SPE Library

The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.

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Conference Proceedings

Thermal Imaging Your Process - No Guesswork
Samuel L. Belcher, May 2000

Blow molding is a thermal process involving heat and plastic resin. The blow molding machine heats the plastic pellets to a uniform temperature, through the function of heater bands and the friction of the screw, thus forming a homogenous melt that is shaped to a circular tube called the parison. The parison is then placed in a female blow mold that is cooled or heated via a turbulent fluid. Too much heat or too little heat, or too much cooling/heating at the wrong place or the lack of uniformity of heat/cool will cause many production problems. The machine plus the mold continuously strive to maintain these heats/cooling functions, but it is a precarious struggle. Unfortunately, you cannot see the thermal energy, only its effects. Thermal energy radiates in the infrared spectrum, outside the spectrum of visible light, which we rely upon in our daily lives and of course our blow molding environment.

Gloss Control in Rigid PVC-Part I: Techniques for Gloss Assessment of Rigid PVC Profiles
Elvira Rabinovitch, Deanna Harshbarger, James Isner, May 2000

This paper describes various techniques for assessing gloss of PVC extrusion. It discusses the effect of the incident light angle on measured gloss values and test sensitivity for PVC extrudates. It also describes the relationship between surface gloss and extrudate roughness, analyzed by scanning electron and optical microscopy. Finally, this paper provides recommendations on the most suitable methods for assessing gloss of PVC extrudates.

Laminated Protein Films
H.V. Pol, A.A. Ogale, P.L. Dawson, May 2000

The properties of laminated films made from soy protein isolate and corn-zein are investigated. Plasticized corn-zein protein mixture was laminated on one side of a preformed soy protein film to modify the moisture barrier properties. The 250 ?m thick laminated films were dark-yellow, translucent, and somewhat brittle. The water vapor permeability values of these laminates were lower than those of the single component soy protein films. The tensile strength of these laminates was about 5 MPa. Continuous hot-roll film extrusion was also conducted and the process is being refined.

Development of Polypropylene Plank Foam Products
Chung P. Park, Gerald A. Garcia, May 2000

Low-density plank foam products were developed from both conventional and high melt strength (HMS) polypropylene resins. Bubble stability was achieved by making the foam density low and the cell size small. The use of a multiple-orifice die with an optional use of forming yielded a plank foam product with a large cross-sectional size.

Devolatilization of Polymers by Diffusion and Foaming
Ingo Gestring, Dieter Mewes, May 2000

Devolatilization is a key-step in polymer processing. Low-molecular-weight components are removed from a polymeric system. The transport of these components takes place by diffusion and in some cases by foaming. In this study the different transport phenomena are investigated independently from each other in a special designed apparatus. The transport in thin films and rotating pools with surface renewal is measured for different parameters. For the diffusive transport a high surface renewal rate and thick films enhance the mass transfer. For foam devolatilization the conditions for bubble nucleation and foam formation are investigated. The bubble nucleation takes place in the rotating pool in the area of high shear velocity.

Wonder Injection Molding with Momentary Mold Surface Heating Process (MsSH Process)
Myung-Ho Kang, Dong-Hak Kim, Y.H. Chun, May 2000

Momentary Mold Surface Heated Process is a invention which heats only the mold surface over 400°C in few seconds with gas flame and cool it down very quickly again. Practically it was tried to produce a shiny surface of 98% light reflecting of the injection molded article of 30% glass fiber reinforced Polycarbonate. And it was carried out successfully with a simple attached equipment and specially designed mold so called MmSH Mold which is to supply the gas fuel and air between the two parts of mold. The results and method of wonder injection molding with MmSH Process was reviewed in this paper.

Constitutive Analysis of the Nonlinear Shear Rheology of Flour Suspensions Obtained from Different Botanical Sources
C.J. Carriere, A.J. Thomas, G.E. Inglett, May 2000

The evaluation and development of validated models for the nonlinear viscoelastic (VE) behavior of materials is an important area of research which has impact on a number of industrial processes including those in the food industry. Various nonlinear VE models have been developed over the years and evaluated for petroleum-based polymers; however, our understanding of the nonlinear VE behavior of biopolymers of industrial import lags our understanding of synthetic polymers. In the work reported herein, the nonlinear VE behavior of suspensions (20 % by weight in deionized water) of defatted oat flour, oat bran, barley flour, and oat flour were investigated. The rheological properties were measured using a Rheometrics Series IV controlled-strain rheometer equipped with a cone and plate fixture. The measurements were conducted at 23 ± 0.1°C. The rheological data were interpreted using a strain separable K-BKZ type (Wagner) model. The K-BKZ model was found to provide an accurate description of the rheological behavior of the four flour suspensions.

Coextrusion of High Barrier Films Containing Liquid Crystalline Polymers
S. Kenig, A. Ophir, F. Wiener, M. Omer, May 2000

Thermotropic Liquid Crystalline Polymers (TLCPs) possess the lowest oxygen and humidity permeabilities among commercial polymers. However, TLCPs are highly incompatible with conventional polymers (polyolefins, polyesters), due to their unique composition and morphology. To compatibilize TLCPs with conventional polymers, a variety of polymers were evaluated having various functional groups like maleic anhydride, epoxy, acrylic acid etc. Using Ethylene Glycidyl Metha Acrylate (EGMA), three and five layer films containing TLCPs were prepared by conventional coextrusion. Experimental results have shown that a 10 ?m TLCP layer with polypropylene or polyester, increased the barrier to oxygen by a factor of 120 compared to neat polypropylene and by a factor of 40 compared to neat polyester, respectively. Furthermore, five layer films demonstrated higher barrier and stiffness properties compared to three layers films having identical overall composition. These unique barrier properties of TLCPs containing multi-layer films can compete commercially with EVOH and PVDC containing coextruded films, and can be further shaped by thermoforming and blow molding for high barrier packaging applications.

Fracture Behavior of Polypropylene Modified with Metallocene Catalyzed Polyolefin
Laura A. Fasce, Patricia M. Frontini, Shing-Chung Wong, Yiu-Wing Mai, May 2000

The fracture and deformation behaviors in polypropylene homopolymer toughened by metallocene catalyzed poly-ethylene elastomer are unknown. It is desired to understand the fracture and deformation mechanisms of PP toughened by the elastomer using standard puncture tests, J-integral fracture initiation toughness and tensile dilatometry. Preliminary results show that impact toughness of PP homopolymer was greatly enhanced in the presence of the elastomer. Volumetric strains were measured to estimate the degree of dilatational deformation relative to volume-conserving shear yielding.

Evaluating the Cutting Behavior of Amorphous Poly(Ethylene Terephthalate) Sheet Using Steel Rule Dies
Eric Moskala, Dennis Barr, May 2000

A technique for measuring the cutting properties of thermoplastic sheet using steel rule dies is presented. This technique can be used to evaluate the roles of die hardness, point size, temperature, and bevel as well as sheet thickness and temperature on cutting efficiency. The technique is demonstrated using oriented polystyrene and amorphous polyesters such as PET and PETG. The cutting mechanisms for these materials are examined by controlling the penetration depth of the steel rule die in order to create a series of partial cuts.

Survival of the Fittest: Utilizing E-Commerce as an Integral Part of Your Marketing Plan
Margaret H. Baumann, May 2000

Business-to-Business e-commerce has even greater potential than consumer focused e-commerce. We currently are in a transition from the Industrial Age to the Information Age. E-commerce is introducing new business models in many industries. This paper will describe how and why that is as well as how you can harness the power of the Internet as part of your marketing strategy and business development tools for the next decade.

Design of an Injection Mold with Removable Plates Using CAE
S. Villarroel, R.A. Morales, H. Rojas, May 2000

The objective of this work was to design a mold of normalized test specimen to evaluate mechanical polymer properties with removable plates to inject each specimen independently using computed-aided engineering (CAE). The design was validated through simulation program of the injection process C-MOLD. Four cooling systems, the position of the entrance and the percentage of shrinkage were evaluated. There were no differences between the cooling systems studied. The maximum shrinkage was less than 2% and no part warpage was observed

Free Volume and Molecular Mobility in a Styrene/n-Butyl Methacrylate Copolymer Series
George P. Simon, Charles L. Beatty, Stuart R. Andrews, Sara Shinton, Graham Williams, May 2000

In this work a wide series of copolymers of styrene and n-butyl methacrylate are investigated in terms of their physical and free volume properties. The study follows on from recently published work in which the relaxational and intermolecular coupling properties of this copolymer series was examined. It is found that even though the glass transition of polystyrene is higher than that of poly (n-butylmethacrylate), it has a lower density and higher molecular free volume fraction. The free volume fraction behaviour is complex, all copolymer values showing greater free volume fraction than the homopolymers. This correlates with a negative deviation over the Fox Tg behaviour of the copolymer. This is despite the moderately monotonic variation in the individual aspects of free volume (size and number of free volume pores). There are some dramatic changes in these properties at the extreme values of comonomer concentrations.

Intelligent Guidance of the Melt Front in Injection Molding Machines
Athanasios Bikas, Nikos Pantelelis, Andreas Kanarachos, May 2000

In the present paper the numerical simulation software 'NASPLAN' is presented allowing the intelligent guidance of the flow at the filling stage in an injection machine. NASPLAN allows the guidance of melt flow through prescribed p-q Time profiles. Especially the use of negative pressure is proved to be of great importance for the guidance of the Melt Front Advancement. This procedure leads to balance flow for complex geometry parts and multi-cavity molds. The primary objective of NASLAN compared to the conventional software is the improved part quality, by minimizing the flow defects (such as warpage, non-uniform shrinkage, sink marks). Additionally, the filling stage is completed in less time with the need of lower injection pressure. A simple part is adapted as a test case in order to visualize the effects of the above procedure.

Polyblends of Polyphenylene Ether with Styrene-Ethylene/Butylene-Styrene Block Copolymer
Rudolph D. Deanin, Paul Lunn, May 2000

Polyphenylene ether (PPE) and styrene-ethylene /butylene-styrene block copolymer (SEBS) were melt blended in ratios from 100/0 to 50/50. Balancing the molecular rigidity of PPE vs. the molecular flexibility of SEBS produced the expected qualitative effects on properties. Quantitatively, tensile modulus and tensile and flexural strengths gave monotonic curves for properties vs. polyblend ratio. All other properties - melt index, flexural modulus, ultimate elongation, impact strength, and heat deflection temperature - gave more complex curves. Practically, addition of SEBS produced significant increases in melt index, ultimate elongation, and impact strength, along with decreases in rigid properties.

Survey of Plastics Education in U. S. Colleges and Universities
Rudolph D. Deanin, May 2000

Inquiries to 234 schools found 66 which offered courses in plastics, for a total of 2492 credit hours. Classifying these by subject matter showed 768 credits in polymer science, 324 in plastics in general, 125 in plastic materials, 238 in structure and properties, 568 in processing, 170 in product design, and 299 in other applications of polymers. The plastics industry began in 1868 (1) reached commodity status in the 1940’s (2), and has been growing in size and diversity ever since. The earliest plastics entrepreneurs came from other fields, and educated themselves. With the continuing and expanding growth in numbers of materials and processes, and in the intensity of polymer science and engineering, the need for higher education specifically in polymers and plastics has also grown exponentially.

Make Flat Sheet Using Contrabend Rolls
Richard Palmer, May 2000

Most plastic sheet produced today is made using a typical three-roll sheet stack. Material is passed through a preset gap between the rolls to form the final thickness of the sheet. The variation in this gap is related to the bending of the chill roll, which is a major factor in the gage variation of the sheet. Producing flat sheet" has always been the goal of the sheet producer. Until recently there has been little advancement in cooling roll construction as it relates to bending in the cross line direction. The Contrabend Reverse Bending Roll has been developed to greatly reduce the effect of roll deflection on sheet thickness variation. This work will explore the Contrabend concept and compare the bending to standard chill rolls."

Design of an Injection Mold Using C-MOLD Software
H.B. León, R.A. Morales, O. González, May 2000

The purpose of this paper was to design a security cap and its injection mold using CAD/CAE tools. C-MOLD and Pro/ENGINEER softwares and the Concurrent Engineering Method were applied. The part and its mold were successfully designed in only 20 weeks.

Dynamic Rheological Properties of HDPE/Ethylene-Alpha-Olefin Copolymer Blends
R.A. Morales, J.J. Sánchez, A.J. Müller, May 2000

The blends of linear and branched polyethylenes have received much attention in recent years. Many studies have been carried out to evaluate the miscibility of these mixtures and its influence on the final properties. There still some degree of controversy on the issue of melt miscibility even though partial co-crystallization has been demonstrated for some of these systems.

Nucleation in Foam Extrusion
S.T. Lee, May 2000

Nucleation results are presented for polyethylene sheet extrusion while using volatile carbon dioxide without any nucleating agent to study homogeneous nucleation. Since the extrusion pressure has to exceed the system pressure, mechanical superheat was calculated from the processing pressure. The experimental results show a different distribution from the conventional nucleation predictions, based on either chemical superheat or mechanical superheat. Also noted was the shear energy dependence. Various nucleation mechanisms are discussed to address the energy role played by shear in foam extrusion.

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