The SPE Library contains thousands of papers, presentations, journal briefs and recorded webinars from the best minds in the Plastics Industry. Spanning almost two decades, this collection of published research and development work in polymer science and plastics technology is a wealth of knowledge and information for anyone involved in plastics.
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Numerical Analysis on the Melt Conveying Properties of Wave Screw Element in Intermeshing Counter Rotating Twin-Screw Extruder
In this paper, one new kind screw element, wave screw element in intermeshing counter-rotating twin screw extruder, is designed. Three-dimensional Non-Newtonian model is established to investigate the melt conveying properties of this new screw elements. The model consists of all the gaps between the screws and the barrel such as the side gap, the calender gap, the flight gap, and the tetrahedron gap, which is in accordance with the true extrusion process. With the finite element software ANSYS, velocity, pressure and viscosity field are obtained respectively. Experiments are used to verify the results of simulation. It shows that the calculated results such as output is nearly the same as the experimental results.
Morphology/Property Relationships in Thermoplastic Starch/Poly(hydroxy ester ether) Biodegradable Blends
The effect of moisture level during processing on the mechanical properties of biodegradable blends of thermoplastic starch and poly (hydroxy ester ether) (PHEE) was studied. The morphology of the blends changed with the moisture content of starch. The dispersed phase was significantly deformed under high moisture conditions, leading to fibrillar and laminar types of morphologies at 50-80% starch level. A low moisture level produced a more dispersed morphology. Improved tensile properties were observed for the blends processed at high moisture levels due to the presence of elongated morphologies.
Mechanical Properties of Starch Filled Poly(hydroxy ester ether) Biodegradable Composites
The mechanical properties of starch filled biodegradable composites have been investigated. The strength was found to be independent of the filler content below 10 vol% and above approximately 30 vol%. This behavior is due to the failure mechanism operating in these composites. The matrix, poly(hydroxy ester ether) (PHEE), adheres well to starch and as a result the granules do not dewet during deformation. Instead the composites behave as a quasi-homogeneous material with increased brittleness as the filler content increases. The deformation mechanism was investigated by acoustic emission analysis and by a post-mortem examination of the fracture surfaces.
Mold-Making Apprenticeship Program in Georgia
This paper will trace the development of the Mold-Making Apprenticeship Program in Georgia's technical institutes, developed to support the plastics industry within the state. It will explain why the program was developed, how it was developed, the content of the program and the results to date. The purpose of the poster presentation is to explain the process and outline the program with the goal of assisting other states with similar programs and ultimately addressing the shortage of trained and available mold-makers. The poster presentation will include three sections: industry growth and potential, team process and program outline.
Regulatory and Experimental Approaches to FDA Food Contact Compliance
Tests to determine the migration of indirect additives into actual foods are essential in order to ensure food safety. Recent changes in regulatory protocols and evolving analytical technologies have helped define new ways to receive regulatory clearance for food contact polymers. This poster summarizes the issues to be addressed when designing a test plan and outlines regulatory considerations and experimental approaches applicable to both Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European compliance. In addition, the proper use of food simulants, available extraction cells, and analytical techniques are discussed.
Optimising Nano Filler Performance in Selected Nylons
A class of polymer materials having significantly improved properties has emerged. This class of material is being referred to as polymer nano composites. Typical of this class is the nano clay filled Nylon 6 family. We have recently found that by exposing the nano clay filled Nylon 6 materials to ionizing irradiation at low levels, 3 - 5 megarads that we further improve the flex-modulus. We have also found that this technology can be applied to Nylon 12. This technology is new to the 12.
Analytical System for Measuring Thermally Generated VOC Emissions from Polymers
An analytical instrument and procedures were developed to investigate the thermally generated VOC emissions from different polymers with a flame ionization detector (FID). This system was applied to estimate the upper limit of VOC emissions from recyclable 100% carpet residue by exaggerating its thermal exposure at a predetermined temperature. The pattern of VOC emissions was also studied for the 100% carpet residue as well as its composite (80% carpet residue + 20% virgin LDPE), and virgin resins (PP and LDPE).
Load-Carrying Ability of Injection Molded Products with Holes
The mechanical loadability distribution around a molded-in hole in a polystyrene plate has been analyzed using flatwise bending. Four different injection molding conditions have been applied. Birefringence measurements have been carried out to analyze the molecular orientation. The weld line is the weakest point, but the loadability reduction is small when it is related to the loadability perpendicular to the molecular orientation. Almost no effect of variation of process conditions was found.
Profit from Recycling Tooling and Leadership Change
This paper is about upgrading tooling that has been built many years ago, or simply to make mouldings to suit our type of manufacturing operation. When these tools were built the techniques and technology used was the latest available to the polymer technologist designer, mould shop and toolmaker. Using tooling technologies as the starting point, I have added management, and more so Leader techniques to show how production can be changed and opportunities gained, by modernising; towards increasing production, saving money, material, and bringing about attitudinal changes. This paper will concentrate on the following topics, and show details where this revisiting process has changed tools and people to make them more motivated about competition, which will result in profitable, faster cycling and be better suited to today's fast operational needs.
Wood Flour Reinforced Polystyrene Composite Using SEBS-g-MA as Compatibilizer
A functionalized thermoplastic elastomer, SEBS-g-MA (styrene-ethylene-butadiene elastomer grafting maleic anhydride), has been demonstrated to be an effective compatibilizer in polystyrene-wood flour composite and results in the formation of an in-situ formed copolymer existing between the interface of polystyrene and wood flour and thus enhance the interface adhesion and mechanical properties of the composite. With the addition of SEBS-g-MA, both flexural modulus and impact strength of polystyrene-wood flour composite has been improved substantially and a good interaction between polystyrene and wood flour can be indicated by Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) images as well. The result shows that composite with 4phr SEBS-g-MA gives the optimum mechanical property.
Dispersion of Nanoscopic Clay Particles in Thermoplastic Polymers
The formation of clay nanocomposite, hybrid materials will be achieved through the incorporation of organically modified montmorillonite clay particles within a variety of thermoplastic polymers. In order to facilitate a homogeneous dispersion of the clay nanoparticles in the thermoplastic matrix, ionomeric compatibilizers will be utilized. The matrix polymer/ionomer pairs chosen for this study include polystyrene/sulfonated polystyrene, PET/sulfonated PET, and polypropylene/carboxylated polypropylene. Various methods of clay dispersion, including melt-processing, in-situ polymerization, and solution-state mixing will be utilized and compared. The morphology and physical properties of the resulting nanocomposites will be investigated using SAXS, TEM, DSC, TGA, DMA and standard tensile test methods.
Modeling Residual Stresses in Thermosetting Materials
The residual stresses in a composite subjected to three-dimensional constraints are calculated by extending a thermo-viscoelastic model developed previously by Simon et al.  to describe the time, temperature, and conversion dependence of the shear modulus for a commercial thermosetting material during cure. Experimental residual stress data as a function of cure are fit to obtain limiting values for the rubber and glassy bulk moduli. The residual stresses are then calculated as a function of cure history using the bulk moduli and the time function obtained in the thermo-viscoelastic model which include the dependence of the shift factor on temperature and conversion.
Crack Propagation in Continuous Glass Fiber/Polypropylene Composites: Matrix Microstructure Effect
The crack propagation behavior of a unidirectional continuous glass fiber/polypropylene (GF/PP) composite with two different matrix morphologies was studied. Changes in the matrix morphology obtained by varying the cooling rates during the molding process resulted in changes in: 1) the flexural strength and strain at failure using three-point bending specimens; 2) the critical strain energy release rate in mode I quasi-static crack growth using double-cantilever beam (DBC) specimens; 3) the fatigue crack growth rates at given levels of strain energy release rate in mode II fatigue crack propagation using end-notch flexure (ENF) specimens. The reduced presence of the ductile amorphous PP phase in the PP/GF composite at lower cooling rates is responsible for the reduction in mechanical performance.
A Gram of Prevention: Additives to Improve UV Stability and Processability of Rotomolded Parts
As the size of the rotomolding market increases, so do customers expectations for a longer service life and alternative resins. Small amounts of UV stabilizers and antioxidants can greatly improve the service life of a molded part as well as address some of the special challenges present in the rotomolding industry today. This paper will address the current issues in rotomolding and how UV and AO technology can be used to provide protection to the molded part.
Stabilization of TPE's
A rational approach to the stabilization of thermoplastic elastomers (TPE's) is an extension of the known technology to stabilize the constituent polymer resins. Hindered amine light stabilizers and ultraviolet light absorbers are effective in polypropylene and polyethylene. They can also be used to stabilize multiphase TPE's, based on polyolefin copolymers, against the effects of long term exposure to light and heat.
Epoxy + Montmorillonite Nanocomposite: Effect of Composition on the Catalyzed Reaction Rate
Differential scanning Calorimetry was used to determine the effect of incremental change in composition of alkonium ion substituted montmorillonite clay dispersed in thermoset epoxy with a simple diamine hardener. Catalytic effects due the reactivity of the reinforcement are shown to be variable with composition. Infra-red analysis of the epoxy monomer indicate a change in the morphology of the molecular reinforcement may alter the ability of the reactants to come into contact even before the chemical reaction has begun.
Simple and Concise Design Rules for Rapid Prototyping
Shortening the design cycle by using rapid prototyping is a standard for injection molding product creation throughout the world. Developing new products while being aware of each type of prototyping technology allows the designer to judge fit, function, esthetics, economics, and product features prior to cutting a production tool; saving money and time. The use of several prototyping processes, including stereolithography (SLA) and laser sintering (SLS) are detailed with updated information on new tolerance standards and new materials.
Spectroscopic Studies of Ion Implanted Polycarbonate
Ion implantation is a process by which ions are accelerated and focused at a rapid speed to a target at energies high enough to bury them just below the target's surface. These ions penetrate the sample surface and form a thin layer below the surface. Until recently this technique was mainly utilized for modification of semiconductors (1) or to improve wear characteristics in metal tooling and polymers (2,3). Now the use of ion implantation has been extended to polymers. Improvements in adhesion (4), electrical (5) and abrasion (6) have been reported. The resulting chemical effect of ion implantation in polymer systems is to increase chain scission and cross-linking., while decreasing crystallinity(7). In this study, the effects of medium energy ion implantation of boron, nitrogen and fluorine into a polycarbonate matrix was examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV/VIS spectroscopy. The implanted polycarbonate linkage degrades upon implantation. Further implantation leads to carbonization just below the surface of the specimens.
Optimization of Composition of Soy-Based Polyols for Rigid Polyurethane Foams
Soybean oil-based polyols can be synthesized with different OH content. Higher OH number polyols display higher viscosity, which may limit their applications in foams. Adding glycerin to a polyol affects crosslinking density and homogeneity of the networks. It would be advantageous to use a lower OH content and a lower viscosity polyol and adjust the OH number with glycerin if the properties would stay the same. Apart from having lower viscosity, polyols with lower a OH number are easier to prepare. It has been shown that rigid foams based on the polyol having an OH number of 180 mg KOH/g have similar properties as those based on the polyol with an OH number of 208 mg KOH/g if the final OH number of the polyol system (polyol, crosslinker and water) is adjusted to the same value, although heat stability (onset of softening) of the former was lower.
Processing and Properties of Polymer Nano-Composites
Polymer nano-composites are prepared by melt intercalation in this study. Nano-clay is mixed with either a polymer or polymer blends by twin screw extrusion. The clay-spacing in the composites is measured by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The morphology of the composites and its development during the extrusion process are observed by SEM. Rheological behavior of the composites are measured. It is found that the clay spacing and composite morphology are influenced by the concentration of the nano-clay and the type of polymer used. The addition of the nano-clay can greatly increase the viscosity of the polymer when there is strong interaction. If such polymer/nano-clay mixture is used as the matrix phase, it would lead to improved dispersion and distribution of the minor phase in the polymer blends. The effect of nano-clay on polymers and polymer blends is also compared with Kaolin clay under the same experimental conditions.
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