw material costs. Weathering testing is composed of two interdependent yet complementary parts: outdoor exposures and laboratory accelerated weathering tests. Outdoor testing is an important complement to accelerated testing as it provides real-time results and exposes test specimens to complex weathering patterns not easily duplicated in an accelerated laboratory environment.The most frequently used accelerated weathering testers are fluorescent UV and xenon arc devices. These accelerated laboratory weathering and lightstability testers are widely used for research and development, quality control, and material certification. They can provide fast and reproducible results. In recent years, laboratory accelerated weathering test standards have been developed that offer improved realism and correlation to outdoor exposures. This presentation compares and contrasts the light emission spectra, temperature control, methods of water simulation, and practical considerations regarding use of these two major types of accelerated testers. The inherent strengths and weaknesses of each test architecture will be discussed, including cost of ownership in addition to technical performance. Defining goals of weathering testing and development of appropriate weathering testing programs will also be presented.

Leveraging Advanced Edge Analytics For Improved Fault Detection In Discrete Manufacturing Processes
Andrew Wilson, May 2018

IntroductionMultivariate analytics data monitoring systems provides a significant fault detection improvement over typical SPC type, or Univariate, solutions currently being used in the discrete manufacturing process industry to allow manufacturers to eliminate manual and visual quality inspection and to achieve real-time process release or "lights out" manufacturing operations.Problem StatementCurrent method of Univariate SPC process control typically utilized by discrete manufacturing process industry is not fully capable to detect quality issues caused by combinations of signals acting jointly on a system. Process engineers also must make manual adjustments to process limits to accommodate for slowly drifting processes, or caused by environmental effects, incoming material issues, and equipment wear. How can the user be certain these limits adjustments will not result in quality issues?Solution The SenseLink™ QM system builds a multivariate model around the optimized process with an acceptable processing window, established from a design of experiments (DOE). The system generates application-specific & automatic limit setting, reducing the reliance on expert process engineers and operators tweaking process knobs causing variations to the process. New data is then compared in real-time to the alarm limits developed by the model. The multivariate alarms are then triggered if the new data is off-spec, sending a reject signal to a part containment device for real-time part containment.OverviewThe SenseLink™ QM system is a data acquisition system with a multivariate data analysis engine that was developed for any industrial manufacturing process, and used with manufacturing processes or secondary operations to provide improved process understanding. Each cycle is multivariate analyzed in real-time to provide variable contribution charts, which highlight process trends not seen by UVA (Univariate). Real world case studies have proven this solution effective.ConclusionUsing a Multivariate fault detection system in your industrial manufacturing processes will provide the highest level of in-process fault detection available along with contribution details which provide an understanding of your process not attainable from traditional SCADA and SPC approaches.MKS InformationAndrew Wilson | Product Marketing Specialist | Automation & Control Solutions | MKS Instruments, Inc.andrew_wilson@mksinst.com | Cell: 512.962.3598www.mksinst.comhttps://www.mksinst.com/product/product.aspx?ProductID=203

Surface Enhancement Via Polypropylene Metallic Compounds
Tanmay Pathak, May 2018

Light weighting and low emissions are desirable aspects for any compound developed for automotive applications. In addition the enhancement of an automotive surface for visual appeal and improved aesthetics is also a key area of research in polymer composites targeted for such applications. There has been considerable development on surface appeal via metallic polymer compounds using effect pigments which allows reduction of weight by metal replacement. However, during injection molding, these compounds could lead to weld line imperfections in parts especially where the flow fronts come together. This is essentially due to poor metallic pigment distribution. The current work shows the development of a Polypropylene metallic composite with the focus on weld line improvement by proper choice of material and tool design to allow injection molded metallic TPO for exterior class A. This development also provides lower costs and lower emissions as it eliminates painting of such TPO compounds.

Copolyester Based Wpc(Wood Plastic Composites)

Wood-plastic composites (WPC) are composite materials made of wood fiber/wood flour and thermoplastics. Since a polyolefin-based resin, generally used in WPC, exhibits hydrophobicity, it shows low interfacial adhesion when mixed with hydrophilic wood flour, which causes a problem in that flexural strength of WPC is lowered. In case of a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin, a phthalate-based plasticizer and stabilizers containing heavy metals can be used in order to enhance processability during the process to make WPC, which are easily extracted out from WPC, causing an environmental pollution problem. Both PP and PVC based WPC are vulnerable to climate changes due to its low dimensional stability according to temperatures, causing many defects and problems. In case of polyester (PET) resin, polyester base resins compatibilizes well with wood, but due to high processing temperature, the wood flour are burned during the process, which makes it impossible to use PET for WPC. Accordingly, in order to solve the above-described problems, ECOZEN® based WPC has been developed. ECOZEN® based WPC has improved physical properties which show superior flexural property (higher than 2 times compared to PP based WPC), impact strength, and lower thermal expansion (or shrinkage). Also it can be easily processed even without help of additional coupling agents, since ECOZEN® shows excellent interfacial adhesion with wood flour. This allows of WPC with higher content of wood flour, which benefits in terms of cost competitiveness and environmental friendliness.

Novel Approach To Controlled Migration Of Antifog Additives In Multilayer Packaging Films
Evgeni Zelikman, May 2018

One of the biggest applications of polymers is food packaging. Downgaging and multilayer structures are the main trends which lead the food packaging in the recent years. This is the main reason why multilayer polymer films rapidly increase their share in the global food packaging market.Controlling the surface properties of polymer films is of outmost importance for both the packaging process and package quality. The most accepted way of keeping up with market requirements when surface properties need to be altered is the use of migrating additives. Slips, antistatics and antifogs are most widely used. These migrating additives migrate throughout the film and form a thin layer on the surface, this way decrease the coefficient of friction (slip), dissipate the electrostatic charge (antistatic) or increase the surface energy of the film (antifog). Antifog additives mainly used in packaging of refrigerated food. Water droplets on the clear packaging impair product’s appearance and decrease its shelf life. Antifog additives migrate to films’s surface and dissolve in the condensate. Droplets are transformed into continuous and transparent water layer. The migration rate of the antifog additives is often influenced by a range of factors for example corona or flame treatment, lamination, tie layers and polar polymers, forcing the migrating additive to migrate towards an undesired direction. This can compromise other vital film properties, such as printability, lamination strength etc’…The ability of film producers to control the migration of antifog additives is of outmost importance.Tosaf’s novel barrier additive will direct the migration to the desired direction thus significantly decrease or completely prevent the migration throughout this additive containing layer. The BR7483PE is incorporated into the layer adjacent to the antifog containing layer (the inner layer). BR7483PE increases the rigidity of the amorphous phase, preventing antifog migration to the undesired direction.

Cooling-Free Valve Gating
Joerg Schmidt, May 2018

Cooling-free pneumatic valve gate hot runners offer all the advantages of air actuation without the limitations associated with water cooling, hydraulic systems or electric actuators. New products like Rheo-Pro® iVG™ internal valve gate nozzles and Rheo-Pro® Black Box™ actuators are ideal for all valve gate hot runner applications, including high-temperature and cleanroom molding. These products perform under even the most extreme operating conditions by doing away with elastomeric seals, lubricants, and cooling. This new technology represents the future of automated, high performance injection molding.

Biodegradable PHA For Use In Fashion Textiles
Anne Schauer-Gimenez, May 2018

Mango Materials has developed an innovative platform technology to turn waste gas streams into ecofriendly, biodegradable materials at competitive economics. Utilizing a biological process, microorganisms convert the carbon from methane into polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), which can be formulated to produce various products. The recent application development of biodegradable bio-polyester production will be highlighted. By substituting persistent polyester with this biodegradable bio-polyester made of PHA, brands can finally produce truly sustainable garments. Until now PHA has never been developed into commercial textile fibers, making this discovery an opportunity to accelerate the market growth of PHA.

Characterization Of Cure Of Polymeric Material By Dielectric Analysis (Dea)

A variety of questions may arise during the curing process for thermosetting resins. For example, at which temperature, or after how much time, does the resin begin curing? How high is the reactivity? When is curing complete? How can the curing cycle be optimized? Is there any potential for post-curing? The answers to questions such as these can be investigated by using Dielectric Analysis (DEA), not only in the laboratory environment, but also in-process.Dielectric Analysis (DEA) allows for the measurement of changes in the dielectric properties of a resin during UV curing. A sinusoidal voltage (excitation) is applied and the resulting current (response) is measured, along with the phase shift between voltage and current. These values are then used to determine the ion mobility (ion conductivity) and the alignment of dipoles. Of primary interest with regard to curing is the ion viscosity. This is the reciprocal value of the ion conductivity, which is proportional to the loss factor.This technique can be used in study of the curing behavior of thermosetting resins, adhesives, paints and coatings in nearly any application.Various application examples are included in the presentation, including cure by heat and UV cure.

A Novel Design Of Functionalized Organo-Modified Siloxanes For Surface Treatment Of Particles And Fillers
Ido Offenbach, May 2018

Fillers are widely used in thermoplastic polymers for cost reduction, enhancement of mechanical properties, enhancement of flame retardant performance, and more. Talc, ATH, MDH, calcium carbonate, glass fiber, aluminium oxide, and melamine cyanurate are examples of such common fillers. Because these fillers can come in different sizes and shapes, some can be comparatively difficult to disperse in the polymer matrix. This can lead to agglomerates of the fillers, which can result in high stiffness and low toughness of the final products. One way to improve the dispersion of fillers is using surface treatment additives. Evonik is one of the world leaders in specialty chemicals. Interface and Performance is a division of Evonik that specializes in developing additives for the polymer market. One of their recent developments is surface treatment additives for the fillers market, which behave as compatibilizers between fillers and polymer (thermoplastic and thermoset) matrixes. These surface treatment additives can be used by compounders as well as fillers manufacturers. Our newly developed Organo-Modified Siloxane (OMS) is an example of this technology. OMS technology is a unique polymeric substance that improves the compatibility of fillers with the polymer matrixes. In comparison to other surface treatment additives, OMS technology improves the hydrophobicity of the fillers’ surfaces. Our novel OMS surface treatment can also functionalize the surface of the fillers. Therefore, improvement in the mechanical performance of polyolefine and engineering resins can be achieved. This paper focuses on the TEGOPREN series, Evonik’s novel surface treatment additives. Specifically, this paper illustrates the benefit of using TEGOPREN in polymer compounds, and fillers which have been surface treated with TEGOPREN.

New Technology For Improving Halogen Free Flame Retardant Performance In Polymer Application
Ido Offenbach, May 2018

The recent health-risk and environmental concerns of using Halogen Flame Retardant (HFR) is driving companies to use Halogen Free Flame Retardant (HFFR) in their products. However, several challenges must be overcome to utilize HFFRs in polymer matrixes. Many of those challenges are related to the HFFR large dosing level, its low compatibility, and its poor dispersibility. These characteristics lead to impaired mechanical properties in the final product.Due to the health-risk and environmental concerns, Interface and Performance, which is a division of Evonik, has developed new technologies to enhance the properties of HFFR in polymer applications. Organo-Modified Siloxane (OMS) is an example of this technology. This technology is made up of unique polymeric substances that improve the compatibility of HFFR particles with polymer matrixes such as polyolefin and engineering polymers. Therefore, Combining OMS with HFFR improves UL 94 results at lower HFFR usage levels, mechanical properties of highly filled HFFR polymer compounds, melt flow indexes (improving the processing ability of highly filled HFFR compounds), amperage level use, and prevention of die drool. The OMS technology also improves the hydrophobicity of the compound, resulting in lower water absorption and better CTI values. This paper focuses on Evonik state-of-the-art OMS additives for filled HFFR (melamine cyanurate, phosphorus based materials, and others) in engineering polymer compounds (PBT, polyamide 6 and polyamide 6,6). These OMS additives can be used while compounding as well as in surface treated HFFR. The improvement of UL 94, CTI, mechanical properties, and melt flow indexes of filled HFFR in engineering polymer compounds will be demonstrated in this paper.

Tuball™ Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes For Thermoplastics
Maus Christian, May 2018

TUBALL™ SINGLE WALL CARBON NANOTUBES FOR THERMOPLASTICSOCSIAL has developed Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNT) which are now available at industrial scale under TUBALL tradename. SWCNT’s are the ultimate material for conductivity: they are only one carbon atom thick with a diameter of around 2 nanometers and a length of 5-10 microns. Traditional fillers used to bring electrical conductivity in plastics typically need to be added at a high dosage. The unique morphological characteristics of SWCNT’s enable the creation of conductive networks at much lower dosages than those required by CB’s or MWCNT’s for example. As a result, it is now possible to achieve high electrical conductivities without compromising the mechanical properties and other characteristics of plastics.In order to enable the full development of their benefits the SWCNT’s need to be very well dispersed and distributed inside the polymer matrix. Two routes related to melt mixing are considered for the SWCNT’s incorporation.From one side the compounding of SWCNT powder into polymers is envisaged, general recommendations for a two-step compounding approach involving high specific mechanical energy input are summarized. On the other side, OCSIAL has started to develop several concentrates of SWCNT’s that are designed for compounding into specific thermoplastics. Those concentrates have typically a high dosage of SWCNT (up to 10%) and are based on fluid carrier systems. Proposed under the MATRIX tradename, they facilitate the dispersion and eliminate the SWCNT powder handling. Details about dilutions parameters and examples of performances that have been recently achieved by a selection of MATRIX grades are given. The results obtained in ABS, PC, PE rotomolding and PVC plastisols are covered and the specific benefits enabled by the implementation of SWCNT’s are discussed. From those practical cases it can be concluded that SWCNT’s can be incorporated into plastics by melt mixing and that the pre-dispersed SWCNT concentrates provide opportunities for differentiation through new product development.

A Novel Synergist For Halogen Free Flame Retardants
Amit Paul, May 2018

Paxymer AB has developed a novel halogen-free flame retardant system based on a multi-mechanistic approach including a unique synergist based on functional polymers. The challenge for formulators aiming to achieve halogen-free flame retardant performance is high dosage of additives resulting in low processing and mechanical properties and high prices. Paxymer's synergistic line of products address this. Enabling formulators to reduce their total amount of flame retardant additive using functional polymers gives benefits in all aforementioned aspects. For example: cost reductions of 10% with retained mechanical performance and improved processing performance. Paxymer's functional polymers eliminate dripping and can therefore act as a halogen free replacement of the commonly used PTFE. The company has also developed a analytical toolkit for characterisation and formulation prediction for halogen free flame retardants. The presentation will introduce the new line of products based on the company's 2016 patent submission. It will give some insight into the mode of action of the functional polymers, briefly outline the analytical approach of the toolkit and present a comparative case study between Paxymer containing products and a reference.

Tailor-Made Uhmwpe By High Shear Polymer Modification
Binay Patel, May 2018

The physical properties for commodity polyolefins have steadily improved over the course of the last 30 years. Some of these developments have been accomplished by optimizing structure-process-property relationships. For example, it is known that the longest of polymer chains can act as tie molecules between crystalline lamella, thereby increasing toughness but decreasing processability. It is also known that a balance of properties is often achieved by tuning a resin’s molecular weight distribution (MWD) for a given application. There have also been improvements in single site catalysts that can be used either within the same reactor or within reactor cascades to better control the resulting MWD. Unfortunately, these improvements have not translated to new ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) materials. Improvements developed for commodity polyolefins do not translate to polymerization control at very high molecular weights. Zzyzx Polymers, LLC has developed a high shear polymer modification (HSPM) process for producing tailor-made UHMWPE thereby expanding the commercial utility of UHMWPE. This technical marketing presentation will cover an overview of HSPM technology and highlight various examples for tailoring UHMWPE for improved material performance, processability and for developing commercially viable UHMWPE-based blends.

New Generation HDPE For Pressurized Applications – Beyond PE100
Jonathan Rabiei Tabriz, May 2018

Polyethylene resins developed for pressure pipe applications has been existing in the market for close to 70 years. The development of resins has been moving forward with both technology advances and developing market requirements. This paper follows this development by introducing a new generation HDPE materials classified as PE112, as a step closer to the next major pressure class, PE125. SABIC® P6006AD pipe resin family, not only shows superior pressure resistance vs standard PE100 resins but also superior ESCR performance.The paper also presents a new class of HDPE resins with superior resistance to aggressive disinfectants, so called PE100RD. Performance data will be presented of SABIC® Vestolen A RELY 5933RD compared to standard PE100 resins under exposure to aggressive disinfecting media, such as Chlorine dioxide.

Wearable Insulin Pumps: Design And Everyday Use Performance Prediction
Hossam Metwally, May 2018

Wearable insulin pumps continuously deliver drugs to patients as they go about their daily lives. They benefit patients by providing a more continuous and controllable insulin delivery regimen as compared with (discrete) injections. Most designs utilize a flexible catheter to transport drug solution from the wearable device into the skin. One critical failure mode of these systems, especially in more active patients, is the formation of a permanent kink in the catheter tubing. The kink (or even a minor bend) reduces the cross-sectional area of the flow path, resulting in either a delay or complete interruption of the drug treatment. Sensors can be used to detect these obstructions as a rise in fluid pressure. This talk summarizes numerical modeling of catheter extrusion, the output of which is used to model catheter kinking and pressure-flow performance as a function of the degree of tube bending. This type of information is useful in developing sensitivity requirements for an integrated pressure sensor or in a control system for a wearable device.

Introducing Stride, A Collaborative Approach To Consulting And Contract R&D
Debora Massouda, May 2018

The Science, Technology and Research Institute of Delaware (STRIDE) was formed in 2016 after business restructuring in the chemical industry created a significant pool of available talent in the Wilmington, Delaware area. Operations began in 2017 with the help of a Longwood Foundation Grant. STRIDE provides R&D Services, including consulting and laboratory-based R&D, and we provide advice to start-up companies. STRIDE is a member-led organization, currently with over 100 members and growing. Most of our members are experienced industrial scientists and engineers. One of our strongest areas of expertise is polymer science and engineering, including polymerization, polymer processing and polymer characterization. Most of our experts have worked in a central research organization that required application of their expertise across numerous different industries. For example, members have experience with fibers, films, nonwovens, membranes, 3D printing, coatings, medical devices, composites, batteries, fuel cells, sensors, packaging and many more applications.Today’s presentation will tell stories about the surprising translation of learnings between different industries, and show how that has led to growth. STRIDE experts can work collaboratively with your team, bringing a different perspective, to help you grow.

Extending The Use And Properties Of Pvdf Polymer
Jason Pomante, May 2018

The World of PVDF Resin continues to evolve and change. PVDF is an excellent melt processible engineering resin with substantial chemical resistance, heat resistance, low permeation and many other wonderful properties. By using reinforcement additives in the neat resin, some basic properties can be enhanced such as heat deflection temperature, flame resistance properties, flexural strength amongst others while maintaining traditional PVDF properties such as UV resistance, chemical resistance and impact properties. This subject will be explored in detail to show advancements in PVDF technology along with some applications in the market. Also, PVDF is an excellent product for many stringent applications in wire and cable, aerospace and transportation due to the long lasting properties, however, some industries encourage weight reduction and cost savings. In an effort to deliver new technology to various market spaces, PVDF foaming technology is available to make very light weight articles in sensitive applications. Although past technology allowed for density reduction of around 20%, new technology has been developed allows PVDF to be continuously extrudable and obtain +60% weight reduction. Weight reduction can be obtain now that allows for PVDF to float! The advantages of this technology will be explored and described in order to not only show property enhancement but open new market space opportunities for PVDF. Both reinforced PVDF and low dentistry PVDF open up new opportunities that may allow cost savings to the end user.

Sabic Solutions For Personal Hygiene Applications: Industry Trends And Sabic Offerings, And Developments
Jelena Bozovic-Vukic, May 2018

Within SABIC we are further expanding our market facing approach in Petrochemicals business with new segments, and focus approach, in order to further intensify customer intimacy and to provide more focused solutions. Personal hygiene is one of the identified ‘segment’, which will enable SABIC to accelerate the pace of innovation, to respond to the personal hygiene industry challenges, and to follow the market trends by working in ever-closer collaboration with the customers. Increase in child population, growing female workforce, and rising per capita income are the key factors driving the demand for personal hygiene products across the globe. SABIC is focusing on delivering sustainable solutions that help to our customers to achieve their ambitions. SABIC® is already offering few commercial PP-fiber grades (MFR 10-35) for lightweight non-woven fabrics for personal hygiene applications. SABIC® PP grades in hygienic applications are1) utilized in existing extrusion equipment without significant modifications2) achieving excellent fiber thickness uniformity3) produced with phthalate free technology/catalysts, and such SABIC® PP fiber portfolio for hygienic non-woven products are available globally.SABIC technology team is further working on new developments to fulfill customer demands for advanced solutions in hygiene fabrics, and flexible packaging. Some of the developments and solutions offerings are to be elaborated during the conference, alike: soft-touch, melt-blown, breathable film solutions etc…SABIC is persistently pursuing innovative technologies to bring about broad-based improvements in the products offerings, while maintaining the momentum to meet changing market requirements.

Innovations In Plastic Welding Technologies: Hot Gas Welding
Anthony Verdesca, May 2018

The plastic industry and in particular the automotive sector is starting to embrace the use of new thermoplastic materials that present a challenge to conventional welding processes. This tendency combined with more rigorous requirements makes necessary the creation of new technologies that provide the quality and reliability expected from the end user. Hot gas welding is a process which combines two important elements: the non-contact aspect providing cleanliness in the weld and the ability to face tough-to-weld materials. With promising results on the initial stages and on going investigations to optimize the process, this technology opens the possibility to a new set of ideas to customers and adds a process to the wide range of plastic welding options that Bielomatik offers.

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