SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings
Benchmarking STL-Based Plastic Analysis
Geoffrey Engelstein, May 2000
New software packages allow for full dynamic analysis of plastic filling and cooling using a finite-element mesh derived from an STL model. The elimination of the need to create a midplane mesh holds out the promise of getting analysis results much faster and with less training and specialized knowledge. Does the reality stack up? This presentation examines the new meshing process and compares analysis results obtained through both the STL and traditional midplane mesh methods. Guidelines will be offered to assist in the proper usage of this tool to help enhance its effectiveness and avoid pitfalls.
Blends of Tetrabromooligocarbonate with Polycarbonate
James Y.J. Chung, Winfried Paul, May 2000
Tetrabromooligocarbonate (TBOC) was melt-blended with Bisphenol-A polycarbonate (PC) in various ratios to determine their miscibility with PC. According to the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the blend, TBOC can be miscible with PC, depending on the molecular weight of TBOC and its amount in the blend.
Synthesis and Elucidation of Behavior of Aromatic Fluoro-Polyimides
Shu-Chen Lin, Bang-Chein Ho, Long-Li Lai, Se-Tsun Hong, Kung-Lung Cheng, May 2000
This study demonstrated that a variety of fluoro-containing polyimides with hydroxyl groups, simply incorporated with a copolymerization of 2,2'-bis(3- amino-4-hydroxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane (BAHHF), 2,2'-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane (BAHF), and 2,2'-bis(1,3-dioxo-1H,3H-isobenzofuran-5-yl)hexa-fluoropropane (BIFHF), were responsible for the good solubility in organic polar solvents. These polyimides exhibited optically transparent at a wavelength of 365nm with respect to the UV-visible spectroscopic determination. Measurement of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) indicated that these polymers, having the glass transition temperatures (Tgs) varied from 306°C to 317°C, were quite thermally stable. In addition, the inherent viscosity as well as refractive index of the polymers was studied and potential applications of photoresists in terms of photosensitivity were also discussed.
A Fresh Approach of Modified Clays for Polymer/Clay Nanocomposites
Tsung-Yen Tsai, Chih-Lan Hwang, Shyh-Yang Lee, May 2000
Most nanocomposite materials are initially prepared by modifying the hydrophilic clay or hydrophobic clay. Related investigations emphasize the compatibility between clay and polymer, but overlook the factor of the monomer diffusing into the interlayer to proceed with polymerization. This treatment causes most of the polymer/clay nanocomposites being only the intercalated dispersion of clay instead of exfoliated dispersion in the substrate of polymers. Therefore, this study applies the catalyst after a unique polymerization process to make the stratiform inorganic mineral materials disperse proportionally in the polymer materials and form nanocomposites. Doing so significantly enhances the mechanical properties, thermal deformation temperature, and CO2 gas barrier of polymer/clay nanocomposites.
Conductive Thermoplastic Elastomers
Sam J. Dahman, Todd Holzbauer, Barry Nelson, May 2000
Thermoplastic elastomers are materials that combine the processing characteristics of thermoplastics with the physical properties of conventional thermoset rubbers. The combination has been sufficiently attractive that thermoplastic elastomers have become commercially successful. This success has led to their extension as specialty compounds for applications requiring increased electrical conductivity. In order to achieve desired conductivity, carbon and metal powders are typically employed. To a lesser degree, carbon and metal fibers are also utilized. New thermoplastic elastomer compounds have been recently developed that contain intrinsically conductive polymers. The properties of these novel materials are compared to conductive thermoplastic elastomers with traditional conductive additives.
Colorable Thermoplastic Compounds for Electrostatic Painting Applications
Barry Nelson, Sam J. Dahman, May 2000
The volume resistivity threshold for maximum paint transfer efficiency via electrostatically painting was determined to be in the range of 105 to 107 ohm-cm. Thermoplastic compounds have been developed for electrostatic painting which do not meet this threshold (greater than 107 ohm-cm) and still exhibit good transfer efficiencies without a conductive primer. Further, these compounds do not contain metal or carbon-based additives. As a result, they may be pigmented to any desired color. A comparison is made between electrostatically painted carbon based substrates and color-matched substrates. New options are now available for property selection while still retaining the economic benefits of electrostatic painting.
Anisotropic Thermal Conduction in Deforming Polymer Melts
D.C. Venerus, J.D. Schieber, H. Iddir, J.D. Guzman, A.W. Broerman, May 2000
Energy transport in deforming polymeric materials, despite its technological significance, is poorly understood from both experimental and theoretical standpoints. Simple arguments suggest that thermal conductivity is anisotropic in a deformed polymer. In this study we have developed a sensitive and non-invasive optical technique known as Forced Rayleigh Scattering to measure anisotropic thermal diffusivity in both static and dynamic (relaxing) polymers subjected to deformations. Results for a polymer melt in step-shear strain flow and a cross-linked elastomer in uniaxial extension indicate that the thermal diffusivity is enhanced in the flow (or stretch) direction compared to the equilibrium value.
Joint Performance of Mechanical Fasteners under Dynamic Load
Axel Tome, Gottfried W. Ehrenstein, Frank Dratschmidt, May 2000
Threaded Inserts in either brass or plastic or rather economic self-tapping screws can be used to join different polymers or polymers to metal at high loads. Usually joints are subjected to dynamic loads as well as temperature variations. In this paper the static and dynamic load limits of mechanical fasteners (insert/self-tapping screw) will be discussed.
Application of Pulsed Electrochemical Machining to Micromold Fabrication
Blaine Lilly, May 2000
Pulsed electrochemical machining (PECM) is an effective method for removing EDM surface damage from tool steels, while maintaining the surface geometry to close tolerances. Mold steels show improved fatigue life after PECM when compared to steel machined by EDM. Because the tool does not wear during machining, PECM also shows promise as a method for machining micromolds. This paper reports on mold finishing research using PECM, and ongoing work applying the technology to micromachining of mold cavities.
Understanding Color Technology
Scott A. McCabe, May 2000
The production of custom colored thermoplastic elastomers often involves the use of color concentrates provided by a color house. In order to effectively communicate color requirements, a good understanding of the principles of color technology is a necessity. The basic principles of color theory will be discussed and current industrial practices of measuring color will be presented. Proper selection of color tolerances will be illustrated with several case studies.
Investigation of the Melting Mechanism within a Groove-Feed Single-Screw Extruder
Michael R. Thompson, John P. Christiano, May 2000
The melting mechanism of LLDPE in a groove-feed extruder was studied through crash-cooling the machine and examining the solidified polymer on the screw. The solids-conveying angle appeared as high as 70° near the end of the grooves, reducing to the helix angle of the flight within the melting zone of the screw. Melting was dependent on the dissipated mechanical energy derived from the high internal friction within the solid bed and solids deformation whilst in the grooved feed section.
Evaluation of Thermoplastic Polyurethane Based Thermoplastic Vulcanizates for Interior Automotive Applications
Michihisa Tasaka, Naganori Masubuchi, May 2000
Although thermoplastic polyolefins (TPOs) have been considered as costwise and environmentally attractive materials, they face the difficulty in being used as potential automotive applications because of poor scratch resistance and oil resistance. The new thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) composed of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) / polypropylene (PP) /polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-co-propylene)- block-polystyrene copolymer (SEPS) systems have been found out to have outstanding oil resistance and scratch resistance. Now they can be used for various kinds of automotive applications such as injection molded, blow molded, extruded, calendered and further, slush molded automotive parts, particularly for automotive interior skins without any coat. The essential issue is conceivably just prolonged weathering resistance and durability. In this paper, this new TPVs are evaluated from the standpoints of weathering stability, long term heat aging and fogging as well as the mechanical and physical properties.
Study of the Characteristics of Thermoplastic Vulcanizates of PP/SEPS/SBS Blends
Michihisa Tasaka, Shinzo Saito, May 2000
Thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) of polypropylene (PP)/polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-co-propylene)- block-polystyrene copolymer (SEPS) are able to become much more fascinating for automotive and architecture industry by using polystyrene-polybutylene-polystyrene copolymer (SBS) together. While SBS decreases tensile strength in these systems , it does improve compression set and oil resistance greatly and furthermore, overall balance of properties improve in proportion to the amount of peroxide as coupling agent and acrylic ester as coupling coagent. The goal of this study is to investigate the interaction between SEPS and SBS, which are dynamically crosslinked and microdispersed in PP matrix from the point of mechanical behavior and morphology.
Characterization of Dual Crystalline Texture and Process-Structure-Property Relationships in HDPE Blown Films
Jianjun Lu, Hung-Jue Sue, Thomas Rieker, May 2000
The crystalline texture in selected high-density polyethylene (HDPE) blown films was studied using transmission electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and infrared dichroism. An orthogonally oriented dual crystalline texture was found. This structure appears to consist of two superimposed uniaxial crystalline textures. In one texture the lamellae are stacked along the machine direction, while in the other, the lamellae are stacked along the transverse direction. The lamellar populations in the two textures are affected greatly by the neck height of the film blowing process. The mechanical properties of the HDPE films can be well correlated with the dual crystalline texture observed.
Relationship between Local Residence Time and Distributive Mixing in Sections of a Twin Screw Extruder
Gifford Shearer, Costas Tzoganakis, May 2000
Local residence time and distributive mixing were measured in conveying sections and kneading blocks of a twin screw extruder. The residence time measurements were completed using carbon black as the tracer and an infrared temperature probe to detect the temperature decrease caused by the changing surface emissivity. A mixing limited interfacial reaction between polymer tracers was used to directly measure the distributive mixing. Possible relationships between mixing and residence time in the sections of the twin screw extruder were investigated by combining these two measurements.
Rheology and Degradation Kinetics of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)/Poly(ethylene naphthalate) Blends
S.R. Tharmapuram, S.A. Jabarin, May 2000
Blends and copolyesters of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(ethylene naphthalate), PET/PEN, have shown promise in high performance container applications. Both rheology and degradation kinetics of these blends have been studied as a function of material composition. Melt viscosity loss was measured as a function of time and temperature. Activation energies for degradation were calculated from experimental data. Results show that blends containing a minimum of 10% PEN by weight are as stable as PEN. Addition of low amounts of PEN to PET causes a depression in melt viscosity. A critical composition of 10% PEN by weight is required before we observe an increase in blend viscosity.
A New Barrier Screw Design Utilizing Solid Bed Deformation with Forced Melt Removal
John P. Christiano, Michael R. Thompson, May 2000
A new patent pending barrier screw geometry incorporating modifications to the solids channel of the barrier section of the screw was introduced to improve melting and mixing efficiency. The new design geometry repeatedly deforms the solid bed to improve melting and mixing. Cross channel pressure gradients and screw pull-outs obtained from crash cooling experiments were used to investigate the working principles of the new design. The results were compared to those obtained under similar conditions with a conventional barrier screw.
Towards Design Guidelines for Injection Molded Biodegradable Plastics Products
Prabhu Kandachar, Rolf Koster, May 2000
Specimens of two semicrystalline biodegradable thermoplastics, polyester-amide and polyhydroxybutyrate, injection molded at various settings, have been tensile tested. Upper limits to wall thicknesses with respect to surface appearance were found less severe than for traditional plastics. Molding settings appeared important for mechanical behavior. A higher degree of crystallization was obtained for polyhydroxybutyrate when the cooling rate was decreased. The lowest possible mold fill pressures appeared preferable, increasing ductility for both materials.
A Novel Gas Driven Dual Barrel Capillary Rheometer
A. Goettfert, May 2000
A new capillary rheometer has been developed which is gas driven using a high-precision pressure controller. The flow rate is determined on-line. A precision pressure transducer controls the applied pressure to a maximum 21 MPa with an accuracy of better than 0.1%. The rheometer described here has a twin barrel system. Due to the equilibrium N2-pressure control in both barrels, creep tests can be performed, applying constant pressure irrespective of the installed die geometry. The flow rate from each barrel is independently measured.
Flow Surging in Single-Screw, Plasticating Extruders
Mark A. Spalding, Joseph R. Powers, Phillip A. Wagner, Kun Sup Hyun, May 2000
Flow surging in single-screw, plasticating extruders is the variation of the machine's rate with time, and it generally leads to higher production costs, lost production, and often higher scrap rates. Flow surging can originate from many different sources including machine controls, resin feedstock variation, screw geometry, and machine temperature. This paper will focus on flow surging that originates from improper solids conveying, and it will present experimental data and corrective action to eliminate or minimize surging.

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ANTEC 2016 - Indianapolis, Indiana, USA May 23-25, 2016. [On-line].
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