SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Effect Nanoclay Addition on the Compatibility and Diffusion Properties of Commercial Gasoline through Polymer Membranes
James Sloan, May 2017
In this work, we consider the effect of the addition of functionalized clay particles to a poly (tetramethylene oxide) (PTMO) based polyurethane that is a candidate to be used as for flexible storage containment for a variety military fuels. We have synthesized urethanes with layered silicate inorganic nanoclay concentrations varying from 0% to 10% by weight and evaluated the diffusion of commercial gasoline.
Design Optimization of Maddock Mixers for Single-Screw Extrusion Using Numerical Simulation
Xiaofei Sun, Mark A. Spalding, Timothy W. Womer, Ned Uzelac, May 2017
Maddock-style mixers are used extensively on single-screw extruder screws to disperse materials into the molten resin matrix. Since the time LeRoy invented the device and Maddock perfected and commercialized it, the device has undergone several innovations. The goal of this paper is to describe the optimal flute geometry and mixing undercut dimension for a Maddock mixer with the goal of mitigating degradation gels and maximizing dispersive mixing efficiency.
An Improved Algorithm for Determining Energy Interchange between Heaters and Sheet in Thermoforming
Jim Throne, May 2017
The general Stokesian-generated exact equation for radiant interchange between heaters and sheet produces results similar to the differential method but is more versatile. Often, when a sheet of plastic is heated prior to forming it into a part, there are planes of heaters above and below the sheet. The heaters often have many segments, with each segment temperature controllable. As a result, the energy input to the sheet can be "shaped" to provide uniform heating of the sheet.
Parametric Radiant Energy Absorption in Plastics
Jim Throne, May 2017
I consider the respective roles of inbound radiant energy absorption and internal scattering for plastics containing particulates.
The Myth of Radiopacity
Jim Throne, May 2017
Heat transfer to plastic sheet is described mathematically with a traditional one-dimensional transient heat conduction equation with energy input occurring at the sheet surfaces. The model is called radiopaque. In this article, I propose that plastics usually absorb energy volumetrically. As a result, IK propose modifications both in the traditional heat conduction equation and its attendant boundary equations
How Important Is the Volumetric Absorption Concept? Part 1 – Model Building
Jim Throne, May 2017
I lay the groundwork for a thorough comparison of radiopaque and volumetric absorbing heat transfer models. I define the technical models for thin-gauge thermoplastic sheet through what I have called the Lumped Parameter Model (LPM) where conduction through the plastic plays no role. And I define the radiopaque and volumetric absorbing models for thick-gauge thermoplastic sheet. I call these models the Distributed Parameter Models (DPM) where conduction plays an important role in energy transfer from sheet surface to core. This is preparatory to my solving the arithmetic for these models.
How Important Is the Volumetric Absorption Concept? Part 2 - LPM
Jim Throne, May 2017
In part 1 of this series, I defined the equations and parameters for the subject. In Part 2, I examine how volumetric absorption influences time dependent heating rates for PE and PS in three thin-gauge thicknesses. I also compare these results to the effect of heater and sheet emissivities.
A Journey Toward Packaging Sustainability
Donna Visioli, Karlheinz Hausmann, Sarah Perreard, May 2017
Packaging sustainability has many contributing factors including: renewable materials; reduced package weight; recyclable materials; reduced food waste (for food packaging); and reduced packaging waste. These factors and interactions among them are described, along with examples of implementation.
Modelling Mechanical Behaviour of Amorphous Poly (L-Lactic Acid) under Biaxial Stretch at Temperatures above Glass Transition
Huidong Wei, Gary Menary, Shiyong Yan, May 2017
Stretch blow moulding process has been applied to manufacture of bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) made by poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA) improve the mechanical properties of product. Biaxial stretching test was conducted to obtain the mechanical properties of amorphous PLLA materials at temperatures above glass transition. The glass-rubber (GR) constitutive model was adopted to model the mechanical behaviour and can be used for the simulation for the forming process.
Determining Stretch Properties from Purely Shear Data for Polymer Fluids
Donggang Yao, May 2017
In this paper, we describe a methodology for determining elastic stretch properties of polymer fluids from purely shear data. The theory is founded on the basis of decoupled rubber elasticity and relaxation, to uncover the rubber elasticity portion of contribution to viscoelasticity. This would not only produce a means for linking shear with extension, but potentially would also provide a new paradigm for studying the relation between structure and deformation for dissipative materials. A case study is presented to emphasize the potential applicability of the methodology when only partial data is available.
Effects of Process Parameters on Cell Morphology of Microcellular Injection Molded Parts
Ming Zhai, May 2017
A Taguchi DOE method was employed to investigate the effects of injection molding process parameters on cell morphology of microcellular foams. Melt temperature, mold temperature, super critical fluid (SCF) concentration, and shot size were considered. It was found that the cell size depended strongly on shot size. The results are helpful for designers to optimize the process conditions to achieve high quality microcellular part.
Novel Peek with High Flowability
Xiaowei Zhang, Suresh Subramonian, Rong Luo, Camilo Cano, Xinyu Zhao, May 2017
Injection molding is a widely used processing technique for fabrication of high volume polyether ether ketone (PEEK) parts. The processing of PEEK at high melt temperatures with viscous resins can be challenging. A novel high flow PEEK with low melt viscosity (MV) has been developed to improve processability while retaining PEEK’s thermo-mechanical behavior. This article showcases high flow PEEK’s balance of properties in comparison to that of conventional PEEK and the processing advantages and the part performance benefits for injection molders and end-customers.
Ultrasonic Processing of Epoxy/CNT Nanopaper Composites
Yanan Zhao, Eusebio Cabrera, Tairong Kuang, Dan Zhang, Willie Yang, Jose M. Castro, Avraham Benatar, L. James Lee, May 2017
This work presents a novel ultrasonic infiltration approach for epoxy and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nanopaper prepreg. The prepared prepregs and their nanocomposites demonstrated promising performance in processing flexibility, abrasion resistance, scratch resistance, EMI shielding, and thermal transfer properties for potential applications in wind energy, electronics, and automotive industries.
Creep and Recovery of Polylactic Acid and its Clay Nano-Composite
Wei Zheng, Kevin Fuhrman, May 2017
This work focuses on exploring the long-term rheological behavior of polylactic acid and its nano-composites containing 3% clay. Creep and recovery experiments were performed at 160°C for the neat PLA and its composite. Zero-shear rate viscosity was determined and used to determine the terminal relaxation time. Also, the continuous retardation spectra were calculated from the creep data and found to be consistent with those from the oscillatory data.
Innovations in Automotive Plastics "Applications"
Suresh Shah, May 2017
SPE Automotive Innovation Awards
Innovations in Automotive Plastics "Materials and Processes/Enabling Technologies"
Suresh Shah, May 2017
SPE Automotive Innovation Awards
The Study of Polyolefin Elastomer Effect on Soiling Resistance
Cheol-hee Park, Chang Hee Sohn, Woong Jae Boo, Heung-goo Lee, May 2017
Soiling resistance has been issued in automotive industry, which is a measure of soiling or dirt pick-up such as mud on the surface for the interior and exterior of automotive. In this study, the effect of thermoplastic olefin (TPO) composition on soiling resistance was investigated, which is widely used for those applications, and the design guide of polyolefin elastomer (POE) in the polypropylene (PP) compounds for the automotive parts was suggested.
Advancements in Nanocellulose Biomaterials: Opportunities for the Plastics Sector
Gurminder Minhas, May 2017
• Types of Nanocellulose • Production Methods • Physical Characteristics • Surface Modification • Ongoing Research Areas • Case Study – Reinforced Plastics
Effectiveness of Silver Based Antimicrobial Immersed in a Universal Masterbatch
Lawrence Acquarulo, William Blasius, Larry Johnson, Lise Maloney, May 2017
Healthcare Associated Infections (HAI’s) are a critical problem in hospitals as well as other healthcare delivery institutions. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that on any given day about one in every 25 hospital patients has at least one hospital associated infection. These incidences of HAI’s at the least raise the patients healthcare costs and time in the healthcare delivery institution and, at worst, cause death to affected patients. The battle to prevent HAI’s in healthcare delivery institutions is carried on via many different methods including sterilization of devices, disinfectant cleansing of hospital surfaces, UV lamps in patient rooms, surface engineering of polymers, as well as functionalizing polymers that are used in medical devices and medical substrates with an antimicrobial additive. Silver based antimicrobial additives have an excellent history regarding the prevention of HAI’s in the medical market. The silver additive can be added straight into the polymer melt stream as it is being compounded or it can be incorporated into a carrier masterbatch that is added into the polymer melt stream. The use of a “universal” masterbatch carrier that the silver antimicrobial is employed into can be an efficient and effective method for functionalization of a polymer to make it antimicrobial. This presentation will focus on the effectiveness and efficiency of a silver based antimicrobial additive employed into a universal masterbatch for deployment into a polymer melt stream. It will present testing, test methodology, and test results regarding silver release testing, ash testing, efficacy testing in ABS, polycarbonate, and TPU.
A Model for Permeability Reduction in Polymer Nanocomposites
Sushant Agarwal, Man Chio Tang, Fares D. Alsewailem, Hyoung J. Choi, Rakesh K. Gupta, May 2017
A simple theory that builds on the tortuous path concept is developed to quantitatively predict mass transport through a polymer containing dispersed nanoplatelets, and data are presented on polylactic acid (PLA)-matrix nanocomposites. PLA is a bioderived biodegradable polymer that is being employed in food packaging where the plastic is discarded after a single use. However, the poor water vapor barrier property of PLA limits its use in this regard, and it is of interest to reduce moisture permeability through this polymer. In the present work, Cloisite 30B, an organoclay that is compatible with PLA, was dispersed in the polymer via melt-mixing, and processing conditions were optimized to reduce platelet agglomeration. Nanocomposite morphology was characterized with transmission electron microscopy, and moisture permeability was measured as a function of clay content. There was good agreement with the proposed theory, and it was found that at a 5.3 vol% filler loading the water vapor permeability was reduced by almost 70%.

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Brown, H. L. and Jones, D. H. 2016, May.
"Insert title of paper here in quotes,"
ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
Society of Plastics Engineers
Available: www.4spe.org.

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